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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175476/source-apportionment-of-aerosol-particles-at-a-european-air-pollution-hot-spot-using-particle-number-size-distributions-and-chemical-composition
#1
Cecilia Leoni, Petra Pokorná, Jan Hovorka, Mauro Masiol, Jan Topinka, Yongjing Zhao, Kamil Křůmal, Steven Cliff, Pavel Mikuška, Philip K Hopke
Ostrava in the Moravian-Silesian region (Czech Republic) is a European air pollution hot spot for airborne particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and ultrafine particles (UFPs). Air pollution source apportionment is essential for implementation of successful abatement strategies. UFPs or nanoparticles of diameter <100 nm exhibit the highest deposition efficiency in human lungs. To permit apportionment of PM sources at the hot-spot including nanoparticles, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to highly time resolved particle number size distributions (NSD, 14 nm-10 μm) and PM0...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127795/an-investigation-of-the-leaf-retention-capacity-efficiency-and-mechanism-for-atmospheric-particulate-matter-of-five-greening-tree-species-in-beijing-china
#2
Jinqiang Liu, Zhiguo Cao, Songyan Zou, Huanhuan Liu, Xiao Hai, Shihua Wang, Jie Duan, Benye Xi, Guangxuan Yan, Shaowei Zhang, Zhongkui Jia
Urban trees have the potential to reduce air pollution, but the retention capacity and efficiency of different tree species for atmospheric particulate matter (PM) accumulation and the underlying mechanism hasn't been well understood. To select tree species with high air purification abilities, the supplementing ultrasonic cleaning (UC) procedure was first introduced into the conventional leaf cleaning methods [single water cleaning (WC) or plus brush cleaning (BC)] for eluting the leaf-retained PM. Further updates to the methodology were applied to investigate the retention capacity, efficiency, and mechanism for PM of five typical greening tree species in Beijing, China...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121603/assessment-of-light-extinction-at-a-european-polluted-urban-area-during-wintertime-impact-of-pm1-composition-and-sources
#3
R Vecchi, V Bernardoni, S Valentini, A Piazzalunga, P Fermo, G Valli
In this paper, results from receptor modelling performed on a well-characterised PM1 dataset were combined to chemical light extinction data (bext) with the aim of assessing the impact of different PM1 components and sources on light extinction and visibility at a European polluted urban area. It is noteworthy that, at the state of the art, there are still very few papers estimating the impact of different emission sources on light extinction as we present here, although being among the major environmental challenges at many polluted areas...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059576/biodegradation-of-sulfamethoxazole-in-bacteria-from-three-different-origins
#4
Sikandar I Mulla, Anyi Hu, Qian Sun, Jiagwei Li, Fidèle Suanon, Muhammad Ashfaq, Chang-Ping Yu
Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a common medicine prescribed to treat infections. Due to vast use, SMX has been detected in different parts of the world. Hence, it has become a high risk because of its long term persistence with high biological activity in the ecosystem. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the mechanism of SMX degradation in different genus of bacteria, which is presently unclear. In the present study, degradation of 5 mg L(-1) SMX was studied in three isolated pure bacterial cultures, Ochrobactrum sp...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055838/chemical-composition-and-source-apportionment-of-sub-micron-particles-during-wintertime-over-northern-india-new-insights-on-influence-of-fog-processing
#5
Prashant Rajput, Dharmendra Kumar Singh, Amit Kumar Singh, Tarun Gupta
A comprehensive study was carried out from central part of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP; at Kanpur) to understand abundance, temporal variability, processes (secondary formation and fog-processing) and source-apportionment of PM1-bound species (PM1: particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 μm) during wintertime. A total of 50 PM1 samples were collected of which 33 samples represent submicron aerosol characteristics under non-foggy condition whereas 17 samples represent characteristics under thick foggy condition...
October 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044916/free-standing-polyurethane-nanofiber-nets-air-filters-for-effective-pm-capture
#6
Fenglei Zuo, Shichao Zhang, Hui Liu, Hao Fong, Xia Yin, Jianyong Yu, Bin Ding
The filtration performance and light transmittance of nanofiber air filters are restricted by their thick fiber diameter, large pore size, and substrate dependence, which can be solved by constructing substrate-free fibrous membranes with true nanoscale diameters and ultrathin thicknesses, however, it has proven to be extremely challenging. Herein, a roust approach is presented to create free-standing polyurethane (PU) nanofiber/nets air filters composed of bonded nanofibers and 2D nanonets for particular matter (PM) capture via combining electrospinning/netting technique and facile peel off process from designed substrates...
October 17, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044438/high-total-volatile-organic-compounds-pollution-in-a-hospital-dental-department
#7
Ming-Hui Liu, Tao-Hsin Tung, Fen-Fang Chung, Li-Chuan Chuang, Gwo-Hwa Wan
Bioaerosols produced by dental procedures may affect indoor air quality and cause infections in dental healthcare workers. To provide air quality data that can be used to protect dental healthcare workers, this study evaluated the air quality and its influencing factors in the dental department of the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan. The study was a cross-sectional study design. Indoor air quality (IAQ) evaluations were conducted in six locations: pediatric dentistry, craniofacial orthodontic dentistry, periodontal dentistry, and general practice dentistry, instrument washing room, and patient waiting area...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042801/investigating-a-rare-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-strain-first-description-of-genome-sequencing-and-molecular-characterization-of-cc15-mrsa
#8
Abiola C Senok, Ali M Somily, Peter Slickers, Muhabat A Raji, Ghada Garaween, Atef Shibl, Stefan Monecke, Ralf Ehricht
PURPOSE: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC15 strains (CC15-MRSA) have only been sporadically described in literature. This study was carried out to describe the genetic make-up for this rare MRSA strain. METHODS: Four CC15-MRSA isolates collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 2013 and 2014 were studied. Two isolates were from clinical infection and 2 from retail meat products. Whole genome sequencing was carried out using Illumina HiSeq2500 genome analyzer...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033176/estimating-spatiotemporal-distribution-of-pm1-concentrations-in-china-with-satellite-remote-sensing-meteorology-and-land-use-information
#9
Gongbo Chen, Luke D Knibbs, Wenyi Zhang, Shanshan Li, Wei Cao, Jianping Guo, Hongyan Ren, Boguang Wang, Hao Wang, Gail Williams, N A S Hamm, Yuming Guo
BACKGROUND: PM1 might be more hazardous than PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1 μm and ≤2.5 μm, respectively). However, studies on PM1 concentrations and its health effects are limited due to a lack of PM1 monitoring data. OBJECTIVES: To estimate spatial and temporal variations of PM1 concentrations in China during 2005-2014 using satellite remote sensing, meteorology, and land use information. METHODS: Two types of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 6 aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB), were combined...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033055/ambient-endotoxin-in-pm10-and-association-with-inflammatory-activity-air-pollutants-and-meteorology-in-chitwan-nepal
#10
Parth Sarathi Mahapatra, Sumeet Jain, Sujan Shrestha, Shantibhusan Senapati, Siva Praveen Puppala
BACKGROUND: Endotoxin associated with ambient PM (particulate matter) has been linked to adverse respiratory symptoms, but there have been few studies of ambient endotoxin and its association with co-pollutants and inflammation. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to measure endotoxin associated with ambient PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter<10μm) in summer 2016 at four locations in Chitwan, Nepal, and investigate its association with meteorology, co-pollutants, and inflammatory activity...
October 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993882/commuter-exposure-to-fine-and-ultrafine-particulate-matter-in-vienna
#11
Georg Strasser, Stefan Hiebaum, Manfred Neuberger
Mass concentrations PM10, PM2.5, PM1, particle number concentrations of ultrafine particles and lung deposited surface area were measured during commutes with a subway, tram, bus, car and bicycle in Vienna for the first time. Obtained data were examined for significant differences in personal exposure when using various transport modalities along similar routes. Mean PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations were significantly higher in the subway when compared to buses. Mean PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations were significantly higher in the subway when compared to cars using low ventilation settings...
October 9, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974342/realtime-chemical-characterization-of-post-monsoon-organic-aerosols-in-a-polluted-urban-city-sources-composition-and-comparison-with-other-seasons
#12
Abhishek Chakraborty, Anil Kumar Mandariya, Ruparati Chakraborti, Tarun Gupta, S N Tripathi
Real time chemical characterization of non-refractory submicron aerosols (NR-PM1) was carried out during post monsoon (September-October) via Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) at a polluted urban location of Kanpur, India. Organic aerosol (OA) was found to be the dominant species with 58% contribution to total NR-PM1 mass, followed by sulfate (16%). Overall, OA was highly oxidized (average O/C = 0.66) with the dominance of oxidized OAs (60% of total OA) as revealed by source apportionment. Oxidized nature of OA was also supported by very high OC/EC ratios (average = 8...
September 30, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970595/exposure-to-cooking-fumes-and-acute-reversible-decrement-in-lung-functional-capacity
#13
Masoud Neghab, Mahdieh Delikhoon, Abbas Norouzian Baghani, Jafar Hassanzadeh
BACKGROUND: Being exposed to cooking fumes, kitchen workers are occupationally at risk of multiple respiratory hazards. No conclusive evidence exists as to whether occupational exposure to these fumes is associated with acute and chronic pulmonary effects and symptoms of respiratory diseases. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the exposure levels and evaluate possible chronic and acute pulmonary effects associated with exposure to cooking fumes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 60 kitchen workers exposed to cooking fumes and 60 unexposed employees were investigated...
October 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962025/characterization-of-two-novel-variants-of-staphylococcal-cassette-chromosome-mec-elements-in-oxacillin-resistant-staphylococcus-lugdunensis
#14
Shih-Cheng Chang, Ming-Hsun Lee, Chun-Fu Yeh, Tsui-Ping Liu, Jung-Fu Lin, Cheng-Mao Ho, Jang-Jih Lu
Objectives: Staphylococcus lugdunensis , a species of CoNS, has become an important hospital pathogen because of increasing resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as methicillin and oxacillin. Methicillin resistance is mainly due to the acquisition of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec (SCC mec ). Little is known about the structure of SCC mec in methicillin- or oxacillin-resistant CoNS. Methods: WGS was performed to determine the structure of SCC mec elements of two clinical S...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943349/assessment-of-annual-air-pollution-levels-with-pm1-pm2-5-pm10-and-associated-heavy-metals-in-algiers-algeria
#15
Abdelhamid Talbi, Yacine Kerchich, Rabah Kerbachi, Ménouèr Boughedaoui
Concentrations of particulate matter less than 1  μm, 2.5  μm, 10 μm and their contents of heavy metals were investigated in two different stations, urban and roadside at Algiers (Algeria). Sampling was conducted during two years by a high volume samplers (HVS) equipped with a cascade impactor at four levels stage, for one year sampling. The characterization of the heavy metals associated to the particulate matter (PM) was carried out by X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (XRF). The annual average concentration of PM1, PM2...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935404/chemical-characteristics-and-sources-of-pm1-during-the-2016-summer-in-hangzhou
#16
Kangwei Li, Linghong Chen, Stephen J White, Xianjue Zheng, Biao Lv, Chao Lin, Zhier Bao, Xuecheng Wu, Xiang Gao, Fang Ying, Jiandong Shen, Merched Azzi, Kefa Cen
During the 2016 Hangzhou G20 Summit, the chemical composition of submicron particles (PM1) was measured by a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) along with a suite of collocated instruments. The campaign was undertaken between August 5 and September 23, 2016. The impacts of emission controls and meteorological conditions on PM1 chemical composition, diurnal cycles, organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment, size distribution and elemental ratios were characterized in detail...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929983/genetic-perspective-of-milk-yield-persistency-in-the-first-three-lactations-of-iranian-buffaloes-bubalus-bubalis
#17
Navid Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, Mohammad Ali Nazari, Abdol Ahad Shadparvar
The objectives of this study were to estimate the genetic parameters and genetic trends for different measures of persistency (PM) for milk yield in Iranian buffaloes using a random regression test day model. Test day records of the first three lactations of buffaloes within 715 herds comprising 43 014, 38 941 and 33 937 records, respectively, were obtained from the Animal Breeding Center of Iran during 1992 to 2012. Legendre polynomial functions were chosen to fit the lactation curves in the framework of a random regression test day model for estimating (co)variance components...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886548/investigating-the-impact-of-different-sport-trainings-on-particulate-matter-resuspension-in-a-sport-center-using-well-characterized-reference-instruments-and-a-low-cost-monitor
#18
Mehdi Amouei Torkmahalleh, Karakat Kabay, Meruyet Bazhanova, Obaidullah Mohiuddin, Madina Obaidullah, Soudabeh Gorjinezhad
The present study investigated the exposure of teenagers, adults, and students to PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10, particle number concentration at two sport facilities of Nazarbayev University including Gymnastics Hall and Multi-purpose Hall. Measurements were conducted during variety of sport training sessions including soccer, basketball, volleyball, Mixed Martial Arts (MMA), boxing, table tennis, etc. A low-cost instrument, Dylos was employed to compare its performance against two TSI instruments. In overall, the Dylos showed acceptable peaks when the source of particle resuspension was present...
January 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872186/asymptotic-confidence-intervals-for-the-pearson-correlation-via-skewness-and-kurtosis
#19
Anthony J Bishara, Jiexiang Li, Thomas Nash
When bivariate normality is violated, the default confidence interval of the Pearson correlation can be inaccurate. Two new methods were developed based on the asymptotic sampling distribution of Fisher's z' under the general case where bivariate normality need not be assumed. In Monte Carlo simulations, the most successful of these methods relied on the (Vale & Maurelli, 1983, Psychometrika, 48, 465) family to approximate a distribution via the marginal skewness and kurtosis of the sample data. In Simulation 1, this method provided more accurate confidence intervals of the correlation in non-normal data, at least as compared to no adjustment of the Fisher z' interval, or to adjustment via the sample joint moments...
September 4, 2017: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865356/chemical-composition-of-submicron-and-fine-particulate-matter-collected-in-krakow-poland-consequences-for-the-aparic-project
#20
Lucyna Samek, Leszek Furman, Magdalena Mikrut, Anna Regiel-Futyra, Wojciech Macyk, Grażyna Stochel, Rudi van Eldik
Submicron particulate matter containing particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤1 μm (PM1) are not monitored continuously by Environmental Protection Agencies around the World and are seldom studied. Numerous studies have indicated that people exposed to ultrafine (≤100 nm), submicron and fine particulate matter containing particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5), can suffer from respiratory track diseases, cardiovascular, immunological or heart diseases and others. Inorganic pollutants containing redox active transition metals and small gaseous molecules, are involved in the generation of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species...
August 30, 2017: Chemosphere
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