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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164301/changes-in-multimodality-functional-imaging-parameters-early-during-chemoradiation-predict-treatment-response-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer
#1
Kee H Wong, Rafal Panek, Alex Dunlop, Dualta Mcquaid, Angela Riddell, Liam C Welsh, Iain Murray, Dow-Mu Koh, Martin O Leach, Shreerang A Bhide, Christopher M Nutting, Wim J Oyen, Kevin J Harrington, Kate L Newbold
OBJECTIVE: To assess the optimal timing and predictive value of early intra-treatment changes in multimodality functional and molecular imaging (FMI) parameters as biomarkers for clinical remission in patients receiving chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: Thirty-five patients with stage III-IVb (AJCC 7th edition) HNSCC prospectively underwent (18)F-FDG-PET/CT, and diffusion-weighted (DW), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and susceptibility-weighted MRI at baseline, week 1 and week 2 of chemoradiation...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162884/copolymers-enhance-selective-bacterial-community-colonization-for-potential-root-zone-applications
#2
Vy T H Pham, Pandiyan Murugaraj, Falko Mathes, Boon K Tan, Vi Khanh Truong, Daniel V Murphy, David E Mainwaring
Managing the impact of anthropogenic and climate induced stress on plant growth remains a challenge. Here we show that polymeric hydrogels, which maintain their hydrous state, can be designed to exploit functional interactions with soil microorganisms. This microbial enhancement may mitigate biotic and abiotic stresses limiting productivity. The presence of mannan chains within synthetic polyacrylic acid (PAA) enhanced the dynamics and selectivity of bacterial ingress in model microbial systems and soil microcosms...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159855/b1-artifact-reduction-in-abdominal-dce-mri-using-kt-points-first-clinical-assessment-of-dynamic-rf-shimming-at-3t
#3
Raphaël Tomi-Tricot, Vincent Gras, Franck Mauconduit, François Legou, Nicolas Boulant, Matthias Gebhardt, Dieter Ritter, Berthold Kiefer, Pierre Zerbib, Alain Rahmouni, Alexandre Vignaud, Alain Luciani, Alexis Amadon
BACKGROUND: The excitation inhomogeneity artifact occurring at 3T in the abdomen can lead to dramatic loss of signal and contrast, thereby hampering diagnosis. PURPOSE: To assess excitation homogeneity and image quality achieved by nonselective prototypical kT -points pulses, compared to tailored static RF shimming, in clinical routine on a commercial dual-transmit scanner. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective study with Institutional Review Board approval; informed consent was waived...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159819/focal-nodular-hyperplasia-of-the-liver-contrast-enhanced-ultrasonographic-features-with-sonazoid
#4
Jongmee Lee, Woo Kyoung Jeong, Hyo K Lim, Ah Young Kim
OBJECTIVES: To investigate ultrasonographic features of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) using Sonazoid (perflubutane; GE Healthcare, Oslo, Norway). METHODS: Thirty-one patients with 31 focal nodular hyperplasia nodules who underwent CEUS using Sonazoid between July 2012 and February 2015 were included in this study. After the microbubble contrast agent was injected, intermittent CEUS images were obtained during the following 4 phases: arterial (10-40 seconds), portal venous (60-90 seconds), delayed (3 minutes), and Kupffer (>10 minutes)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159523/quantitating-whole-lesion-tumor-biology-in-rectal-cancer-mri-taking-a-lesson-from-fdg-pet-tumor-metrics
#5
Marc J Gollub, Andreas M Hotker, Kaitlin M Woo, Yousef Mazaheri, Mithat Gonen
PURPOSE: To determine the value of novel whole tumor metrics in DWI-MRI and DCE-MRI of rectal cancer treatment assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 24 uniformly treated patients with rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent MRI including diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) sequences, before and after chemoradiotherapy. Two experienced readers independently measured tumor volume and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on DWI-MRI and tumor volume and transfer constant K (trans) on DCE-MRI...
November 20, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158839/characterization-of-cardiac-dynamics-in-an-acute-myocardial-infarction-model-by-four-dimensional-optoacoustic-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#6
Hsiao-Chun Amy Lin, Xosé Luís Déan-Ben, Ivana Ivankovic, Melanie A Kimm, Katja Kosanke, Helena Haas, Reinhard Meier, Fabian Lohöfer, Moritz Wildgruber, Daniel Razansky
Extraction of murine cardiac functional parameters on a beat-by-beat basis is limited with the existing imaging modalities due to insufficient three-dimensional temporal resolution. Faster volumetric imaging methods enabling in vivo characterization of functional parameters are poised to advance cardiovascular research and provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying cardiac diseases. We present a new approach based on analyzing contrast-enhanced optoacoustic (OA) images acquired at high volumetric frame rate without using cardiac gating or other approaches for motion correction...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158224/a-novel-fluorescent-reporter-detects-plastic-remodeling-of-mitochondria-er-contact-sites
#7
Zhaoying Yang, Xiaocui Zhao, Jiashen Xu, Weina Shang, Chao Tong
Mitochondria-ER contact sites (MERCs) enable communication between ER and mitochondria and serve as platforms for many cellular events, including autophagy. Nonetheless, the molecular organization of MERCs is not known, and there is no bona fide marker of these contact sites in mammalian cells. In this study, we designed a genetically encoded reporter using split super-folder GFP protein for labeling MERCs. We subsequently analyzed its distribution and dynamics during the cell cycle and under normal or stressful cellular conditions such as starvation, apoptosis, and ER stress...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157478/treatment-of-low-flow-vascular-malformations-of-the-extremities-using-mr-guided-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-preliminary-experience
#8
Pejman Ghanouni, Sirish Kishore, Matthew P Lungren, Rachelle Bitton, Lauren Chan, Raffi Avedian, Alberto Bazzocchi, Kim Butts Pauly, Alessandro Napoli, David M Hovsepian
Five patients with painful vascular malformations of the extremities that were refractory to standard treatment and were confirmed as low-flow malformations on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were treated with MR imaging-guided high intensity focused ultrasound. Daily maximum numeric rating scale scores for pain improved from 8.4 ± 1.5 to 1.6 ± 2.2 (P = .004) at a median follow-up of 9 months (range, 4-36 mo). The size of the vascular malformations decreased on follow-up MR imaging (median enhancing volume, 8...
December 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156149/quantitative-evaluation-of-vertebral-microvascular-permeability-and-fat-fraction-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rabbits
#9
Lei Hu, Yun Fei Zha, Li Wang, Liang Li, Dong Xing, Wei Gong, Jiao Wang, Yuan Lin, Fei Fei Zeng, Xue Song Lu
Purpose To determine longitudinal relationships between lumbar vertebral bone marrow permeability and marrow adipose tissue in a rabbit diabetes model by using quantitative dynamic contrast agent-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and iterative decomposition of water and fat with the echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation quantitation (IDEAL IQ) sequence. Materials and Methods Twenty rabbits were randomly assigned to the diabetic (n = 10) or control (n = 10) group. All rabbits underwent sagittal MR imaging of the lumbar region at fixed time points (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after alloxan injection)...
November 20, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155024/linearization-improves-the-repeatability-of-quantitative-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri
#10
Kyle M Jones, Mark D Pagel, Julio Cárdenas-Rodríguez
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the repeatabilities of the linear and nonlinear Tofts and reference region models (RRM) for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Simulated and experimental DCE-MRI data from 12 rats with a flank tumor of C6 glioma acquired over three consecutive days were analyzed using four quantitative and semi-quantitative DCE-MRI metrics. The quantitative methods used were: 1) linear Tofts model (LTM), 2) non-linear Tofts model (NTM), 3) linear RRM (LRRM), and 4) non-linear RRM (NRRM)...
November 15, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154967/bone-marrow-mechanotransduction-in-porcine-explants-alters-kinase-activation-and-enhances-trabecular-bone-formation-in-the-absence-of-osteocyte-signaling
#11
Kimberly J Curtis, Thomas R Coughlin, Devon E Mason, Joel D Boerckel, Glen L Niebur
Bone is a dynamic tissue that can adapt its architecture in response to mechanical signals under the control of osteocytes, which sense mechanical deformation of the mineralized bone. However, cells in the marrow are also mechanosensitive and may contribute to load-induced bone adaptation, as marrow is subjected to mechanical stress during bone deformation. We investigated the contribution of mechanotransduction in marrow cells to trabecular bone formation by applying low magnitude mechanical stimulation (LMMS) to porcine vertebral trabecular bone explants in an in situ bioreactor...
November 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154898/evaluation-of-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-biomarkers-for-stratified-cancer-medicine-how-do-permeability-and-perfusion-vary-between-human-tumours
#12
Ross A Little, Hervé Barjat, Jennifer I Hare, Mary Jenner, Yvonne Watson, Susan Cheung, Katherine Holliday, Weijuan Zhang, James P B O'Connor, Simon T Barry, Sanyogitta Puri, Geoffrey J M Parker, John C Waterton
BACKGROUND: Solid tumours exhibit enhanced vessel permeability and fenestrated endothelium to varying degree, but it is unknown how this varies in patients between and within tumour types. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI provides a measure of perfusion and permeability, the transfer constant K(trans), which could be employed for such comparisons in patients. AIM: To test the hypothesis that different tumour types exhibit systematically different K(trans). MATERIALS AND METHODS: DCE-MRI data were retrieved from 342 solid tumours in 230 patients...
November 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154312/significant-mri-indicators-of-malignancy-for-breast-non-mass-enhancement
#13
Quan-Xin Yang, Xing Ji, Lin-Lin Feng, Long Zheng, Xiao-Qian Zhou, Qian Wu, Xin Chen
OBJECTIVE: To explore and evaluate new malignant predictors of breast non-mass enhancement lesions using the new BI-RADS MRI lexicon. METHODS: A dataset involving 422 consecutive women underwent breast 3.0 T MRI between January 2014 and July 2016 was assembled for this study. Each case was retrospectively reviewed by 3 radiologists. Eighty-four lesions that present non-mass enhancement in 79 patients were identified in the study. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI features were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses to identify significant indicators of malignancy...
November 16, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153374/histopathologic-diversity-of-gastric-cancers-relationship-between-enhancement-pattern-on-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-ct-and-histological-type
#14
Daisuke Tsurumaru, Mitsutoshi Miyasaka, Toshio Muraki, Akihiro Nishie, Yoshiki Asayama, Eiji Oki, Yoshinao Oda, Hiroshi Honda
PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced computed tomography gastrography (CE-CTG) to predict the histological type of gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 47 consecutive patients with resectable advanced gastric cancer preoperatively evaluated by multiphasic dynamic contrast-enhanced CT. Two radiologists independently reviewed the CT images and they determined the peak enhancement phase, and then measured the CT attenuation value of the gastric lesion for each phase...
December 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152563/integrated-radiomic-framework-for-breast-cancer-and-tumor-biology-using-advanced-machine-learning-and-multiparametric-mri
#15
Vishwa S Parekh, Michael A Jacobs
Radiomics deals with the high throughput extraction of quantitative textural information from radiological images that not visually perceivable by radiologists. However, the biological correlation between radiomic features and different tissues of interest has not been established. To that end, we present the radiomic feature mapping framework to generate radiomic MRI texture image representations called the radiomic feature maps (RFM) and correlate the RFMs with quantitative texture values, breast tissue biology using quantitative MRI and classify benign from malignant tumors...
2017: NPJ Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149479/cripsr-cas-expands-dynamic-range-of-gene-expression-from-t7rnap-promoters
#16
Sean R McCutcheon, Kwan Lun Chiu, Daniel D Lewis, Cheemeng Tan
BACKGROUND: Reducing leaky gene expression is critical for improving protein yield of recombinant bacteria and stability of engineered cellular circuits in synthetic biology. Leaky gene expression occurs when a genetic promoter is not fully repressed, leading to unintended protein synthesis in the absence of stimuli. Existing work has devised specific molecular strategies for reducing leaky gene expression of each promoter. Main Method and Results: In contrast, we describe a repurposed, modular CRISPRi system that attenuates leaky gene expression using a series of single-guide RNAs targeting the PT7/LacO1 ...
November 17, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146716/dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-derived-intracellular-water-lifetime-%C3%AF-i-a-prognostic-marker-for-patients-with-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#17
S Chawla, L A Loevner, S G Kim, W-T Hwang, S Wang, G Verma, S Mohan, V LiVolsi, H Quon, H Poptani
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Shutter-speed model analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging allows estimation of mean intracellular water molecule lifetime (a measure of cellular energy metabolism) and volume transfer constant (a measure of hemodynamics). The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic utility of pretreatment mean intracellular water molecule lifetime and volume transfer constant in predicting overall survival in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck and to stratify p16-positive patients based upon survival outcome...
November 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144161/use-of-patient-outcome-endpoints-to-identify-the-best-functional-ct-imaging-parameters-in-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-patients
#18
Jill Rachel Mains, Frede Donskov, Erik Morre Petersen, Hans Henrik Torp Madsen, Jesper Thygesen, Kennet Thorup, Finn Rasmussen
OBJECTIVE: To use the patient outcome endpoints overall survival and progression-free survival to evaluate functional parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT). METHODS: 69 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) had DCE-CT scans at baseline and after 5 and 10 weeks of treatment. Blood volume, blood flow and standardized perfusion values were calculated using deconvolution (BVdeconv, BFdeconv and SPVdeconv), blood flow and standardized perfusion values using maximum slope (BFmax and SPVmax), and blood volume and permeability surface area product using the Patlak model (BVpatlak and PS)...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143200/structural-and-perfusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-lung-in-cystic-fibrosis
#19
Christina Amaxopoulou, Ralph Gnannt, Kai Higashigaito, Andreas Jung, Christian J Kellenberger
BACKGROUND: Because of its absence of ionising radiation and possibility for obtaining functional information, MRI is promising for assessing lung disease in children who require repetitive imaging for long-term follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To describe MRI findings in children with cystic fibrosis and evaluate semi-quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced lung perfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively compared lung MRI in 25 children and young adults with cystic fibrosis (median age 3...
November 15, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143112/assessment-of-the-zonal-variation-of-perfusion-parameters-in-the-femoral-head-a-3-t-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-pilot-study
#20
Jean-François Budzik, Guillaume Lefebvre, Hélène Behal, Sébastien Verclytte, Pierre Hardouin, Pedro Teixeira, Anne Cotten
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to describe MR perfusion characteristics of the femoral head, with a focus on the subchondral bone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective monocentric study was approved by our local Ethics Committee. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the right hip was performed in 59 adults with suspected spondyloarthritis (32 women, 28 men). Mean age was 37.5 (±12.5) years. Regions of interest were drawn in the femoral head epiphysis, in the subchondral areas the most exposed to mechanical load (superolateral, anterosuperior, and posterior zones) and in areas less exposed to mechanical load (inferior subchondral zone and center of the femoral head)...
November 15, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
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