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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141727/point-of-care-ultrasound-for-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-in-india-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-presumptive-tuberculosis-patients
#1
Stefan F Weber, Kavitha Saravu, Tom Heller, Rajagopal Kadavigere, Shashidhar Vishwanath, Stephan Gehring, Sabine Bélard, And Pocus Eti Study Group
Diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is challenging. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated EPTB is applied in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at evaluating the applicability of POCUS for diagnosing EPTB in HIV-positive and HIV-negative presumptive tuberculosis (TB) patients in India, a country of moderate relative TB and HIV burden. Presumptive TB patients at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India, prospectively underwent POCUS evaluating for pericardial, pleural and ascitic effusion, abdominal lymphadenopathy, and hepatic and splenic microabscesses...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132380/addressing-challenges-in-scaling-up-tb-and-hiv-treatment-integration-in-rural-primary-healthcare-clinics-in-south-africa-suthi-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-protocol
#2
Kogieleum Naidoo, Santhanalakshmi Gengiah, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Nesri Padayatchi, Pierre Barker, Andrew Nunn, Priashni Subrayen, Salim S Abdool Karim
BACKGROUND: A large and compelling clinical evidence base has shown that integrated TB and HIV services leads to reduction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- and tuberculosis (TB)-associated mortality and morbidity. Despite official policies and guidelines recommending TB and HIV care integration, its poor implementation has resulted in TB and HIV remaining the commonest causes of death in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa. This study aims to reduce mortality due to TB-HIV co-infection through a quality improvement strategy for scaling up of TB and HIV treatment integration in rural primary healthcare clinics in South Africa...
November 13, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132287/a-qualitative-analysis-of-the-barriers-to-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-among-children-2-to-18-months-of-age-in-swaziland
#3
Charisse V Ahmed, Pauline Jolly, Luz Padilla, Musa Malinga, Chantal Harris, Nobuhle Mthethwa, Inessa Ba, Amy Styles, Sarah Perry, Raina Brooks, Florence Naluyinda-Kitabire, Makhosini Mamba, Peter Preko
HIV/AIDS remains one of the leading causes of death among children under 5 years old in Swaziland. Although studies have shown that early initiation of infants and children diagnosed with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) significantly reduces mortality, many children do not initiate ART until the later stages of disease. This study was designed to collect qualitative data from mothers and caregivers of HIV-positive children to identify the barriers to ART initiation. Focus group discussion (FGD) sessions were conducted in siSwati between July and September 2014 among caregivers of aged children 2-18 months in Swaziland who did or did not initiate ART between January 2011 and December 2012 after HIV DNA PCR-positive diagnosis of the infants...
December 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066256/-treatment-outcome-survival-and-their-risk-factors-among-new-tuberculosis-patients-co-infected-with-hiv-during-the-ebola-outbreak-in-conakry
#4
A Camara, M S Sow, A Touré, O H Diallo, I Kaba, B Bah, T H Diallo, M S Diallo, T Guilavogui, O Y Sow
BACKGROUND: Mortality among TB/HIV co-infected patients remains high in Africa. The study aimed to estimate survival and associated factors in a cohort of TB/HIV co-infected patients who started tuberculosis treatment during the Ebola outbreak in Conakry, Guinea. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted from April 2014 to December 2015. TB patients with HIV co-infection were enrolled at the University Hospital of Conakry. Survival and risk factors were analyzed according to Kaplan-Meier's method, log-rank test and Cox's regression...
November 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065873/high-variability-of-tb-hiv-hepatitis-c-treatment-and-opioid-substitution-therapy-among-prisoners-in-germany
#5
Jana Müller, Daniel Schmidt, Christian Kollan, Marc Lehmann, Viviane Bremer, Ruth Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: In Germany, medical care of prisoners is completely separated from extramural health care. The extent and quality of medical care among prisoners in Germany are therefore largely unknown. We performed a secondary data analysis of pharmacy sales data for tuberculosis (TB), HIV, hepatitis C (HCV) and opioid substitution treatment (OST) delivered to prisons in 11 federal states (FS) in Germany between 01/2012 and 03/2013. The aims of this study were to assess (i) the treatment availability for the selected diseases and OST in German prisons, (ii) the proportion of prisoners treated per FS and overall for TB, HIV, HCV and OST during the study period...
October 25, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061336/management-of-mdr-tb-in-hiv-co-infected-patients-in-eastern-europe-results-from-the-tb-hiv-study
#6
A M W Efsen, A Schultze, R F Miller, A Panteleev, A Skrahin, D N Podlekareva, J M Miro, E Girardi, H Furrer, M H Losso, J Toibaro, J A Caylà, A Mocroft, J D Lundgren, F A Post, O Kirk
OBJECTIVES: Mortality among HIV patients with tuberculosis (TB) remains high in Eastern Europe (EE), but details of TB and HIV management remain scarce. METHODS: In this prospective study, we describe the TB treatment regimens of patients with multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). RESULTS: A total of 105 HIV-positive patients had MDR-TB (including 33 with extensive drug resistance) and 130 pan-susceptible TB...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040303/continuing-professional-development-for-medical-nursing-and-midwifery-cadres-in-malawi-tanzania-and-south-africa-a-qualitative-evaluation
#7
Caryl Feldacker, Jillian Pintye, Sheena Jacob, Michael H Chung, Lyn Middleton, Jill Iliffe, H Nina Kim
BACKGROUND: As innovations in the prevention and treatment of HIV and TB advance, continuing professional development (CPD) of health care workers (HCWs) remains a high priority, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where dual TB/HIV epidemics are compounded by severe HCW shortages. There is further need to examine CPD programs to identify challenges and effective solutions to strengthen HIV/TB-related CPD. METHODS: Qualitative evaluations in Malawi, Tanzania and South Africa (RSA) were conducted using key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) in each country to identify barriers and enablers of effective HIV/TB-related CPD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036618/unsuccessful-treatment-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-factors-and-a-consequent-predictive-model
#8
Ana Costa-Veiga, Teodoro Briz, Carla Nunes
Background: Cure is particularly valuable in pulmonary cases (PTB), as unsuccessful treatment fuels incidence and resistance to antibiotics. This study aims to identify individual factors of PTB unsuccessful treatment in Portugal and to develop a consequent predictive model. Methods: Using the Portuguese TB surveillance database (SVIG-TB), PTB cases older than 15 years notified from 2000 to 2012 in Continental Portugal were analyzed. Unsuccessful treatment included the WHO categories (failure, default, death and transferred out)...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028223/are-scientific-research-outputs-aligned-with-national-policy-makers-priorities-a-case-study-of-tuberculosis-in-cambodia
#9
Lydia Boudarene, Richard James, Richard Coker, Mishal S Khan
With funding for tuberculosis (TB) research decreasing, and the high global disease burden persisting, there are calls for increased investment in TB research. However, justification of such investments is questionable, when translation of research outputs into policy and health care improvements remains a challenge for TB and other diseases. Using TB in Cambodia as a case study, we investigate how evidence needs of national policy makers are addressed by topics covered in research publications. We first conducted a systematic review to compile all studies on TB in Cambodia published since 2000...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025483/depressive-symptoms-and-hazardous-harmful-alcohol-use-are-prevalent-and-correlate-with-stigma-among-tb-hiv-patients-in-lesotho
#10
E Hayes-Larson, Y Hirsch-Moverman, S Saito, K Frederix, B Pitt, L Maama-Maime, A A Howard
SETTING: Limited data exist on the prevalence and correlates, including stigma, of mental health conditions, including depressive symptoms and alcohol use, among patients co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in sub-Saharan Africa, despite their negative impact on health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms and hazardous/harmful alcohol use among TB-HIV patients in the Start TB patients on ART and Retain on Treatment (START) study...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025480/correlates-of-observing-and-willingness-to-report-stigma-towards-hiv-clients-by-tb-health-workers-in-africa
#11
M Straetemans, M I Bakker, E M H Mitchell
SETTING: Health care facilities in Kenya, Tanzania and Namibia. OBJECTIVE: To study the factors associated with the observation of and willingness to report stigmatising behaviour towards persons living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among health care workers (HCWs). DESIGN: Mixed-effect logistic regression analyses of 9516 HCW interviews, including those of 4062 (43%) TB workers carried out as part of the Service Provision Assessments (SPAs) between 2006 and 2010...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984493/integration-of-tuberculosis-and-hiv-services-exploring-the-perspectives-of-co-infected-patients-in-ghana
#12
Prince Justin Anku, Joshua Amo-Adjei, David Teye Doku, Akwasi Kumi-Kyereme
Scaling up of integrated tuberculosis (TB)-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services remains sub-optimal in many resource-limited countries, including Ghana, where the two conditions take a heavy toll on the financial resources of health systems as well as infected persons. Previous studies have documented several implementation challenges towards TB-HIV service integration, but views of patients on integrated service delivery have not received commensurate research attention. This paper explored the experiences of 40 TB-HIV co-infected patients at different stages of treatment in Ghana...
October 6, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970759/how-to-integrate-hiv-and-sexual-and-reproductive-health-services-in-namibia-the-epako-clinic-case-study
#13
Tomas Zapata, Norbert Forster, Pedro Campuzano, Rejoice Kambapani, Heena Brahmbhatt, Grace Hidinua, Mohamed Turay, Simon Kimathi Ikandi, Leonard Kabongo, Farai Zariro
INTRODUCTION: During the past two decades, HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health services in Namibia have been provided in silos, with high fragmentation. As a consequence of this, quality and efficiency of services in Primary Health Care has been compromised. METHODS: We conducted an operational research (observational pre-post study) in a public health facility in Namibia. A health facility assessment was conducted before and after the integration of health services...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Integrated Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965312/a-comparison-of-adverse-drug-reaction-profiles-in-patients-on-antiretroviral-and-antitubercular-treatment-in-zimbabwe
#14
Josiah T Masuka, Precious Chipangura, Priscilla P Nyambayo, Andy Stergachis, Star Khoza
INTRODUCTION: Few studies describe the adverse drug event profiles in patients simultaneously receiving antiretroviral and anti-tubercular medicines in resource-limited countries. OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare the adverse drug reaction profiles in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy only (HAART), HAART and isoniazid preventive therapy (HHART), and HAART and antitubercular treatment (ATTHAART). METHODS: We analysed individual case safety reports (ICSRs) for patients on antiretroviral therapy and antitubercular treatment submitted to the national pharmacovigilance centre during the targeted spontaneous reporting (TSR) programme from 1 September 2012 through 31 August 2016...
September 30, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947405/risk-factors-for-mortality-in-patients-with-tuberculosis-and-hiv-in-douala-cameroon
#15
N E Essomba, P G Ngaba, M P Halle, Y Afane-Voundi, Y Coppieters
Despite prevention efforts, and free treatment, TB-HIV co-infection still occurs in Cameroon. The objective of this work is to present the risk factors for mortality in patients co-infected with TB and HIV in Douala from 2009 to 2014. This transversal, analytic, and retrospective study took place from November 2014 to May 2015 in the Laquintinie Hospital in Douala. A review of our records identified patients aged at least 15 years, with this co-infection who received TB treatment, with or without antiretroviral agents...
August 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946683/usability-of-a-medication-event-reminder-monitor-system-merm-by-providers-and-patients-to-improve-adherence-in-the-management-of-tuberculosis
#16
Xiaoqi Liu, Terrence Blaschke, Bruce Thomas, Sabina De Geest, Shiwen Jiang, Yongxin Gao, Xinxu Li, Elizabeth Whalley Buono, Stacy Buchanan, Zhiying Zhang, Shitong Huan
Poor initiation and implementation and premature discontinuation of anti-tuberculous therapy, all forms of nonadherence, are major reasons for treatment failure, the development of drug-resistant tuberculosis, and transmission to other non-infected individuals. Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) has been the worldwide standard, but implementation of DOT is burdensome for providers and patients, especially in resource-limited settings, where most of the burden of active TB is located. Among the alternatives to DOT is electronic monitoring (EM) of drug dosing histories...
September 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928173/cohort-profile-of-a-study-on-outcomes-related-to-tuberculosis-and-antiretroviral-drug-concentrations-in-uganda-design-methods-and-patient-characteristics-of-the-south-study
#17
Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Barbara Castelnuovo, Amrei von Braun, Joseph Musaazi, Daniel Muller, Allan Buzibye, Ursula Gutteck, Lars Henning, Bruno Ledergerber, Natascia Corti, Mohammed Lamorde, Jan Fehr, Andrew Kambugu
PURPOSE: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death among people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Several factors influence the efficacy of TB treatment by leading to suboptimal drug concentrations and subsequently affecting treatment outcome. The aim of this cohort is to determine the association between anti-TB drug concentrations and TB treatment outcomes. PARTICIPANTS: Patients diagnosed with new pulmonary TB at the integrated TB-HIV outpatient clinic in Kampala, Uganda, were enrolled into the study and started on first-line anti-TB treatment...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919720/text-messaging-to-decrease-tuberculosis-treatment-attrition-in-tb-hiv-coinfection-in-uganda
#18
Sabine M Hermans, Sawsan Elbireer, Harriet Tibakabikoba, Bas J Hoefman, Yukari C Manabe
BACKGROUND: Low tuberculosis (TB) treatment completion rates in sub-Saharan Africa are an important driver of multidrug resistance. Mobile technology-based interventions have been shown to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to test the effect of a short-message service (SMS) intervention on loss to follow-up (LFU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, all adult, literate, HIV-infected patients with mobile phone access diagnosed with TB between November 2010 and October 2011 in an urban clinic in Uganda were eligible to receive adherence and appointment reminders and educational quizzes during the first 8 weeks of TB treatment...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911357/pulmonary-tuberculosis-diagnostic-practices-among-people-living-with-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-lesotho
#19
D E O'Connor, K Frederix, S Saito, L B Maama, Y Hirsch-Moverman, B Pitt, E Hayes-Larson, L Lebelo, M Shale, A A Howard
SETTING: Twelve health facilities in Berea District, Lesotho, that participated in the Start TB Patients on ART and Retain on Treatment (START) Study, a mixed-methods cluster-randomized trial evaluating a combination intervention package to improve early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and anti-tuberculosis treatment success among patients with tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). OBJECTIVE: To assess TB and HIV diagnostic practices among TB-HIV patients...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911356/high-completion-rates-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-among-persons-living-with-hiv-in-swaziland
#20
L V Adams, N Mahlalela, E A Talbot, M Pasipamire, S Ginindza, M Calnan, S Haumba
SETTING: Five human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care facilities in Swaziland. OBJECTIVE: To assess adherence and treatment completion of a 6-month course of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) provided to HIV-infected patients through a self-selected model of facility-based, community-based or peer-supported IPT delivery coordinated with antiretroviral refills. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. RESULTS: Between February and August 2015, we enrolled 908 patients, with follow-up until February 2016...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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