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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910868/relationship-between-nanotopographical-alignment-and-stem-cell-fate-with-live-imaging-and-shape-analysis
#1
Peter Newman, Jorge Luis Galenano-Niño, Pamela Graney, Joselito M Razal, Andrew I Minett, João Ribas, Raquel Ovalle-Robles, Maté Biro, Hala Zreiqat
The topography of a biomaterial regulates cellular interactions and determine stem cell fate. A complete understanding of how topographical properties affect cell behavior will allow the rational design of material surfaces that elicit specified biological functions once placed in the body. To this end, we fabricate substrates with aligned or randomly organized fibrous nanostructured topographies. Culturing adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), we explore the dynamic relationship between the alignment of topography, cell shape and cell differentiation to osteogenic and myogenic lineages...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910824/accelerated-high-resolution-photoacoustic-tomography-via-compressed-sensing
#2
Simon Arridge, Paul Beard, Marta Betcke, Ben Cox, Nam Huynh, Felix Lucka, Olumide Ogunlade, Edward Zhang
Current 3D photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems offer either high image quality or high frame rates but are not able to deliver high spatial and temporal resolution simultaneously, which limits their ability to image dynamic processes in living tissue (4D PAT). A particular example is the planar Fabry-Pérot (FP) photoacoustic scanner, which yields high-resolution 3D images but takes several minutes to sequentially map the incident photoacoustic field on the 2D sensor plane, point-by-point. However, as the spatio-temporal complexity of many absorbing tissue structures is rather low, the data recorded in such a conventional, regularly sampled fashion is often highly redundant...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910435/design-of-an-extreme-ultraviolet-spectrometer-suite-to-characterize-rapidly-heated-solid-matter
#3
S T Ivancic, C R Stillman, D Nelson, I A Begishev, C Mileham, P M Nilson, D H Froula
An ultrafast streaked extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) spectrometer (5-20 nm) was developed to measure the temperature dynamics in rapidly heated samples. Rapid heating makes it possible to create exotic states of matter that can be probed during their inertial confinement time-tens of picoseconds in the case of micron-sized targets. In contrast to other forms of pyrometry, where the temperature is inferred from bulk x-ray emission, XUV emission is restricted to the sample surface, allowing for a temperature measurement at the material-vacuum interface...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909861/surgical-reconstruction-for-fibular-hemimelia
#4
REVIEW
Dror Paley
Fibular hemimelia presents with foot deformity and leg length discrepancy. Previous classifications have focused on the degree of fibular deficiency rather than the type of foot deformity. Published methods of surgical reconstruction have often failed due to residual or recurrent foot deformity. The purpose of this report is to introduce new classification and reconstruction methods. The Paley SHORDT procedure is used to stabilize the ankle when there is a hypoplastic distal fibula with a dynamic valgus deformity...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908111/nuclear-quantum-effects-in-a-hiv-cancer-inhibitor-the-case-of-ellipticine
#5
Subrahmanyam Sappati, Ali Hassanali, Ralph Gebauer, Prasenjit Ghosh
Ellipticine is a natural product that is currently being actively investigated for its inhibitory cancer and HIV properties. Here we use path-integral molecular dynamics coupled with excited state calculations to characterize the role of nuclear quantum effects on the structural and electronic properties of ellipticine in water, a common biological solvent. Quantum effects collectively enhance the fluctuations of both light and heavy nuclei of the covalent and hydrogen bonds in ellipticine. In particular, for the ellipticine-water system, where the proton donor and acceptor have different proton affinities, we find that nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) strengthen both the strong and the weak H bonds...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908068/perception-of-music-dynamics-in-concert-hall-acoustics
#6
Jukka Pätynen, Tapio Lokki
Dynamics is one of the principal means of expressivity in Western classical music. Still, preceding research on room acoustics has mostly neglected the contribution of music dynamics to the acoustic perception. This study investigates how the different concert hall acoustics influence the perception of varying music dynamics. An anechoic orchestra signal, containing a step in music dynamics, was rendered in the measured acoustics of six concert halls at three seats in each. Spatial sound was reproduced through a loudspeaker array...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907987/microrheology-of-growing-escherichia-coli-biofilms-investigated-by-using-magnetic-force-modulation-atomic-force-microscopy
#7
Tiansheng Gan, Xiangjun Gong, Holger Schönherr, Guangzhao Zhang
Microrheology of growing biofilms provides insightful information about its structural evolution and properties. In this study, the authors have investigated the microrheology of Escherichia coli (strain HCB1) biofilms at different indentation depth (δ) by using magnetic force modulation atomic force microscopy as a function of disturbing frequency (f). As δ increases, the dynamic stiffness (ks) for the biofilms in the early stage significantly increases. However, it levels off when the biofilms are matured...
December 1, 2016: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907055/effect-of-glu12-his89-interaction-on-dynamic-structures-in-hiv-1-p17-matrix-protein-elucidated-by-nmr
#8
Yuta Konagaya, Rina Miyakawa, Masumi Sato, Akimasa Matsugami, Satoru Watanabe, Fumiaki Hayashi, Takanori Kigawa, Chiaki Nishimura
To test the existence of the salt bridge and stability of the HIV-1 p17 matrix protein, an E12A (mutated at helix 1) was established to abolish possible electrostatic interactions. The chemical shift perturbation from the comparison between wild type and E12A suggested the existence of an electrostatic interaction in wild type between E12 and H89 (located in helix 4). Unexpectedly, the studies using urea denaturation indicated that the E12A substitution slightly stabilized the protein. The dynamic structure of E12A was examined under physiological conditions by both amide proton exchange and relaxation studies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906426/continuous-monitoring-of-intracranial-pressure-for-prediction-of-postoperative-complications-of-hypertensive-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#9
S-X Yu, Q-S Zhang, Y Yin, Z Liu, J-M Wu, M-X Yang
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the value of continuous dynamic monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage to predict early postoperative complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from 80 patients treated in our hospital from February 2014 to February 2015 were analyzed. The patients all underwent decompressive craniectomies, and their ICP changes were monitored invasively and continuously for 1 to 7 days after surgery...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906375/surface-modulation-and-back-reflection-from-foil-targets-irradiated-by-a-petawatt-femtosecond-laser-pulse-at-oblique-incidence
#10
S Ter-Avetisyan, A Andreev, K Platonov, J H Sung, S K Lee, H W Lee, J Y Yoo, P K Singh, H Ahmed, C Scullion, K F Kakolee, T W Jeong, P Hadjisolomou, M Borghesi
A significant level of back reflected laser energy was measured during the interaction of ultra-short, high contrast PW laser pulses with solid targets at 30° incidence. 2D PIC simulations carried out for the experimental conditions show that at the laser-target interface a dynamic regular structure is generated during the interaction, which acts as a grating (quasi-grating) and reflects back a significant amount of incident laser energy. With increasing laser intensity above 10<sup>18</sup> W/cm<sup>2</sup> the back reflected fraction increases due to the growth of the surface modulation to larger amplitudes...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906075/nuclear-bodies-reorganize-during-myogenesis-in-vitro-and-are-differentially-disrupted-by-expression-of-fshd-associated-dux4
#11
Sachiko Homma, Mary Lou Beermann, Bryant Yu, Frederick M Boyce, Jeffrey Boone Miller
BACKGROUND: Nuclear bodies, such as nucleoli, PML bodies, and SC35 speckles, are dynamic sub-nuclear structures that regulate multiple genetic and epigenetic processes. Additional regulation is provided by RNA/DNA handling proteins, notably TDP-43 and FUS, which have been linked to ALS pathology. Previous work showed that mouse cell line myotubes have fewer but larger nucleoli than myoblasts, and we had found that nuclear aggregation of TDP-43 in human myotubes was induced by expression of DUX4-FL, a transcription factor that is aberrantly expressed and causes pathology in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD)...
December 1, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905865/transient-bone-marrow-edema-syndrome-versus-osteonecrosis-perfusion-patterns-at-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mr-imaging-with-high-temporal-resolution-can-allow-differentiation
#12
Tobias Geith, Thomas Niethammer, Stefan Milz, Olaf Dietrich, Maximilian Reiser, Andrea Baur-Melnyk
Purpose To prospectively evaluate the perfusion patterns at quantitative dynamic contrast material-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of transient bone marrow edema syndrome (TBMES) and avascular osteonecrosis. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained. Thirty-two patients (21 men, 11 women; mean age, 48 years; 26 hips, 10 knees) underwent conventional MR imaging and a dynamic contrast-enhanced three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo sequence at 3 T...
December 1, 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905585/influence-of-%C3%AF-conjugation-structural-changes-on-intramolecular-charge-transfer-and-photoinduced-electron-transfer-in-donor-%C3%AF-acceptor-dyads
#13
So-Yoen Kim, Yang-Jin Cho, Ah-Rang Lee, Ho-Jin Son, Won-Sik Han, Dae Won Cho, Sang Ook Kang
The influence of π-conjugation structural changes on photoinduced electron transfer (PET) and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) processes in π-conjugated donor (D)-acceptor (A) dyads (D-π-A) was investigated. Three types of D-π-A dyads were prepared through the modification of the structure of their π-conjugated linker, including D-π-A (1) and D-πtw-A (2) having a twisted π-conjugation, and D-π-Si-π-A (3) with a π-conjugation severed by a Si-atom. In these dyads, carbazole (Cz) and oxadiazole (Oz) moieties act as an electron donor and acceptor, respectively...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904441/dynamic-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-of-the-bowel-wall-with-quantitative-assessment-of-crohn-s-disease-activity-in-childhood
#14
Damjana Kljucevsek, Dubravka Vidmar, Darja Urlep, Rok Dezman
BACKGROUND: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has become an established non-invasive, patient-friendly imaging technique which improves the characterization of lesions. In addition, dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) provides valuable information concerning perfusion of examined organs. This review addresses current applications of CEUS in children, focused on DCE-US of the bowel wall in patients with Crohn disease, which enables realtime assessment of the bowel wall vascularity with semi-quantitative and quantitative assessment of disease activity and response to medical treatment...
December 1, 2016: Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903865/imaging-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-human-skin-reveals-depth-dependent-hypoxia-and-malignant-potential-for-diagnosis
#15
Dimitra Pouli, Mihaela Balu, Carlo A Alonzo, Zhiyi Liu, Kyle P Quinn, Francisca Rius-Diaz, Ronald M Harris, Kristen M Kelly, Bruce J Tromberg, Irene Georgakoudi
Active changes in mitochondrial structure and organization facilitate cellular homeostasis. Because aberrant mitochondrial dynamics are implicated in a variety of human diseases, their assessment is potentially useful for diagnosis, therapy, and disease monitoring. Because current techniques for evaluating mitochondrial morphology are invasive or necessitate mitochondria-specific dyes, their clinical translation is limited. We report that mitochondrial dynamics can be monitored in vivo, within intact human skin by relying entirely on endogenous two-photon-excited fluorescence from the reduced metabolic coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)...
November 30, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903720/oscillatory-dynamics-underlying-perceptual-narrowing-of-native-phoneme-mapping-from-6-to-12-months-of-age
#16
Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla, Jarmo A Hämäläinen, Teresa Realpe-Bonilla, April A Benasich
: During the first months of life, human infants process phonemic elements from all languages similarly. However, by 12 months of age, as language-specific phonemic maps are established, infants respond preferentially to their native language. This process, known as perceptual narrowing, supports neural representation and thus efficient processing of the distinctive phonemes within the sound environment. Although oscillatory mechanisms underlying processing of native and non-native phonemic contrasts were recently delineated in 6-month-old infants, the maturational trajectory of these mechanisms remained unclear...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903431/differential-regulation-of-baicalin-and-scutellarin-on-ampk-and-akt-in-promoting-adipose-cell-glucose-disposal
#17
Le-Le Yang, Na Xiao, Jinfeng Liu, Kang Liu, Baolin Liu, Ping Li, Lian-Wen Qi
Baicalin and scutellarin, two flavonoid glucuronic acids isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, exhibit beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Baicalin and scutellarin are similar in structure except scutellarin has an additional hydroxyl at composition C-4'. In this work, we observed that baicalin and scutellarin promoted glucose disposal in mice and in adipocytes. Baicalin selectively increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), while scutellarin selectively enhanced Akt phosphorylation. Both of them increased AS160 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in basal condition...
November 26, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903277/sequence-diversity-of-dengue-virus-type-2-in-brain-and-thymus-of-infected-interferon-receptor-ko-mice-implications-for-dengue-virulence
#18
Priya Dhole, Emi E Nakayama, Akatsuki Saito, Kriengsak Limkittikul, Supranee Phanthanawiboon, Tatsuo Shioda, Takeshi Kurosu
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that a clinical isolate of dengue virus (DENV) is capable of causing acute-phase systemic infection in mice harboring knockouts of the genes encoding type-I and -II interferon IFN receptors (IFN-α/β/γR KO mice); in contrast, other virulent DENV isolates exhibited slow disease progression in this mice, yielding lethal infection around 20 days post-infection (p.i.). In the present study, we sought to clarify the dynamics of slow disease progression by examining disease progression of a type-2 DENV clinical isolate (DV2P04/08) in mice...
November 30, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902858/reliable-estimation-of-microvascular-flow-patterns-in-patients-with-disrupted-blood-brain-barrier-using-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-mri
#19
Mikkel Bo Hansen, Anna Tietze, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer, Elizabeth R Gerstner, Tracy T Batchelor, Leif Østergaard, Kim Mouridsen
PURPOSE: To present and quantify the performance of a method to compute tissue hemodynamic parameters from dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI data in brain tissue with possible nonintact blood-brain barrier. THEORY AND MATERIALS AND METHODS: We propose a Bayesian scheme to obtain perfusion metrics, including capillary transit-time heterogeneity (CTH), from DSC-MRI data in the presence of contrast agent extravasation. Initial performance assessment is performed through simulations...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902784/dynamic-in-vivo-mutations-within-the-ica-operon-during-persistence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-airways-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#20
Bianca Schwartbeck, Johannes Birtel, Janina Treffon, Lars Langhanki, Alexander Mellmann, Devika Kale, Janina Kahl, Nina Hirschhausen, Claudia Neumann, Jean C Lee, Friedrich Götz, Holger Rohde, Hanae Henke, Peter Küster, Georg Peters, Barbara C Kahl
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with chronic bacterial airway infections leading to lung insufficiency and decreased life expectancy. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent pathogens isolated from the airways of CF patients. Mucoid colony morphology has been described for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the most common pathogen in CF, but not for S. aureus. From the airways of 8 of 313 CF patients (2.5%) mucoid S. aureus isolates (n = 115) were cultured with a mean persistence of 29 months (range 1 month, 126 months)...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
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