Read by QxMD icon Read


Kathryn Schnippel, Rebecca H Berhanu, Andrew Black, Cynthia Firnhaber, Norah Maitisa, Denise Evans, Edina Sinanovic
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, South Africa ranks as one of the highest burden of TB, TB/HIV co-infection, and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) countries. DR-TB treatment is complicated to administer and relies on the use of multiple toxic drugs, with potential for severe adverse drug reactions. We report the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) during a standardised DR-TB treatment regimen at two outpatient, decentralized, public-sector sites in Johannesburg, South Africa...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Wang Wei, Zhang Wei-Sheng, Alayi Ahan, Yan Ci, Zhang Wei-Wen, Cao Ming-Qin
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to find out epidemiologic characteristic of tuberculosis (TB) cases, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive cases among TB patients (TB/HIV co-infection) through demographic, temporal, and spatial study in Urumqi. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were applied to identify the epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic. All addresses of each TB case, TB/HIV co-infection case, and administrative street were transformed into geographical coordinate...
2016: PloS One
Marieke J Van Der Werf, Csaba Ködmön, Phillip Zucs, Vahur Hollo, Andrew J Amato-Gauci, Anastasia Pharris
OBJECTIVE: To better understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB)/HIV co-infection in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) for planning of prevention and control measures. DESIGN: Analysis of surveillance data. METHODS: We performed an analysis of the 2014 TB and AIDS data to assess the burden of TB/HIV co-infection and we applied multivariable logistic regression to evaluate predictors for co-infection. RESULTS: Twenty-one of 31 EU/EEA countries reported HIV testing results for 64...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Ana Torrens, Patricia Bartholomay, Silvano Silva, Mohammed Khogali, Kristien Verdonck, Karen Bissell
Objective To assess the implementation of HIV-related interventions for patients with tuberculosis (TB), as well as TB treatment outcomes in patients coinfected with HIV in Brazil in 2011. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study of HIV-related interventions among TB cases and the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of TB-HIV coinfected patients. It also used a retrospective cohort design to determine the association between antiretroviral therapy (ART) and favorable TB treatment outcomes...
January 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Gustavo Bergonzoli, Luis G Castellanos, Rodolfo Rodríguez, Lina María Garcia
Objectives To explore the relationships among social, economic, environmental, and health services determinants of tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and mortality, and to identify the mechanisms that mediate such associations in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Methods This was an ecological study of 26 LAC countries that had accurate data available on 38 selected variables for the year 2010. The countries represented 99% of the TB burden in LAC. Multivariate linear regression was used to identify associations among determinants of health and TB morbidity and mortality...
February 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Simon Mutembo, Jane N Mutanga, Kebby Musokotwane, Lutangu Alisheke, Christopher C Whalen
BACKGROUND: Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV infected individuals especially in developing countries. Early initiation of cART in these patients when CD4+ T cell count is less than 200cells/mm(3) has reduced disease progression and mortality. However for patients with higher CD4+ T cell counts greater than 350cells/mm(3) evidence is conflicting. In this study we seek to evaluate the effectiveness of cART in reducing mortality among TB-HIV co-infected patients with CD4 + T cells above 350cells/mm(3) at the time of TB diagnosis...
October 17, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Aastha Gupta, Sandeep Juneja, Marco Vitoria, Vincent Habiyambere, Boniface Dongmo Nguimfack, Meg Doherty, Daniel Low-Beer
With anti-retroviral treatment (ART) scale-up set to continue over the next few years it is of key importance that manufacturers and planners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS pandemic are able to anticipate and respond to future changes to treatment regimens, generics pipeline and demand, in order to secure continued access to all ARV medicines required. We did a forecast analysis, using secondary WHO and UNAIDS data sources, to estimate the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and the market share and demand for a range of new and existing ARV drugs in LMICs up to 2025...
2016: PloS One
Vikram Londhey, Meghav M Shah
INTRODUCTION: Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies have been considered very specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Some studies have shown that these antibodies can be positive in infectious diseases like TB, HIV, etc. METHODS: Fifty patients of tuberculosis both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary were enrolled in the study from inpatient and outpatient departments from May 2012 to November 2013. Anti-CCP antibody test was done in all the patient by ELISA...
May 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
L A Enane, E D Lowenthal, T Arscott-Mills, M Matlhare, L S Smallcomb, B Kgwaadira, S E Coffin, A P Steenhoff
SETTING: Nine high-burden public tuberculosis (TB) clinics in Gaborone, Botswana. OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical characteristics and outcomes among adolescents with TB and compare loss to follow-up (LTFU) rates with that among youth and adult cases. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of TB cases registered from 2012 to 2014. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were compared among adolescents (age 10-19 years), youth (20-24 years) and a systematic sample of adults (⩾25 years)...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
O S Michael, O M Sogaolu, F A Fehintola, O M Ige, C O Falade
BACKGROUND: The combination and use of multiple drugs in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) predispose to adverse drug events and reactions. This study evaluated the incidence, frequency, and severity of adverse events to first line anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drugs in patients with TB and co-infections with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of HIV status on the risk of developing adverse events to first line anti-TB therapy...
June 2016: Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine
S K Sah, S K Sahu, B Lamichhane, G K Bhatta, K B Bhandari, P Owiti, S S Majumdar
Setting: The three government tertiary care hospitals providing care for people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in Kathmandu, Nepal. Objectives: To assess 1) the screening cascades for intensified case finding for tuberculosis (TB), 2) isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), including demographic and clinical factors associated with treatment interruption, and 3) TB infection control (IC) in the health facilities. Design: A cross-sectional study of new PLHIV enrolled from January 2012 to December 2014...
September 2016: Public Health Action
K A R Segbedji, K E Djadou, O-B Tchagbele, M Kpegouni, L K Bessi Kama, K D Azoumah, A D Agbèrè
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most lethal communicable diseases in the world, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). New strategies must be implemented to meet targets for 2035. OBJECTIVE: Describe the epidemiological and therapeutic aspects of tuberculosis in children in Togo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective, multicenter, descriptive cross-sectional study examined the files of children younger than 15 years who were diagnosed with TB and treatment in the Maritime region from 2008 to 2011...
August 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Giovanni Delogu, Valentina Vanini, Gilda Cuzzi, Teresa Chiacchio, Flavio De Maio, Basem Battah, Carmela Pinnetti, Alessandro Sampaolesi, Andrea Antinori, Delia Goletti
RATIONALE: Heparin-binding haemagglutinin (HBHA) has been proposed as an immunological biomarker for discriminating active tuberculosis (TB) from latent TB infection (LTBI) and to identify those at higher risk of progressing to active disease. Few data are available in immune compromised patients, which are those with increased risk of TB reactivation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immune response to HBHA in HIV-infected subjects with LTBI (HIV-LTBI) or active TB (HIV-TB) in comparison with the immune response to additional Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) or HIV and CMV antigens...
September 16, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Olusoji Mayowa Ige, Kehinde Sola Akinlade, Sheu Kadiri Rahamon, Victory Fabian Edem, Olatunbosun Ganiyu Arinola
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are known to cause abnormal thyroid function. There is little information on whether HIV infection aggravates alteration of thyroid function in patients with MDR-TB. OBJECTIVES: This study was carried out to determine if HIV co-infection alters serum levels of thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in patients with MDR-TB patients and to find out the frequency of subclinical thyroid dysfunction before the commencement of MDR-TB therapy...
June 2016: African Health Sciences
Aweke Abebaw Mitku, Zelalem Getahun Dessie, Essey Kebede Muluneh, Demeke Lakew Workie
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is one of the world's most common causes of death in the era of Human immunodeficiency virus. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of TB/HIV co-infection. METHODS: Hospital based retrospective studies were conducted among adult HIV-positive patients. Logistic regression method and Chi square test were applied. RESULTS: A total of 571 HIV positive study participants were enrolled...
June 2016: African Health Sciences
Hanna Nylén, Abiy Habtewold, Eyasu Makonnen, Getnet Yimer, Leif Bertilsson, Jürgen Burhenne, Ulf Diczfalusy, Eleni Aklillu
Initiation of efavirenz-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated with Vitamin D deficiency, but the risk factors including efavirenz pharmacokinetics for cART-induced severe vitamin D deficiency (SVDD) and the impact of anti-tuberculosis (TB) cotreatment are not explored. We investigated the prevalence of SVDD in HIV and TB-HIV coinfected patients and associated risk factors for treatment-induced SVDD.Treatment-naïve Ethiopian HIV patients with (n = 102) or without (n = 89) TB co-infection were enrolled prospectively and received efavirenz-based cART...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Desta Kassa, Leonie Ran, Wilco de Jager, Theo van den Broek, Ronald Jacobi, Muluberhan Mekonen, Tsehaynesh Messele, Mariëlle C Haks, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Debbie van Baarle
BACKGROUND: Transcriptomic host biomarkers could assist in developing effective diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutics for tuberculosis (TB). However, different biomarkers may be discriminatory in different populations depending on the host and bacillary genetics and HIV infection, and need to be addressed. METHODS: The expression levels of 45 genes that are known to be involved in or affected by TB pathogenesis were analyzed using dual color Reverse Transcriptase Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (dcRT-MLPA) assay in whole blood of 106 HIV positive individuals including active TB patients (TB(+)HIV(+), n = 29), and non TB patients that are tuberculin skin test positive (TST+) (TST(+)HIV(+), n = 26), or TST negative (TST(-)HIV(+), n = 51)...
September 2016: Tuberculosis
Amber Kunkel, Forrest W Crawford, James Shepherd, Ted Cohen
OBJECTIVE: Extending the duration of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) may improve its effectiveness at both the individual and population level, but could also increase selective pressure in favor of isoniazid resistant tuberculosis (TB) strains. The objective of this study was to determine the relative importance of these two effects. METHODS: Transmission dynamic model DESIGN:: We created a mathematical model of TB transmission incorporating HIV incidence and treatment, mixed strain latent TB infections, and four different phenotypes of TB drug resistance (pan-susceptible, isoniazid mono-resistant, rifampicin mono-resistant, and multi-drug resistant)...
August 17, 2016: AIDS
Isabel Yan, Eran Bendavid, Eline L Korenromp
INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mortality in patients with active tuberculosis (TB), but the population-level relationship between ART coverage and TB mortality is untested. We estimated the reduction in population-level TB mortality that can be attributed to increasing ART coverage across 41 high HIV-TB burden countries. METHODS: We compiled TB mortality trends between 1996 and 2011 from two sources: (1) national program-reported TB death notifications, adjusted for annual TB case detection rates, and (2) WHO TB mortality estimates...
2016: PloS One
Francis Mhimbira, Jerry Hella, Thomas Maroa, Shadrack Kisandu, Magreth Chiryamkubi, Khadija Said, Grace Mhalu, Abdallah Mkopi, Beatrice Mutayoba, Klaus Reither, Sébastien Gagneux, Lukas Fenner
INTRODUCTION: Decentralization of Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) for tuberculosis (TB) to the community (home-based DOT) has improved the coverage of TB treatment and reduced the burden to the health care facilities (facility-based DOT). We aimed to compare TB treatment outcomes in home-based and facility-based DOT under programmatic conditions in an urban setting with a high TB burden. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective analysis of a cohort of adult TB patients (≥15 years) routinely notified between 2010 and 2013 in two representative TB sub-districts in the Temeke district, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania...
2016: PloS One
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"