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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818812/airborne-ultrafine-particles-in-a-pacific-island-country-characteristics-sources-and-implications-for-human-exposure
#1
C F Isley, P F Nelson, M P Taylor, M Mazaheri, L Morawska, A J Atanacio, E Stelcer, D D Cohen, Anthony L Morrison
The Pacific Islands carry a perception of having clean air, yet emissions from transport and burning activities are of concern in regard to air quality and health. Ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNCs), one of the best metrics to demonstrate combustion emissions, have not been measured either in Suva or elsewhere in the Islands. This work provides insight into PNC variation across Suva and its relationship with particle mass (PM) concentration and composition. Measurements over a short monitoring campaign provide a vignette of conditions in Suva...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805314/evolved-%C3%AE-factor-prepro-leaders-for-directed-laccase-evolution-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#2
Ivan Mateljak, Thierry Tron, Miguel Alcalde
Although the functional expression of fungal laccases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be complicated, the replacement of signal peptides appears to be a suitable approach to enhance secretion in directed evolution experiments. In this study, twelve constructs were prepared by fusing native and evolved α-factor prepro-leaders from S. cerevisiae to four different laccases with low-, medium- and high-redox potential (PM1L from basidiomycete PM1; PcL from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus; TspC30L from Trametes sp...
August 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768523/genetic-signature-analysis-of-perkinsus-marinus-in-mexico-suggests-possible-translocation-from-the-atlantic-ocean-to-the-pacific-coast-of-mexico
#3
Juan Pablo Ek-Huchim, Ma Leopoldina Aguirre-Macedo, Monica Améndola-Pimenta, Victor Manuel Vidal-Martínez, Juan Antonio Pérez-Vega, Raúl Simá-Alvarez, Isabel Jiménez-García, Roberto Zamora-Bustillos, Rossanna Rodríguez-Canul
BACKGROUND: The protozoan Perkinsus marinus (Mackin, Owen & Collier) Levine, 1978 causes perkinsosis in the American oyster Crassostrea virginica Gmelin, 1791. This pathogen is present in cultured C. virginica from the Gulf of Mexico and has been reported recently in Saccostrea palmula (Carpenter, 1857), Crassostrea corteziensis (Hertlein, 1951) and Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) from the Mexican Pacific coast. Transportation of fresh oysters for human consumption and repopulation could be implicated in the transmission and dissemination of this parasite across the Mexican Pacific coast...
August 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756346/plant-growth-and-resistance-promoted-by-streptomyces-spp-in-tomato
#4
Maila P Dias, Matheus S Bastos, Vanessa B Xavier, Eduardo Cassel, Leandro V Astarita, Eliane R Santarém
Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) represent an alternative to improve plant growth and yield as well as to act as agents of biocontrol. This study characterized isolates of Streptomyces spp. (Stm) as PGPR, determined the antagonism of these isolates against Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis (Pcb), evaluated the ability of Stm on promoting growth and modulating the defense-related metabolism of tomato plants, and the potential of Stm isolates on reducing soft rot disease in this species...
July 20, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753021/oxygen-18-isotopic-studies-of-hooo-and-dooo
#5
Lou Barreau, Oscar Martinez, Kyle N Crabtree, Caroline Womack, John F Stanton, Michael C McCarthy
Owing to questions which still persist regarding the length of the O--H and central O--O bond, and large-amplitude torsional motion of \textit{trans} hydridotrioxygen HOOO, a weakly-bound complex between OH and O$_2$, new $^{18}$O isotopic measurements of HOOO and DOOO have been undertaken using Fourier transform microwave and microwave-millimeter-wave double resonance techniques. Rotational lines from three new $^{18}$O species of DOOO (D$^{18}$OOO, DO$^{18}$O$^{18}$O, and D$^{18}$O$^{18}$O$^{18}$O) have now been detected, along with the two singly-substituted $^{18}$O isotopic species of HOOO (HO$^{18}$OO and HOO$^{18}$O) that were not measured in the previous isotopic investigation...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711347/particulate-emissions-from-modern-and-old-technology-wood-combustion-induce-distinct-time-dependent-patterns-of-toxicological-responses-in-vitro
#6
Mikko S Happo, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen, Oskari Uski, Stefanie Kasurinen, Joachim Kelz, Thomas Brunner, Ingwald Obernberger, Pasi I Jalava
Toxicological characterisation of combustion emissions in vitro are often conducted with macrophage cell lines, and the majority of these experiments are based on responses measured at 24h after the exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate how significant role time course plays on toxicological endpoints that are commonly measured in vitro. The RAW264.7 macrophage cell line was exposed to PM1 samples (150μg/ml) from biomass combustion devices representing old and modern combustion technologies for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 32h...
July 12, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699118/fractionation-of-trace-elements-and-human-health-risk-of-submicron-particulate-matter-pm1-collected-in-the-surroundings-of-coking-plants
#7
Elwira Zajusz-Zubek, Tomasz Radko, Anna Mainka
Samples of PM1 were collected in the surroundings of coking plants located in southern Poland. Chemical fractionation provided information on the contents of trace elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se in all mobile (F1-F3) and not mobile (F4) fractions of PM1 in the vicinity of large sources of emissions related to energochemical processing of coal during the summer. The determined enrichment factors indicate the influence of anthropogenic sources on the concentration of the examined elements contained in PM1 in the areas subjected to investigation...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681290/physicochemical-properties-in-vitro-cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-effects-of-pm1-0-and-pm2-5-from-shanghai-china
#8
Yajuan Zou, Yizhao Wu, Yali Wang, Yinsheng Li, Chengyu Jin
Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) links with a variety of respiratory diseases. However, compared with coarse particles (PM10) and fine particles (PM2.5), submicrometer particles (PM1.0) may be a more important indicator of human health risks. In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of PM1.0 samples from Shanghai were examined using A549 cells, and compared with the effects of PM2.5, to better understand the health effects of PM1.0 in this area. The PM1.0 and PM2.5 samples were characterized for morphology, water-soluble inorganic ions, organic and elemental carbon, and metal elements...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672150/comparative-toxicity-and-endocrine-disruption-potential-of-urban-and-rural-atmospheric-organic-pm1-in-jeg-3-human-placental-cells
#9
Barend L van Drooge, Anna Marqueño, Joan O Grimalt, Pilar Fernández, Cinta Porte
Outdoor ambient air particulate matter and air pollution are related to adverse effects on human health. The present study assesses the cytotoxicity and ability to disrupt aromatase activity of organic PM1 extracts from rural and urban areas at equivalent air volumes from 2 to 30 m(3), in human placental JEG-3 cells. Samples were chemically analyzed for particle bounded organic compounds with endocrine disrupting potential, i.e. PAH, O-PAH, phthalate esters, but also for organic molecular tracer compounds for the emission source identification...
June 30, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649805/cross-country-skiing-movement-factorization-to-explore-relationships-between-skiing-economy-and-athletes-skills
#10
Barbara Pellegrini, Chiara Zoppirolli, Gennaro Boccia, Lorenzo Bortolan, Federico Schena
We investigated the relationships between the biomechanics of the double poling (DP) technique in cross-country skiing, its economy and athletes' skill. To this aim, skiers' motion has been factorized into components through principal component analysis (PCA).Eight high-level (HL) and eight regional level (RL) male cross-country skiers performed a 5-min submaximal DP trial while roller skiing on a treadmill at 14 km h(-1) and 2° incline. Whole-body kinematics was recorded with a motion capture system. PCA was applied to markers coordinates to extract principal movements (PMk ), which were ranked by their variance...
June 26, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648047/high-contribution-of-nonfossil-sources-to-submicrometer-organic-aerosols-in-beijing-china
#11
Yanlin Zhang, Hong Ren, Yele Sun, Fang Cao, Yunhua Chang, Shoudong Liu, Xuhui Lee, Konstantinos Agrios, Kimitaka Kawamura, Di Liu, Lujie Ren, Wei Du, Zifa Wang, André S H Prévôt, Sönke Szidat, Pingqing Fu
Source apportionment of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) from PM1 (particulate matter with a diameter equal to or smaller than 1 μm) in Beijing, China was carried out using radiocarbon ((14)C) measurement. Despite a dominant fossil-fuel contribution to EC due to large emissions from traffic and coal combustion, nonfossil sources are dominant contributors of OC in Beijing throughout the year except during the winter. Primary emission was the most important contributor to fossil-fuel derived OC for all seasons...
July 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636497/size-segregated-particulate-matter-and-its-association-with-respiratory-deposition-doses-among-outdoor-exercisers-in-dhanbad-city-india
#12
Sunil Kumar Gupta, Suresh Pandian Elumalai
Regular exercise improves physiological processes and yields positive health outcomes. However, it is relatively less known that PM exposure during outdoor exercises may increase several respiratory health problems depending on PM levels. In this study, the respiratory deposition doses (RDDs) in head airway (HD), tracheobronchial (TB) and alveolar (AL) regions of various PM size fractions (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) were estimated in healthy males and females exercisers in urban outdoor and within house premise. The highest RDDs were found for PM during morning hour in winter compared to remaining periods...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599193/organic-and-inorganic-speciation-of-particulate-matter-formed-during-different-combustion-phases-in-an-improved-cookstove
#13
Anna Leavey, Sameer Patel, Raul Martinez, Dhruv Mitroo, Claire Fortenberry, Michael Walker, Brent Williams, Pratim Biswas
Residential solid fuel combustion in cookstoves has established health impacts including bladder and lung cancers, cataracts, low birth weight, and pneumonia. The chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) from 4 commonly-used solid fuels (coal, dung, ambient/dry applewood, and oakwood pellets), emitted from a gasifier cookstove, as well as propane, were examined. Temporal changes between the different cookstove burn-phases were also explored. Normalized concentrations of non-refractory PM1, total organics, chloride, ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, and 41 particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas chromatograph (TAG), respectively...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580998/ambient-and-laboratory-observations-of-organic-ammonium-salts-in-pm1
#14
P Schlag, F Rubach, T F Mentel, D Reimer, F Canonaco, J S Henzing, M Moerman, R Otjes, A S H Prévôt, F Rohrer, B Rosati, R Tillmann, E Weingartner, A Kiendler-Scharr
Ambient measurements of PM1 aerosol chemical composition at Cabauw, the Netherlands, implicate higher ammonium concentrations than explained by the formation of inorganic ammonium salts. This additional particulate ammonium is called excess ammonium (eNH4). Height profiles over the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) tower, of combined ground based and airborne aerosol mass spectrometric (AMS) measurements on a Zeppelin airship show higher concentrations of eNH4 at higher altitudes compared to the ground...
August 24, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549323/investigation-of-submicron-aerosol-characteristics-in-changzhou-china-composition-source-and-comparison-with-co-collected-pm2-5
#15
Zhaolian Ye, Qing Li, Jiashu Liu, Shipeng Luo, Quanfa Zhou, Chenglu Bi, Shuaishuai Ma, Yanfang Chen, Hui Chen, Ling Li, Xinlei Ge
Mass concentrations and chemical compositions of submicron particles (PM1) collected during July 2015 to April 2016 in Changzhou, a city in the Yangtze River Delta region, were systematically investigated for the first time. Specifically, an Aerodyne soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was employed to characterize the water-soluble organic matter (WSOM). The average concentration of PM1 was 63.6 μg m(-3), occupying ∼60% of co-collected PM2.5 mass. Water soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) was the most abundant component with secondary ions (SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+)) as the dominant species...
May 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508335/toxic-potential-of-organic-constituents-of-submicron-particulate-matter-pm1-in-an-urban-road-site-barcelona
#16
Sofia R Mesquita, Barend L van Drooge, Manuel Dall'Osto, Joan O Grimalt, Carlos Barata, Natividade Vieira, Laura Guimarães, Benjamin Piña
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a recognized risk factor contributing to a number of diseases in human populations and wildlife globally. Organic matter is a major component of PM, but its contribution to overall toxicity of PM has not been thoroughly evaluated yet. In the present work, the biological activity of organic extracts from PM1 (particles with less than 1 μm of aerodynamic diameter) collected from an urban road site in the centre of Barcelona (NE Spain) was evaluated using a yeast-based assay (AhR-RYA) and different gene expression markers in zebrafish embryos...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498939/carbon-utilization-profiles-of-river-bacterial-strains-facing-sole-carbon-sources-suggest-metabolic-interactions
#17
Lise Goetghebuer, Pierre Servais, Isabelle F George
Microbial communities play a key role in water self-purification. They are primary drivers of biogenic element cycles and ecosystem processes. However, these communities remain largely uncharacterized. In order to understand the diversity-heterotrophic activity relationship facing sole carbon sources, we assembled a synthetic community composed of 20 'typical' freshwater bacterial species mainly isolated from the Zenne River (Belgium). The carbon source utilization profiles of each individual strain and of the mixed community were measured in Biolog Phenotype MicroArrays PM1 and PM2A microplates that allowed testing 190 different carbon sources...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487938/age-associated-alterations-in-constitutively-expressed-cyclooxygenase-2-immunoreactivity-and-protein-levels-in-the-hippocampus
#18
Hyo Young Jung, Dae Young Yoo, Jong Whi Kim, Hyun Jung Kwon, Kwon Young Lee, Jung Hoon Choi, Dae Won Kim, Jin Young Chung, Yeo Sung Yoon, In Koo Hwang
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a known inducible inflammatory mediator. COX-2 is constitutively expressed in the hippocampus and may regulate synaptic plasticity. The present study investigated the age‑associated alterations in white blood cell counts and hippocampal COX‑2 expression in healthy mice using immunohistochemical and western blot analyses at 1 month postnatal (PM1), PM3, PM6, PM12 and PM24. White blood cell counts were significantly decreased in the PM24 group when compared with the PM1 group...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482256/characterization-of-pahs-in-size-fractionated-submicron-atmospheric-particles-and-their-association-with-the-intracellular-oxidative-stress
#19
Qinghua Zhou, Baichen Liu, Yimei Chen, Xiaoqian Han, Xiuzhen Wei, Ying Zhu, Xing Zhou, Jinyuan Chen
The submicron atmospheric particulate matters (PMs), consisting of 7 size-resolved fractions, were collected by two Dekati low pressure impactors from December 2015 to January 2016 in Hangzhou, China. The chemical analysis revealed the higher accumulation efficiency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the finer submicron PMs, and 77.0% of particulate PAHs in PM1 were associated with PM0.4. Moreover, the BaP equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were evaluated for size-fractionated submicron PMs, indicating that 77...
April 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468246/the-relationship-of-pm-variation-with-visibility-and-mixing-layer-height-under-hazy-foggy-conditions-in-the-multi-cities-of-northeast-china
#20
Hujia Zhao, Huizheng Che, Yanjun Ma, Yangfeng Wang, Hongbin Yang, Yuche Liu, Yaqiang Wang, Hong Wang, Xiaoye Zhang
The variations of visibility, PM-mass concentration and mixing-layer height (MLH) in four major urban/industry regions (Shenyang, Anshan, Benxi and Fushun) of central Liaoning in Northeast China are evaluated from 2009 to 2012 to characterize their dynamic effect on air pollution. The annual mean visibilities are about 13.7 ± 7.8, 13.5 ± 6.5, 12.8 ± 6.1 and 11.5 ± 6.8 km in Shenyang, Anshan, Benxi and Fushun, respectively. The pollution load (PM × MLH) shows a weaker vertical diffusion in Anshan, with a higher PM concentration near the surface...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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