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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100417/long-range-and-regional-transported-size-resolved-atmospheric-aerosols-during-summertime-in-urban-shanghai
#1
Xiaoxiao Ding, Lingdong Kong, Chengtian Du, Assiya Zhanzakova, Lin Wang, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen, Xin Yang, Tiantao Cheng
In this study, the concentrations of water soluble ions (WSI), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) of size-resolved (0.056-18μm) atmospheric aerosols were measured in July and August 2015 in Shanghai, China. Backward trajectory model and potential source contribution function (PSCF) model were used to identify the potential source distributions of size-resolved particles and PM1.8-associated atmospheric inorganic and carbonaceous aerosols. The results showed that the average mass concentrations of PM0...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078345/comparison-between-the-optical-properties-of-aerosols-in-the-fine-and-coarse-fractions-over-valladolid-spain
#2
S Mogo, J F López, V E Cachorro, A de Frutos, R Zocca, A Barroso, D Mateos, E Conceição
Continuous measurements of the optical properties of aerosol particles have been made at Valladolid, Spain, covering the period from June 2011 to July 2012. The measurements were made at two size cuts: sub-10 μm and sub-1 μm (PM10 and PM1). The data measured were the scattering and backscattering coefficients, σs and σbs, obtained from an integrating nephelometer, and the absorption coefficient, σa, obtained from a particle soot absorption photometer. Spectrally resolved data were obtained from both instruments at 3 wavelengths (blue/green/red) at low relative humidity (RH < 40%)...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065572/uneven-distribution-of-inorganic-pollutants-in-marine-air-originating-from-ocean-going-ships
#3
László Bencs, Benjamin Horemans, Anna Jolanta Buczyńska, René Van Grieken
The distribution of mass, water-soluble inorganic salts and mineral elements of size-segregated aerosols (PM1, PM2.5-1 and PM10-2.5), precursor gaseous pollutants, black carbon, and nanoparticles (10-300 nm size range) at the Southern Bight of the North Sea has been studied. The concentrations of air pollutants peaked over shipping lanes, open-water anchorage areas and frequently navigated waters, due to the presence of mobile emission sources. A considerable decrease in air pollutant levels was seen when diverting from these marine areas towards remote or coastal banks...
January 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986322/physiochemical-characteristics-of-aerosol-particles-in-the-typical-microenvironment-of-hospital-in-shanghai-china
#4
Rui Li, Hongbo Fu, Qingqing Hu, Chunlin Li, Liwu Zhang, Jianmin Chen, Abdel Wahid Mellouki
Health risk of populations dwelling in the hospital has been a global concern, but has not been adequately examined. PM2.5 and PM1 samples were collected in two indoor locations (outpatient department and inpatient department) and one outdoor location (courtyard) of the hospital in Shanghai. The concentrations of size-fractionated trace metals and the morphology of single particles were determined to accurately assess the health risk for populations in the hospital. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of PM2...
December 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941160/association-between-exposure-to-ambient-particulate-matter-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-results-from-a-cross-sectional-study-in-china
#5
Sha Liu, Yumin Zhou, Suixin Liu, Xinyu Chen, Weifeng Zou, Dongxing Zhao, Xiaochen Li, Jinding Pu, Lingmei Huang, Jinlong Chen, Bing Li, Shiliang Liu, Pixin Ran
OBJECTIVE: The association between exposure to ambient particles with a median aerodynamic diameter less than 10/2.5 µm (particulate matter, PM10/2.5) and COPD remains unclear. Our study objective was to examine the association between ambient PM10/2.5 concentrations and lung functions in adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in southern China. Seven clusters were randomly selected from four cities across Guangdong province. Residents aged ≥20 years in the participating clusters were randomly recruited; all eligible participants were examined with a standardised questionnaire and spirometry...
December 9, 2016: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939301/accurate-quantitation-for-in-vitro-refolding-of-single-domain-antibody-fra-gments-expressed-as-inclusion-bodies-by-referring-the-concomitant-expression-of-a-soluble-form-in-the-periplasms-of-escherichia-coli
#6
Tomoaki Noguchi, Yuichi Nishida, Keiji Takizawa, Yue Cui, Koki Tsutsumi, Takashi Hamada, Yoshisuke Nishi
Single domain antibody fragments from two species, a camel VHH (PM1) and a shark VNAR (A6), were derived from inclusion bodies of E. coli and refolded in vitro following three refolding recipes for comparing refolding efficiencies: three-step cold dialysis refolding (TCDR), one-step hot dialysis refolding (OHDR), and one-step cold dialysis refolding (OCDR), as these fragments were expressed as 'a soluble form' either in cytoplasm or periplasm, but the amount were much less than those expressed as 'an insoluble form (inclusion body)' in cytoplasm and periplasm...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933238/high-particulate-matter-emission-from-additive-free-natural-american-spirit-cigarettes
#7
Yvonne Iffland, Ruth Müller, David Groneberg, Alexander Gerber
BACKGROUND: Involuntary exposure to health-threatening environmental tobacco smoke (Combined Mainstream and Side-stream Smoke, CMSS) is a worldwide problem, causing premature death of thousands of people. CMSS consists of particulate matter (PM), one of the main sources of indoor air pollution. PM constitutes a considerable health risk for passive smokers. It is important to inform the public about brand-specific differences in CMSS-associated PM, especially in the case of brands without additives, which are therefore promoted as natural and less health-threatening...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914642/chemical-and-physical-properties-of-biomass-burning-aerosols-and-their-ccn-activity-a-case-study-in-beijing-china
#8
Zhijun Wu, Jing Zheng, Yu Wang, Dongjie Shang, Zhoufei Du, Yuanhang Zhang, Min Hu
Biomass burning emits large amounts of both trace gases and particles into the atmosphere. It plays a profound role in regional air quality and climate change. In the present study, an intensive campaign was carried out at an urban site in Beijing, China, in June 2014, which covered the winter wheat harvest season over the North China Plain (NCP). Meanwhile, two evident biomass-burning events were observed. A clear burst in ultrafine particles (below 100nm in diameter, PM1) and subsequent particle growth took place during the events...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905172/recommendations-for-pathologic-staging-ptnm-of-cancer-of-the-esophagus-and-esophagogastric-junction-for-the-8th-edition-ajcc-uicc-staging-manuals
#9
T W Rice, H Ishwaran, W L Hofstetter, D P Kelsen, C Apperson-Hansen, E H Blackstone
We report analytic and consensus processes that produced recommendations for pathologic stage groups (pTNM) of esophageal and esophagogastric junction cancer for the AJCC/UICC cancer staging manuals, 8th edition. The Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration provided data for 22,654 patients with epithelial esophageal cancers; 13,300 without preoperative therapy had pathologic assessment after esophagectomy or endoscopic treatment. Risk-adjusted survival for each patient was developed using random survival forest analysis to identify data-driven pathologic stage groups wherein survival decreased monotonically with increasing group, was distinctive between groups, and homogeneous within groups...
November 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864736/assessment-of-different-route-choice-on-commuters-exposure-to-air-pollution-in-taipei-taiwan
#10
Hsien-Chih Li, Pei-Te Chiueh, Shi-Ping Liu, Yu-Yang Huang
The purposes of this study are to develop a healthy commute map indicating cleanest route in Taipei metropolitan area for any given journey and to evaluate the pollutant doses exposed in different commuting modes. In Taiwan, there are more than 13.6 million motorcycles and 7.7 million vehicles among the 23 million people. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants can thus cause adverse health effects. Moreover, increasing the level of physical activity during commuting and longer distances will result in inhalation of more polluted air...
November 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843755/influences-of-wind-speed-and-direction-on-atmospheric-particle-concentrations-and-industrially-induced-noise
#11
Ayansina Ayanlade, Ebunoluwa Folasade Oyegbade
PURPOSE: In this study, the spatial and temporal relationship of wind speed, atmospheric particles concentration, and the industrial-induced noise levels during different times of the day were examined, using sawmill industrial location around Ile-Ife in Osun of Nigeria as a case study. METHODS: Mobile devices were used to measure noise level and basic meteorological parameters were examined and their influences on the noise levels distribution were assessed. The maximum and minimum sound levels; Lmax and Lmin, the PM10 and PM1 particle concentrations, wind speeds and directions were measured in the morning (7-9 a...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810678/short-term-association-between-environmental-factors-and-hospital-admissions-due-to-dementia-in-madrid
#12
C Linares, D Culqui, R Carmona, C Ortiz, J Díaz
BACKGROUND: Spain has one of the highest proportions of dementia in the world among the population aged 60 years or over. Recent studies link various environmental factors to neurocognitive-type diseases. This study sought to analyse whether urban risk factors such as traffic noise, pollutants and heat waves might have a short-term impact on exacerbation of symptoms of dementia, leading to emergency hospital admission. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal ecological time-series study, with the dependent variable being the number of daily dementia-related emergency (DDE) hospital admissions to Madrid municipal hospitals (ICD-10 codes 290...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768907/chemical-characteristics-of-pm1-pm2-5-and-influence-on-visual-range-at-the-summit-of-mount-tai-north-china
#13
Tong Zhao, Lingxiao Yang, Weida Yan, Junmei Zhang, Wei Lu, Yumeng Yang, Jianmin Chen, Wenxing Wang
Daytime and night-time PM1 and PM2.5 samples were simultaneously collected at the summit of Mount Tai during summer and autumn 2014. The mass concentrations and chemical compositions were analysed to determine the temporal variations of PM1 and PM2.5 and their contributions to visibility impairment. In summer, the average mass concentrations of PM1 and PM2.5 were 38.16μg/m(3) and 53.33μg/m(3), respectively. In autumn, the values were 42.75μg/m(3) and 59.16μg/m(3). Water-soluble inorganic ions were the most abundant species in both PM1 and PM2...
January 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726085/chemical-characterization-of-pm1-0-aerosol-in-delhi-and-source-apportionment-using-positive-matrix-factorization
#14
Jaiprakash, Amrita Singhai, Gazala Habib, Ramya Sunder Raman, Tarun Gupta
Fine aerosol fraction (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <= 1.0 μm (PM)1.0) over the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi campus was monitored day and night (10 h each) at 30 m height from November 2009 to March 2010. The samples were analyzed for 5 ions (NH4(+), NO3(-), SO4(2-), F(-), and Cl(-)) and 12 trace elements (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Cr, and Ni). Importantly, secondary aerosol (sulfate and nitrate) formation was observed during dense foggy events, supporting the fog-smog-fog cycle...
January 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722488/source-contributions-and-potential-source-regions-of-size-resolved-water-soluble-organic-carbon-measured-at-an-urban-site-over-one-year
#15
Geun-Hye Yu, Seungshik Park, Kwon-Ho Lee
In this study, 24 h size-segregated particulate matter (PM) samples were collected between September 2012 and August 2013 at an urban site in Korea to investigate seasonal mass size distributions of PM and its water-soluble components as well as to infer the possible sources of size-resolved water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) was also computed to identify the possible source regions of size-resolved WSOC. The seasonal average contribution of water-soluble organic matter to PM1...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711757/highly-time-resolved-chemical-characterization-of-submicron-organic-aerosols-at-a-polluted-urban-location
#16
Bharath Kumar, Abhishek Chakraborty, S N Tripathi, Deepika Bhattu
Non-refractory submicron (NR-PM1) aerosols were measured during the late winter period (February-March) via an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosols Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) along with Black Carbon (BC) and trace gasses in an industrial city, Kanpur, situated in the Gangetic Plain (GP) of India. The composition of NR-PM1 aerosols was dominated by organics (54%), followed by inorganics (36%), and BC (10%). Source apportionment via Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) of AMS measured organic aerosols (OAs) revealed 6 factors...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692295/characterization-of-urban-aerosol-seasonal-variation-of-mutagenicity-and-genotoxicity-of-pm2-5-pm1-and-semi-volatile-organic-compounds
#17
Clara Bocchi, Cristina Bazzini, Federica Fontana, Giancarlo Pinto, Anna Martino, Francesca Cassoni
Urban particulate matter (PM) is an environmental public health concern as it has been classified by the IARC as carcinogenic to humans (group 1) and it's well known that pollutants are more associated with the finest fractions of PM. In this study we characterize urban aerosol in Bologna, county town of Emilia-Romagna in the north of Italy, collecting PM2.5, PM1 and semi-volatile organic compounds using polyurethane foam. Samples were collected in three different seasons (winter, summer and autumn) and were extracted with acetone...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628915/influence-of-pm1-and-pm2-5-on-lung-function-parameters-in-healthy-schoolchildren-a-panel-study
#18
A Zwozdziak, I Sówka, E Willak-Janc, J Zwozdziak, K Kwiecińska, W Balińska-Miśkiewicz
To evaluate lung function responses to short-term indoor PM1 and PM2.5 concentrations, we conducted a panel study of healthy schoolchildren aged 13-14 years. The following lung function parameters FVC, FEV1, PEF, and mid expiratory flows MEF25, MEF50, and MEF75 were measured in 141 schoolchildren of the secondary school in Wroclaw, Poland in years 2009-2010. On days when spirometry tests were conducted, simultaneously, PM1 and PM2.5 samples were collected inside the school premises. Information about differentiating factors for children including smoking parents, sex, living close to busy streets, dust, mold, and pollen allergies were collected by means of questionnaires...
December 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622841/seasonality-in-size-segregated-ionic-composition-of-ambient-particulate-pollutants-over-the-indo-gangetic-plain-source-apportionment-using-pmf
#19
Atinderpal Singh, Neeraj Rastogi, Anil Patel, Darshan Singh
Size-segregated particulate pollutants (PM<0.95, PM0.95-1.5, PM1.5-3.0, PM3.0-7.2 and PM>7.2) were collected over Patiala (30.33°N, 76.40°E; 250 m amsl), a semi-urban city located in northwestern Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), during October, 2012 to September, 2013. Mass concentration of total suspended particulates (TSP), derived by summation of particulate (aerosol) mass in different size range, varied from 88 to 387 μg m(-3) with highest mass concentration (∼55% of total mass) in submicron size (PM<0...
December 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596304/particle-deposition-in-a-peri-urban-mediterranean-forest
#20
Silvano Fares, Flavia Savi, Lina Fusaro, Adriano Conte, Elisabetta Salvatori, Rita Aromolo, Fausto Manes
Urban and peri-urban forests provide a multitude of Ecosystem Services to the citizens. While the capacity of removing carbon dioxide and gaseous compounds from the atmosphere has been tested, their capacity to sequestrate particles (PM) has been poorly investigated. Mediterranean forest ecosystems are often located nearby or inside large urban areas. This is the case of the city of Rome, Italy, which hosts several urban parks and is surrounded by forested areas. In particular, the Presidential Estate of Castelporziano is a 6000 ha forested area located between the Tyrrhenian coast and the city (25 km downtown of Rome)...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
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