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Ultrafine particles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922535/association-between-short-term-exposure-to-ultrafine-particles-and-mortality-in-eight-european-urban-areas
#1
Massimo Stafoggia, Alexandra Schneider, Josef Cyrys, Evangelia Samoli, Zorana Jovanovic Andersen, Getahun Bero Bedada, Tom Bellander, Giorgio Cattani, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Annunziata Faustini, Barbara Hoffmann, Bénédicte Jacquemin, Klea Katsouyanni, Andreas Massling, Juha Pekkanen, Noemi Perez, Annette Peters, Ulrich Quass, Tarja Yli-Tuomi, Francesco Forastiere
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence on the association between short-term exposure to ultrafine particles and mortality is weak, due to the lack of routine measurements of these particles and standardized multi-center studies. We investigated the relationship between ultrafine particles and particulate matter (PM) and daily mortality in eight European urban areas. METHODS: We collected daily data on non-accidental and cardio-respiratory mortality, particle number concentrations (as proxy for ultrafine particle number concentration), fine and coarse PM, gases and meteorologic parameters in eight urban areas of Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Greece, between 1999 and 2013...
November 29, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917545/measured-performance-of-filtration-and-ventilation-systems-for-fine-and-ultrafine-particles-and-ozone-in-an-unoccupied-modern-california-house
#2
Brett C Singer, William W Delp, Douglas R Black, Iain S Walker
This study evaluated nine ventilation and filtration systems in an unoccupied 2006 house located 250m downwind of the I-80 freeway in Sacramento, California. Systems were evaluated for reducing indoor concentrations of outdoor particles in summer and fall/winter, ozone in summer, and particles from stir-fry cooking. Air exchange rate was measured continuously. Energy use was estimated for year-round operation in California. Exhaust ventilation without enhanced filtration produced indoor PM2.5 that was 70% lower than outdoors...
December 5, 2016: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916311/land-use-regression-modeling-of-ultrafine-particles-ozone-nitrogen-oxides-and-markers-of-particulate-matter-pollution-in-augsburg-germany
#3
Kathrin Wolf, Josef Cyrys, Tatiana Harciníková, Jianwei Gu, Thomas Kusch, Regina Hampel, Alexandra Schneider, Annette Peters
Important health relevance has been suggested for ultrafine particles (UFP) and ozone, but studies on long-term effects are scarce, mainly due to the lack of appropriate spatial exposure models. We designed a measurement campaign to develop land use regression (LUR) models to predict the spatial variability focusing on particle number concentration (PNC) as indicator for UFP, ozone and several other air pollutants in the Augsburg region, Southern Germany. Three bi-weekly measurements of PNC, ozone, particulate matter (PM10, PM2...
December 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914642/chemical-and-physical-properties-of-biomass-burning-aerosols-and-their-ccn-activity-a-case-study-in-beijing-china
#4
Zhijun Wu, Jing Zheng, Yu Wang, Dongjie Shang, Zhoufei Du, Yuanhang Zhang, Min Hu
Biomass burning emits large amounts of both trace gases and particles into the atmosphere. It plays a profound role in regional air quality and climate change. In the present study, an intensive campaign was carried out at an urban site in Beijing, China, in June 2014, which covered the winter wheat harvest season over the North China Plain (NCP). Meanwhile, two evident biomass-burning events were observed. A clear burst in ultrafine particles (below 100nm in diameter, PM1) and subsequent particle growth took place during the events...
November 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906031/contrasting-biological-potency-of-particulate-matter-collected-at-sites-impacted-by-distinct-industrial-sources
#5
Errol M Thomson, Dalibor Breznan, Subramanian Karthikeyan, Christine MacKinnon-Roy, Ngoc Q Vuong, Ewa Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Valbona Celo, Jean-Pierre Charland, Prem Kumarathasan, Jeffrey R Brook, Renaud Vincent
BACKGROUND: Industrial sources contribute a significant proportion of anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions, producing particles of varying composition that may differentially impact health. This study investigated the in vitro toxicity of ambient PM collected near industrial sites in relation to particle size and composition. METHODS: Size-fractionated particles (ultrafine, PM0.1-2.5, PM2.5-10, PM>10) were collected in the vicinity of steel, copper, aluminium, and petrochemical industrial sites...
December 1, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906023/surface-area-dependence-of-gas-particle-interactions-influences-pulmonary-and-neuroinflammatory-outcomes
#6
Christina R Tyler, Katherine E Zychowski, Bethany N Sanchez, Valeria Rivero, Selita Lucas, Guy Herbert, June Liu, Hammad Irshad, Jacob D McDonald, Barry E Bleske, Matthew J Campen
BACKGROUND: Deleterious consequences of exposure to traffic emissions may derive from interactions between carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) and gaseous components in a manner that is dependent on the surface area or complexity of the particles. To determine the validity of this hypothesis, we examined pulmonary and neurological inflammatory outcomes in C57BL/6 and apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) male mice after acute and chronic exposure to vehicle engine-derived particulate matter, generated as ultrafine (UFP) and fine (FP) sizes, with additional exposures using UFP or FP combined with gaseous copollutants derived from fresh gasoline and diesel emissions, labeled as UFP + G and FP + G...
December 1, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876566/a-novel-recovery-method-of-copper-from-waste-printed-circuit-boards-by-supercritical-methanol-process-preparation-of-ultrafine-copper-materials
#7
Fu-Rong Xiu, Huiwei Weng, Yingying Qi, Gending Yu, Zhigang Zhang, Fu-Shen Zhang, Mengjun Chen
In this study, supercritical methanol (SCM) process was successfully used for the preparation of ultrafine copper materials from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) after nitric acid pretreatment. Waste PCBs were pretreated twice in nitric acid. Sn and Pb were recovered by the first nitric acid pretreatment. The leach liquor with a high concentration of copper ions after the second nitric acid leaching was subjected to SCM process. The mixture of Cu and Cu2O with poor uniformity of particle size was formed due to the effect of ferric iron contained in the leach liquor of waste PCBs, while more uniform and spherical Cu particles with high monodispersity and smaller size could be prepared after the removal of Fe...
November 19, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873360/personal-measurement-of-exposure-to-black-carbon-and-ultrafine-particles-in-schoolchildren-from-paris-cohort-paris-france
#8
Alexandra-Cristina Paunescu, Michel Attoui, Souad Bouallala, Jordi Sunyer, Isabelle Momas
 This study aimed to measure in French children personal exposure concentrations of black carbon (BC) and ultrafine particles (UFP), and to quantify the contribution of different microenvironments (home, school, places of extra-curricular activities, transport) to their total exposure. It was conducted on 96 9-year-old children from the PARIS birth cohort. BC and UFP were continuously measured by portable devices (microAeth(®) AE51 and DiSCmini(®) ) for a minimum of 24 hours, while participating families simultaneously filled in a space-time-activity questionnaire...
November 22, 2016: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851901/exposure-to-ambient-ultrafine-particulate-matter-alters-the-expression-of-genes-in-primary-human-neurons
#9
Parrisa Solaimani, Arian Saffari, Constantinos Sioutas, Stephen C Bondy, Arezoo Campbell
Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been associated with the onset of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders, but the mechanism of toxicity remains unclear. To gain insight into this neurotoxicity, this study sought to examine global gene expression changes caused by exposure to ambient ultrafine PM. Microarray analysis was performed on primary human neurons derived from fetal brain tissue after a 24h exposure to 20μg/mL of ambient ultrafine particles. We found a majority of the changes in noncoding RNAs, which are involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression, and thereby could impact the expression of several other protein coding gene targets...
November 13, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848134/fine-and-ultrafine-particle-doses-in-the-respiratory-tract-from-digital-printing-operations
#10
Aristeidis Voliotis, Irene Karali, Athanasios Kouras, Constantini Samara
In this study, we report for the first time particle number doses in different parts of the human respiratory tract and real-time deposition rates for particles in the 10 nm to 10 μm size range emitted by digital printing operations. Particle number concentrations (PNCs) and size distribution were measured in a typical small-sized printing house using a NanoScan scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle sizer. Particle doses in human lung were estimated applying a multiple-path particle dosimetry model under two different breathing scenarios...
November 16, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845588/does-particle-size-matter-ultrafine-particles-and-hospital-visits-in-eastern-europe
#11
Mark W Frampton, David Q Rich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843023/experimental-research-on-the-characteristics-of-methane-air-explosion-affected-by-ultrafine-water-mist
#12
Xingyan Cao, Jingjie Ren, Mingshu Bi, Yihui Zhou, Yiming Li
The inhibition effects of ultrafine water mists on 6.5%, 8%, 9.5%, 11%, and 13.5% methane explosions were experimentally studied in a sealed visual vessel. The mist (10μm) produced by a mist generation system in the vessel was measured by a phase doppler particle analyzer. A high-speed camera was used to record the explosion flame affected by spraying concentration and a high frequency pressure sensor was used to acquire the explosion pressure. Meanwhile, the relationship between flame propagation and pressure rising with time was analyzed...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827413/preservation-of-amorphous-ultrafine-material-a-proposed-proxy-for-slip-during-recent-earthquakes-on-active-faults
#13
Tetsuro Hirono, Satoru Asayama, Shunya Kaneki, Akihiro Ito
The criteria for designating an "Active Fault" not only are important for understanding regional tectonics, but also are a paramount issue for assessing the earthquake risk of faults that are near important structures such as nuclear power plants. Here we propose a proxy, based on the preservation of amorphous ultrafine particles, to assess fault activity within the last millennium. X-ray diffraction data and electron microscope observations of samples from an active fault demonstrated the preservation of large amounts of amorphous ultrafine particles in two slip zones that last ruptured in 1596 and 1999, respectively...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814243/nanomaterials-vs-ambient-ultrafine-particles-an-opportunity-to-exchange-toxicology-knowledge
#14
REVIEW
Vicki Stone, Mark R Miller, Martin J D Clift, Alison Elder, Nicholas L Mills, Peter Møller, Roel P F Schins, Ulla Vogel, Wolfgang G Kreyling, Keld Alstrup Jensen, Thomas A J Kuhlbusch, Per E Schwarze, Peter Hoet, Antonio Pietroiusti, Andrea De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Armelle Baeza-Squiban, C Lang Tran, Flemming R Cassee
BACKGROUND: A rich literature exists that has demonstrated adverse human health effects following exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM), with strong support for an important role for ultrafine (nano-sized) particles. At present, relatively little human health or epidemiology data exists for engineered nanomaterials (NM) despite clear parallels in their physicochemical properties and biological actions in in vitro models. OBJECTIVES: NMs are available in a range of physicochemical characteristics which allow a more systematic toxicological analysis...
November 4, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809494/comparison-of-ultrafine-particles-and-black-carbon-concentration-predictions-from-a-mobile-and-short-term-stationary-land-use-regression-model
#15
Jules Kerckhoffs, Gerard Hoek, Kyle P Messier, Bert Brunekreef, Kees Meliefste, Jochem O Klompmaker, Roel Vermeulen
Mobile and short-term monitoring campaigns are increasingly used to develop land use regression (LUR) models for ultrafine particles (UFP) and black carbon (BC). It is not yet established whether LUR models based on mobile or short-term stationary measurements result in comparable models and concentration predictions. The goal of this paper is to compare LUR models based on stationary (30 minutes) and mobile UFP and BC measurements from a single campaign. An electric car collected both repeated stationary and mobile measurements in Amsterdam and Rotterdam, The Netherlands...
November 3, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801878/air-pollution-exposure-in-relation-to-the-commute-to-school-a-bradford-uk-case-study
#16
Kim N Dirks, Judith Y T Wang, Amirul Khan, Christopher Rushton
Walking School Buses (WSBs) provide a safe alternative to being driven to school. Children benefit from the contribution the exercise provides towards their daily exercise target, it gives children practical experience with respect to road safety and it helps to relieve traffic congestion around the entrance to their school. Walking routes are designed largely based in road safety considerations, catchment need and the availability of parent support. However, little attention is given to the air pollution exposure experienced by children during their journey to school, despite the commuting microenvironment being an important contributor to a child's daily air pollution exposure...
October 29, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801854/ultrafine-particle-metrics-and-research-considerations-review-of-the-2015-ufp-workshop
#17
Richard W Baldauf, Robert B Devlin, Peter Gehr, Robert Giannelli, Beth Hassett-Sipple, Heejung Jung, Giorgio Martini, Joseph McDonald, Jason D Sacks, Katherine Walker
In February 2015, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a workshop in Research Triangle Park, NC, USA to review the current state of the science one missions, air quality impacts, and health effects associated with exposures to ultrafine particles[1].[...].
October 28, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795692/ultrafine-particle-size-as-a-tracer-for-aircraft-turbine-emissions
#18
Erin A Riley, Timothy Gould, Kris Hartin, Scott A Fruin, Christopher D Simpson, Michael G Yost, Timothy Larson
Ultrafine particle number (UFPN) and size distributions, black carbon, and nitrogen dioxide concentrations were measured downwind of two of the busiest airports in the world, Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) and Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport (ATL - Atlanta, GA) using a mobile monitoring platform. Transects were located between 5 km and 10 km from the ATL and LAX airports. In addition, measurements were taken at 43 additional urban neighborhood locations in each city and on freeways. We found a 3-5 fold increase in UFPN concentrations in transects under the landing approach path to both airports relative to surrounding urban areas with similar ground traffic characteristics...
August 2016: Atmospheric Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752691/plasmonic-heating-induced-nanofabrication-on-glass-substrates
#19
Yuki Osaka, Satoshi Sugano, Shuichi Hashimoto
Fabricating nano-sized through-holes on a coverslip approximately 100 μm thick is challenging but rewarding when applied to ultrafine filters that separate proteins and DNA of various sizes and isolate viruses from cells. Toward this end, we developed an in situ etching-assisted laser processing technique exploiting gold nanoparticles. Plasmonic heating of a single gold nanoparticle through focused illumination of a continuous-wave laser beam enables structural modifications to be localized to the contact area on the glass surface...
October 18, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744158/observation-of-aerosol-number-size-distribution-and-new-particle-formation-at-a-mountainous-site-in-southeast-china
#20
Xiaoru Zhang, Yan Yin, Zhenyi Lin, Yongxiang Han, Jian Hao, Liang Yuan, Kui Chen, Jinghua Chen, Shaofei Kong, Yunpeng Shan, Hui Xiao, Wen Tan
To quantify the physical/chemical properties, and the formation and growth processes of aerosol particles on mountainous regions in Southeast China, an intensive field campaign was conducted from April to July 2008 on the top of Mt. Huang (1840m above mean sea level). The average particle number concentration was 2.35×10(3)cm(-3), and the ultrafine particles (<0.1μm) represented 70.5% of the total particle number concentration. Excluding the accumulation mode particles, the average daytime particle number concentrations were prominently higher than those measured at nighttime, suggesting there was a diurnal pattern of changes between planetary boundary layer and free troposphere air...
October 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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