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Tong Zhao, Lingxiao Yang, Weida Yan, Junmei Zhang, Wei Lu, Yumeng Yang, Jianmin Chen, Wenxing Wang
Daytime and night-time PM1 and PM2.5 samples were simultaneously collected at the summit of Mount Tai during summer and autumn 2014. The mass concentrations and chemical compositions were analysed to determine the temporal variations of PM1 and PM2.5 and their contributions to visibility impairment. In summer, the average mass concentrations of PM1 and PM2.5 were 38.16μg/m(3) and 53.33μg/m(3), respectively. In autumn, the values were 42.75μg/m(3) and 59.16μg/m(3). Water-soluble inorganic ions were the most abundant species in both PM1 and PM2...
October 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jaiprakash, Amrita Singhai, Gazala Habib, Ramya Sunder Raman, Tarun Gupta
Fine aerosol fraction (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <= 1.0 μm (PM)1.0) over the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi campus was monitored day and night (10 h each) at 30 m height from November 2009 to March 2010. The samples were analyzed for 5 ions (NH4(+), NO3(-), SO4(2-), F(-), and Cl(-)) and 12 trace elements (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Ni). Importantly, secondary aerosol (sulfate and nitrate) formation was observed during dense foggy events, supporting the fog-smog-fog cycle...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Geun-Hye Yu, Seungshik Park, Kwon-Ho Lee
In this study, 24 h size-segregated particulate matter (PM) samples were collected between September 2012 and August 2013 at an urban site in Korea to investigate seasonal mass size distributions of PM and its water-soluble components as well as to infer the possible sources of size-resolved water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) was also computed to identify the possible source regions of size-resolved WSOC. The seasonal average contribution of water-soluble organic matter to PM1...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Bharath Kumar, Abhishek Chakraborty, S N Tripathi, Deepika Bhattu
Non-refractory submicron (NR-PM1) aerosols were measured during the late winter period (February-March) via an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosols Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) along with Black Carbon (BC) and trace gasses in an industrial city, Kanpur, situated in the Gangetic Plain (GP) of India. The composition of NR-PM1 aerosols was dominated by organics (54%), followed by inorganics (36%), and BC (10%). Source apportionment via Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) of AMS measured organic aerosols (OAs) revealed 6 factors...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Clara Bocchi, Cristina Bazzini, Federica Fontana, Giancarlo Pinto, Anna Martino, Francesca Cassoni
Urban particulate matter (PM) is an environmental public health concern as it has been classified by the IARC as carcinogenic to humans (group 1) and it's well known that pollutants are more associated with the finest fractions of PM. In this study we characterize urban aerosol in Bologna, county town of Emilia-Romagna in the north of Italy, collecting PM2.5, PM1 and semi-volatile organic compounds using polyurethane foam. Samples were collected in three different seasons (winter, summer and autumn) and were extracted with acetone...
October 2016: Mutation Research
A Zwozdziak, I Sówka, E Willak-Janc, J Zwozdziak, K Kwiecińska, W Balińska-Miśkiewicz
To evaluate lung function responses to short-term indoor PM1 and PM2.5 concentrations, we conducted a panel study of healthy schoolchildren aged 13-14 years. The following lung function parameters FVC, FEV1, PEF, and mid expiratory flows MEF25, MEF50, and MEF75 were measured in 141 schoolchildren of the secondary school in Wroclaw, Poland in years 2009-2010. On days when spirometry tests were conducted, simultaneously, PM1 and PM2.5 samples were collected inside the school premises. Information about differentiating factors for children including smoking parents, sex, living close to busy streets, dust, mold, and pollen allergies were collected by means of questionnaires...
September 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Atinderpal Singh, Neeraj Rastogi, Anil Patel, Darshan Singh
Size-segregated particulate pollutants (PM<0.95, PM0.95-1.5, PM1.5-3.0, PM3.0-7.2 and PM>7.2) were collected over Patiala (30.33°N, 76.40°E; 250 m amsl), a semi-urban city located in northwestern Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), during October, 2012 to September, 2013. Mass concentration of total suspended particulates (TSP), derived by summation of particulate (aerosol) mass in different size range, varied from 88 to 387 μg m(-3) with highest mass concentration (∼55% of total mass) in submicron size (PM<0...
September 9, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Silvano Fares, Flavia Savi, Lina Fusaro, Adriano Conte, Elisabetta Salvatori, Rita Aromolo, Fausto Manes
Urban and peri-urban forests provide a multitude of Ecosystem Services to the citizens. While the capacity of removing carbon dioxide and gaseous compounds from the atmosphere has been tested, their capacity to sequestrate particles (PM) has been poorly investigated. Mediterranean forest ecosystems are often located nearby or inside large urban areas. This is the case of the city of Rome, Italy, which hosts several urban parks and is surrounded by forested areas. In particular, the Presidential Estate of Castelporziano is a 6000 ha forested area located between the Tyrrhenian coast and the city (25 km downtown of Rome)...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Zhengzheng Zhang, Hong Li, Hongyan Liu, Runxiang Ni, Jinjuan Li, Liqun Deng, Defeng Lu, Xueli Cheng, Pengli Duan, Wenjun Li
Atmospheric aerosol particle samples were collected using an Ambient Eight Stage (Non-Viable) Cascade Impactor Sampler in a typical urban area of Beijing from 27th Sep. to 5th Oct., 2009. The surface chemistry of these aerosol particles was analyzed using Static Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (Static TOF-SIMS). The factors influencing surface compositions were evaluated in conjunction with the air pollution levels, meteorological factors, and air mass transport for the sampling period. The results show that a variety of organic ion groups and inorganic ions/ion groups were accumulated on the surfaces of aerosol particles in urban areas of Beijing; and hydrophobic organic compounds with short- or middle-chain alkyl as well as hydrophilic secondary inorganic compounds were observed...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Junmei Zhang, Lingxiao Yang, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Liang Wen, Yumeng Yang, Ying Gao, Pan Jiang, Yanyan Li, Wenxing Wang
To investigate the chemical characteristics and sources of size-segregated particles in the background region, PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected in Tuoji Island (TI) during the winter of 2014. Water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) including Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO3(-) and SO4(2-), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were analysed. The average mass concentrations of PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 were 44.5μg/m(3), 62.0μg/m(3) and 94...
August 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Abhishek Chakraborty, Tarun Gupta, S N Tripathi
Chemical characterization of ambient non-refractory submicron aerosols (NR-PM1) was carried out in real time at Kanpur, India. The measurements were performed during the winter (December 2014 to February 2015), and comprised of two very distinct high and low aerosol loading periods coupled with prevalent foggy conditions. The average non-refractory submicron aerosol loading varied significantly from high (HL, ~240μg/m(3)) to low loading (LL, ~100μg/m(3)) period and was dominated by organic aerosols (OA) which contributed more than half (~60%) of the measured aerosol mass...
August 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Li Ding, Martin J Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: Generalized epilepsy syndromes often confer multiple types of seizures, but it is not known if these seizures activate separate or overlapping brain networks. Recently, we reported that mice with a juvenile myoclonic epilepsy mutation (Gabra1[A322D]) exhibited both absence and myoclonic generalized seizures. Here, we determined the time course of sensorimotor cortex activation and the spatial distribution of spike voltage during these two seizures. METHODS: We implanted Gabra1(+/A322D) mice with multiple electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes over bilateral somatosensory cortex barrel fields (S1) and anterior (aM1) and posterior (pM1) motor cortices and recorded absence seizures/spike-wave discharges (SWDs) and myoclonic seizures...
October 2016: Epilepsia
X J Shen, J Y Sun, X Y Zhang, Y M Zhang, L Zhang, R X Fan, Z X Zhang, X L Zhang, H G Zhou, L Y Zhou, F Dong, Q F Shi
Temporary strict emission control strategies were conducted to ensure good air quality for China's V-Day parade (August 20-September 3, 2015) in Beijing and nearby cities. The influence of the emission control on particle number size distribution (PNSD) was evaluated based on the long-term measurements of PNSD at a rural site (Shangdianzi) located northeast of Beijing. This study also presented the comparison results of PNSD during the parade in 2015 and the Olympics in 2008 (August 8-23), as well as the same period without strict emission control in 2010-2013 (August 20-September 3)...
August 26, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Agnieszka Witkowska, Anita U Lewandowska
In the urbanized coastal zone of the Southern Baltic, complex measurements of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were conducted between 2012 and 2015, involving atmospheric precipitation in its various forms (rain, snow, mixed) and PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols. WSOC constituted about 60% of the organic carbon mass in aerosols of various sizes. The average concentration of WSOC was equal to 2.6μg∙m(-3) in PM1, 3.6μg∙m(-3) in PM2.5 and 4.4μg∙m(-3) in PM10. The lowest concentration of WSOC was noted in summer as a result of effective removal of this compound with rainfall...
August 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Patrick C Y Woo, Susanna K P Lau, Candy C Y Lau, Edward T K Tung, Ken T K Chong, Fengjuan Yang, Hongmin Zhang, Raymond K C Lo, Jian-Pao Cai, Rex K H Au-Yeung, Wing-Fung Ng, Herman Tse, Samson S Y Wong, Simin Xu, Wai Hei Lam, Man-Kit Tse, Kong Hung Sze, Richard Y Kao, Neil E Reiner, Quan Hao, Kwok-Yung Yuen
BACKGROUND: Talaromyces marneffei is an opportunistic dimorphic fungus prevalent in Southeast Asia. We previously demonstrated that Mp1p is an immunogenic surface and secretory mannoprotein of T. marneffei. Since Mp1p is a surface protein that can generate protective immunity, we hypothesized that Mp1p and/or its homologs are virulence factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the pathogenic roles of Mp1p and its homologs in a mouse model. All mice died 21 and 30 days after challenge with wild-type T...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Prashant Kumar, Anju Goel
The understanding of rapidly evolving concentrations of particulate matter (PMC) at signalised traffic intersections (TIs) is limited, but it is important for accurate exposure assessment. We performed "mobile" and "fixed-site" monitoring of size-resolved PMCs in the 0.25-34 μm range at TIs. On-road mobile measurements were made inside a car under five different ventilation settings on a 6 km long round route, passing through 10 different TIs. Fixed-site measurements were conducted at two types (3- and 4-way) of TIs...
September 14, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
E J Jongerius, D Boerma, K A Seldenrijk, S L Meijer, J J G Scheepers, F Smedts, S M Lagarde, O Balague Ponz, M I van Berge Henegouwen, J W van Sandick, S S Gisbertz
BACKGROUND: A complete omentectomy is recommended as part of radical (sub)total gastrectomy for gastric cancer, but there is little evidence to suggest any survival benefit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of, and risk factors for, metastases in the greater omentum in patients undergoing gastrectomy for gastric cancer. METHODS: This was a multicentre prospective cohort study (OMEGA trial) of consecutive patients with gastric cancer undergoing (sub)total gastrectomy with complete en bloc omentectomy and modified D2 lymphadenectomy...
October 2016: British Journal of Surgery
Ting Liu, Lu Li, Jia-quan Zhang, Chang-lin Zhan, Hong-xia Liu, Jing-ru Zheng, Rui-zhen Yao, Jun-ji Cao
Bioaerosols of university dormitory can spread through air and cause a potential health risk for student staying in indoor environment. To quantify the characteristics of bioaerosols in indoor environment of university dormitory, concentration and size distribution of culturable bioaerosols were detected during the plum rain period, the correlations of culturable bioaerosol with concentration of particulate matter, the ambient temperature and relative humidity were analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficient and finally the changes of size distribution of culturable bioaerosol caused by activities of students were detected...
April 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Ly M T Luong, Dung Phung, Peter D Sly, Lidia Morawska, Phong K Thai
While the effects of ambient air pollution on health have been studied extensively in many developed countries, few studies have been conducted in Vietnam, where the population is exposed to high levels of airborne particulate matter. The aim of our study was to examine the short-term effects of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 on respiratory admissions among young children in Hanoi. Data on daily admissions from the Vietnam National Hospital of Paediatrics and daily records of PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and other confounding factors as NO2, SO2, CO, O3 and temperature were collected from September 2010 to September 2011...
August 6, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Carolina Chofre, Juan Gil-Moltó, Nuria Galindo, Montse Varea, Sandra Caballero
Samples of PM1 and PM10 were collected for 1 year at an urban background station in the city of Elche (southeastern Spain) and analyzed to determine the content of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A few samples were also gathered at a second sampling point established at one of the several palm tree gardens of the city in order to evaluate the influence of biogenic emissions on the urban levels of n-alkanes. Diagnostic parameters obtained for aliphatic hydrocarbons (carbon maximum number (C max), carbon preference index (CPI), and wax n-alkane content (%WNA)) revealed a higher contribution of biogenic n-alkanes in PM10 than in PM1...
September 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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