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Zhijun Wu, Jing Zheng, Yu Wang, Dongjie Shang, Zhoufei Du, Yuanhang Zhang, Min Hu
Biomass burning emits large amounts of both trace gases and particles into the atmosphere. It plays a profound role in regional air quality and climate change. In the present study, an intensive campaign was carried out at an urban site in Beijing, China, in June 2014, which covered the winter wheat harvest season over the North China Plain (NCP). Meanwhile, two evident biomass-burning events were observed. A clear burst in ultrafine particles (below 100nm in diameter, PM1) and subsequent particle growth took place during the events...
November 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
T W Rice, H Ishwaran, W L Hofstetter, D P Kelsen, C Apperson-Hansen, E H Blackstone
We report analytic and consensus processes that produced recommendations for pathologic stage groups (pTNM) of esophageal and esophagogastric junction cancer for the AJCC/UICC cancer staging manuals, 8th edition. The Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration provided data for 22,654 patients with epithelial esophageal cancers; 13,300 without preoperative therapy had pathologic assessment after esophagectomy or endoscopic treatment. Risk-adjusted survival for each patient was developed using random survival forest analysis to identify data-driven pathologic stage groups wherein survival decreased monotonically with increasing group, was distinctive between groups, and homogeneous within groups...
November 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Hsien-Chih Li, Pei-Te Chiueh, Shi-Ping Liu, Yu-Yang Huang
The purposes of this study are to develop a healthy commute map indicating cleanest route in Taipei metropolitan area for any given journey and to evaluate the pollutant doses exposed in different commuting modes. In Taiwan, there are more than 13.6 million motorcycles and 7.7 million vehicles among the 23 million people. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants can thus cause adverse health effects. Moreover, increasing the level of physical activity during commuting and longer distances will result in inhalation of more polluted air...
November 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ayansina Ayanlade, Ebunoluwa Folasade Oyegbade
PURPOSE: In this study, the spatial and temporal relationship of wind speed, atmospheric particles concentration, and the industrial-induced noise levels during different times of the day were examined, using sawmill industrial location around Ile-Ife in Osun of Nigeria as a case study. METHODS: Mobile devices were used to measure noise level and basic meteorological parameters were examined and their influences on the noise levels distribution were assessed. The maximum and minimum sound levels; Lmax and Lmin, the PM10 and PM1 particle concentrations, wind speeds and directions were measured in the morning (7-9 a...
2016: SpringerPlus
C Linares, D Culqui, R Carmona, C Ortiz, J Díaz
BACKGROUND: Spain has one of the highest proportions of dementia in the world among the population aged 60 years or over. Recent studies link various environmental factors to neurocognitive-type diseases. This study sought to analyse whether urban risk factors such as traffic noise, pollutants and heat waves might have a short-term impact on exacerbation of symptoms of dementia, leading to emergency hospital admission. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal ecological time-series study, with the dependent variable being the number of daily dementia-related emergency (DDE) hospital admissions to Madrid municipal hospitals (ICD-10 codes 290...
January 2017: Environmental Research
Tong Zhao, Lingxiao Yang, Weida Yan, Junmei Zhang, Wei Lu, Yumeng Yang, Jianmin Chen, Wenxing Wang
Daytime and night-time PM1 and PM2.5 samples were simultaneously collected at the summit of Mount Tai during summer and autumn 2014. The mass concentrations and chemical compositions were analysed to determine the temporal variations of PM1 and PM2.5 and their contributions to visibility impairment. In summer, the average mass concentrations of PM1 and PM2.5 were 38.16μg/m(3) and 53.33μg/m(3), respectively. In autumn, the values were 42.75μg/m(3) and 59.16μg/m(3). Water-soluble inorganic ions were the most abundant species in both PM1 and PM2...
October 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jaiprakash, Amrita Singhai, Gazala Habib, Ramya Sunder Raman, Tarun Gupta
Fine aerosol fraction (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <= 1.0 μm (PM)1.0) over the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi campus was monitored day and night (10 h each) at 30 m height from November 2009 to March 2010. The samples were analyzed for 5 ions (NH4(+), NO3(-), SO4(2-), F(-), and Cl(-)) and 12 trace elements (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Ni). Importantly, secondary aerosol (sulfate and nitrate) formation was observed during dense foggy events, supporting the fog-smog-fog cycle...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Geun-Hye Yu, Seungshik Park, Kwon-Ho Lee
In this study, 24 h size-segregated particulate matter (PM) samples were collected between September 2012 and August 2013 at an urban site in Korea to investigate seasonal mass size distributions of PM and its water-soluble components as well as to infer the possible sources of size-resolved water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) was also computed to identify the possible source regions of size-resolved WSOC. The seasonal average contribution of water-soluble organic matter to PM1...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Bharath Kumar, Abhishek Chakraborty, S N Tripathi, Deepika Bhattu
Non-refractory submicron (NR-PM1) aerosols were measured during the late winter period (February-March) via an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosols Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) along with Black Carbon (BC) and trace gasses in an industrial city, Kanpur, situated in the Gangetic Plain (GP) of India. The composition of NR-PM1 aerosols was dominated by organics (54%), followed by inorganics (36%), and BC (10%). Source apportionment via Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) of AMS measured organic aerosols (OAs) revealed 6 factors...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Clara Bocchi, Cristina Bazzini, Federica Fontana, Giancarlo Pinto, Anna Martino, Francesca Cassoni
Urban particulate matter (PM) is an environmental public health concern as it has been classified by the IARC as carcinogenic to humans (group 1) and it's well known that pollutants are more associated with the finest fractions of PM. In this study we characterize urban aerosol in Bologna, county town of Emilia-Romagna in the north of Italy, collecting PM2.5, PM1 and semi-volatile organic compounds using polyurethane foam. Samples were collected in three different seasons (winter, summer and autumn) and were extracted with acetone...
October 2016: Mutation Research
A Zwozdziak, I Sówka, E Willak-Janc, J Zwozdziak, K Kwiecińska, W Balińska-Miśkiewicz
To evaluate lung function responses to short-term indoor PM1 and PM2.5 concentrations, we conducted a panel study of healthy schoolchildren aged 13-14 years. The following lung function parameters FVC, FEV1, PEF, and mid expiratory flows MEF25, MEF50, and MEF75 were measured in 141 schoolchildren of the secondary school in Wroclaw, Poland in years 2009-2010. On days when spirometry tests were conducted, simultaneously, PM1 and PM2.5 samples were collected inside the school premises. Information about differentiating factors for children including smoking parents, sex, living close to busy streets, dust, mold, and pollen allergies were collected by means of questionnaires...
December 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Atinderpal Singh, Neeraj Rastogi, Anil Patel, Darshan Singh
Size-segregated particulate pollutants (PM<0.95, PM0.95-1.5, PM1.5-3.0, PM3.0-7.2 and PM>7.2) were collected over Patiala (30.33°N, 76.40°E; 250 m amsl), a semi-urban city located in northwestern Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), during October, 2012 to September, 2013. Mass concentration of total suspended particulates (TSP), derived by summation of particulate (aerosol) mass in different size range, varied from 88 to 387 μg m(-3) with highest mass concentration (∼55% of total mass) in submicron size (PM<0...
September 9, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Silvano Fares, Flavia Savi, Lina Fusaro, Adriano Conte, Elisabetta Salvatori, Rita Aromolo, Fausto Manes
Urban and peri-urban forests provide a multitude of Ecosystem Services to the citizens. While the capacity of removing carbon dioxide and gaseous compounds from the atmosphere has been tested, their capacity to sequestrate particles (PM) has been poorly investigated. Mediterranean forest ecosystems are often located nearby or inside large urban areas. This is the case of the city of Rome, Italy, which hosts several urban parks and is surrounded by forested areas. In particular, the Presidential Estate of Castelporziano is a 6000 ha forested area located between the Tyrrhenian coast and the city (25 km downtown of Rome)...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Zhengzheng Zhang, Hong Li, Hongyan Liu, Runxiang Ni, Jinjuan Li, Liqun Deng, Defeng Lu, Xueli Cheng, Pengli Duan, Wenjun Li
Atmospheric aerosol particle samples were collected using an Ambient Eight Stage (Non-Viable) Cascade Impactor Sampler in a typical urban area of Beijing from 27th Sep. to 5th Oct., 2009. The surface chemistry of these aerosol particles was analyzed using Static Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (Static TOF-SIMS). The factors influencing surface compositions were evaluated in conjunction with the air pollution levels, meteorological factors, and air mass transport for the sampling period. The results show that a variety of organic ion groups and inorganic ions/ion groups were accumulated on the surfaces of aerosol particles in urban areas of Beijing; and hydrophobic organic compounds with short- or middle-chain alkyl as well as hydrophilic secondary inorganic compounds were observed...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Junmei Zhang, Lingxiao Yang, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Liang Wen, Yumeng Yang, Ying Gao, Pan Jiang, Yanyan Li, Wenxing Wang
To investigate the chemical characteristics and sources of size-segregated particles in the background region, PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected in Tuoji Island (TI) during the winter of 2014. Water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) including Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO3(-) and SO4(2-), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were analysed. The average mass concentrations of PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 were 44.5μg/m(3), 62.0μg/m(3) and 94...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Abhishek Chakraborty, Tarun Gupta, S N Tripathi
Chemical characterization of ambient non-refractory submicron aerosols (NR-PM1) was carried out in real time at Kanpur, India. The measurements were performed during the winter (December 2014 to February 2015), and comprised of two very distinct high and low aerosol loading periods coupled with prevalent foggy conditions. The average non-refractory submicron aerosol loading varied significantly from high (HL, ~240μg/m(3)) to low loading (LL, ~100μg/m(3)) period and was dominated by organic aerosols (OA) which contributed more than half (~60%) of the measured aerosol mass...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Li Ding, Martin J Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: Generalized epilepsy syndromes often confer multiple types of seizures, but it is not known if these seizures activate separate or overlapping brain networks. Recently, we reported that mice with a juvenile myoclonic epilepsy mutation (Gabra1[A322D]) exhibited both absence and myoclonic generalized seizures. Here, we determined the time course of sensorimotor cortex activation and the spatial distribution of spike voltage during these two seizures. METHODS: We implanted Gabra1(+/A322D) mice with multiple electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes over bilateral somatosensory cortex barrel fields (S1) and anterior (aM1) and posterior (pM1) motor cortices and recorded absence seizures/spike-wave discharges (SWDs) and myoclonic seizures...
October 2016: Epilepsia
X J Shen, J Y Sun, X Y Zhang, Y M Zhang, L Zhang, R X Fan, Z X Zhang, X L Zhang, H G Zhou, L Y Zhou, F Dong, Q F Shi
Temporary strict emission control strategies were conducted to ensure good air quality for China's V-Day parade (August 20-September 3, 2015) in Beijing and nearby cities. The influence of the emission control on particle number size distribution (PNSD) was evaluated based on the long-term measurements of PNSD at a rural site (Shangdianzi) located northeast of Beijing. This study also presented the comparison results of PNSD during the parade in 2015 and the Olympics in 2008 (August 8-23), as well as the same period without strict emission control in 2010-2013 (August 20-September 3)...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Agnieszka Witkowska, Anita U Lewandowska
In the urbanized coastal zone of the Southern Baltic, complex measurements of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were conducted between 2012 and 2015, involving atmospheric precipitation in its various forms (rain, snow, mixed) and PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols. WSOC constituted about 60% of the organic carbon mass in aerosols of various sizes. The average concentration of WSOC was equal to 2.6μg∙m(-3) in PM1, 3.6μg∙m(-3) in PM2.5 and 4.4μg∙m(-3) in PM10. The lowest concentration of WSOC was noted in summer as a result of effective removal of this compound with rainfall...
December 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Patrick C Y Woo, Susanna K P Lau, Candy C Y Lau, Edward T K Tung, Ken T K Chong, Fengjuan Yang, Hongmin Zhang, Raymond K C Lo, Jian-Pao Cai, Rex K H Au-Yeung, Wing-Fung Ng, Herman Tse, Samson S Y Wong, Simin Xu, Wai Hei Lam, Man-Kit Tse, Kong Hung Sze, Richard Y Kao, Neil E Reiner, Quan Hao, Kwok-Yung Yuen
BACKGROUND: Talaromyces marneffei is an opportunistic dimorphic fungus prevalent in Southeast Asia. We previously demonstrated that Mp1p is an immunogenic surface and secretory mannoprotein of T. marneffei. Since Mp1p is a surface protein that can generate protective immunity, we hypothesized that Mp1p and/or its homologs are virulence factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the pathogenic roles of Mp1p and its homologs in a mouse model. All mice died 21 and 30 days after challenge with wild-type T...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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