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Ultrafine particles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518076/facile-preparation-of-ultrafine-aluminum-hydroxide-particles-with-or-without-mesoporous-mcm-41-in-ambient-environments
#1
Viktor Dubovoy, Ravi Subramanyam, Michael Stranick, Laurence Du-Thumm, Long Pan
An aqueous suspension of nanogibbsite was synthesized via the titration of aluminum aqua acid [Al(H2O)6](3+) with L-arginine to pH 4.6. Since the hydrolysis of aqueous aluminum salts is known to produce a wide array of products with a wide range of size distributions, a variety of state-of-the-art instruments (i.e., (27)Al/(1)H NMR, FTIR, ICP-OES, TEM-EDX, XPS, XRD, and BET) were used to characterize the synthesis products and identification of byproducts. The product, which was comprised of nanoparticles (10-30 nm), was isolated using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) column technique...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513319/effect-of-surface-functionalizations-of-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-on-neoplastic-transformation-potential-in-primary-human-lung-epithelial-cells
#2
Todd A Stueckle, Donna C Davidson, Ray Derk, Peng Wang, Sherri Friend, Diane Schwegler-Berry, Peng Zheng, Nianqiang Wu, Vince Castranova, Yon Rojanasakul, Liying Wang
Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (fMWCNT) development has intensified to improve their surface activity for numerous applications, and potentially reduce toxic effects. Although MWCNT exposures are associated with lung tumorigenesis in vivo, adverse responses associated with exposure to different fMWCNTs in human lung epithelium are presently unknown. This study hypothesized that different plasma coating functional groups determine MWCNT neoplastic transformation potential. Using our established model, human primary small airway epithelial cells (pSAECs) were continuously exposed for 8 and 12 weeks at 0...
May 17, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494836/pulmonary-toxicity-in-rats-caused-by-exposure-to-intratracheal-instillation-of-sio2-nanoparticles
#3
Hong Yang, Qiu Yun Wu, Ming Yue Li, Can Shan Lao, Ying Jian Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The effect of the silica nanoparticles (SNs) on lungs injury in rats was investigated to evaluate the toxicity and possible mechanisms for SNs. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were instilled intratracheally with 1 mL of saline containing 6.25, 12.5, and 25.0 mg of SNs or 25.0 mg of microscale SiO2 particles suspensions for 30 d, were then sacrificed. Histopathological and ultrastructural change in lungs, and chemical components in the urine excretions were investigated by light microscope, TEM and EDS...
April 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494303/hemocompatibility-of-inhaled-environmental-nanoparticles-potential-use-of-in-vitro-testing
#4
REVIEW
Eleonore Fröhlich
Hemocompatibility testing is an important part in the evaluation of nano-based medicines. However, it is not systematically used for the assessment of environmental particles since they do not come in contact with blood immediately. Studies on human exposure to air-borne particles and pulmonary exposure of rodents have reported alterations in blood physiology. It is not clear, whether these effects are majorly caused by tissue inflammation or translocated particles in blood. This review addresses the question, if in vitro hemocompatibility testing could help in the risk evaluation of inhaled particles...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485591/a-laboratory-comparison-of-emission-factors-number-size-distributions-and-morphology-of-ultrafine-particles-from-eleven-different-household-cookstove-fuel-systems
#5
Guofeng Shen, Chethan K Gaddam, Seth M Ebersviller, Randy L Vander Wal, Craig Williams, Jerroll W Faircloth, James J Jetter, Michael D Hays
Ultrafine particle (UFP) emissions and particle number size distributions (PNSD) are critical in the evaluation of air pollution impacts; however, data on UFP number emissions from cookstoves, which are a major source of many pollutants, are limited. In this study, eleven fuel-stove combinations covering a variety of fuels and different stoves are investigated for UFP emissions and PNSD. Combustion of LPG and alcohol (~10(11) particles per useful energy delivered, particles/MJd), and kerosene (~10(13) particles/MJd) produced emissions that were lower by 2-3 orders of magnitude than solid fuels (10(14)-10(15) particles/MJd)...
May 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468124/temporal-evolution-of-ultrafine-particles-and-of-alveolar-deposited-surface-area-from-main-indoor-combustion-and-non-combustion-sources-in-a-model-room
#6
Maurizio Manigrasso, Matteo Vitali, Carmela Protano, Pasquale Avino
Aerosol number size distributions, PM mass concentrations, alveolar deposited surface areas (ADSAs) and VOC concentrations were measured in a model room when aerosol was emitted by sources frequently encountered in indoor environments. Both combustion and non-combustion sources were considered. The most intense aerosol emission occurred when combustion sources were active (as high as 4.1×10(7)particlescm(-3) for two meat grilling sessions; the first with exhaust ventilation, the second without). An intense spike generation of nucleation particles occurred when appliances equipped with brush electric motors were operating (as high as 10(6)particlescm(-3) on switching on an electric drill)...
April 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458352/preparation-of-an-ultrafine-rebamipide-ophthalmic-suspension-with-high-transparency
#7
Takakuni Matsuda, Shogo Hiraoka, Hiroki Urashima, Ako Ogura, Tatsuhiro Ishida
A 2% commercially available, milky-white, rebamipide micro-particle suspension is used to treat dry eyes, and it causes short-term blurring of the patient's vision. In the current study, to improve the transparency of a rebamipide suspension, we attempted to obtain a clear rebamipide suspension by transforming the rebamipide particles to an ultrafine state. In the initial few efforts, various rebamipide suspensions were prepared using a neutralizing crystallization method with additives, but the suspensions retained their opaque quality...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452220/exposure-to-svocs-from-inhaled-particles-the-impact-of-desorption
#8
Cong Liu, Yinping Zhang, Charles J Weschler
Inhaled semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are simultaneously present in gas- and particle-phases. Particles desorb a fraction of their SVOCs moving through the human respiratory tract (RT). Quantifying such desorption is challenging, but important since gas- and particle-phase SVOCs deposit in different locations in the RT, encountering different cell populations with varying health consequences. This paper presents a mass transfer model to quantify this desorption process in the head, tracheobronchial and alveolar regions of the RT...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445425/association-of-long-term-near-highway-exposure-to-ultrafine-particles-with-cardiovascular-diseases-diabetes-and-hypertension
#9
Yu Li, Kevin J Lane, Laura Corlin, Allison P Patton, John L Durant, Mohan Thanikachalam, Mark Woodin, Molin Wang, Doug Brugge
Ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations are elevated near busy roadways, however, their effects on prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and hypertension are not well understood. To investigate these associations, data on demographics, diseases, medication use, and time of activities were collected by in-home surveys for 704 participants in three pairs of near-highway and urban background neighborhoods in and near Boston (MA, USA). Body mass index (BMI) was measured for a subset of 435 participants...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441740/a-miniature-aerosol-sensor-for-detecting-polydisperse-airborne-ultrafine-particles
#10
Chao Zhang, Dingqu Wang, Rong Zhu, Wenming Yang, Peng Jiang
Counting and sizing of polydisperse airborne nanoparticles have attracted most attentions owing to increasing widespread presence of airborne engineered nanoparticles or ultrafine particles. Here we report a miniature aerosol sensor to detect particle size distribution of polydisperse ultrafine particles based on ion diffusion charging and electrical detection. The aerosol sensor comprises a couple of planar electrodes printed on two circuit boards assembled in parallel, where charging, precipitation and measurement sections are integrated into one chip, which can detect aerosol particle size in of 30-500 nm, number concentration in range of 5 × 10²-10⁷ /cm³...
April 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440728/characterization-of-chemical-contaminants-generated-by-a-desktop-fused-deposition-modeling-3-dimensional-printer
#11
Aleksandr B Stefaniak, Ryan F LeBouf, Jinghai Yi, Jason Ham, Timothy Nurkewicz, Diane E Schwegler-Berry, Bean T Chen, J Raymond Wells, Matthew G Duling, Robert B Lawrence, Stephen B Martin, Alyson R Johnson, M Abbas Virji
Printing devices are known to emit chemicals into the indoor atmosphere. Understanding factors that influence release of chemical contaminants from printers is necessary to develop effective exposure assessment and control strategies. In this study, a desktop fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3-D printer using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) or polylactic acid (PLA) filaments and two monochrome laser printers were evaluated in a 0.5 m(3) chamber. During printing, chamber air was monitored for vapors using a real-time photoionization detector (results expressed as isobutylene equivalents) to measure total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations, evacuated canisters to identify specific VOCs by off-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, and liquid bubblers to identify carbonyl compounds by GC-MS...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440082/metro-commuter-exposures-to-particulate-air-pollution-and-pm2-5-associated-elements-in-three-canadian-cities-the-urban-transportation-exposure-study
#12
Keith Van Ryswyk, Angelos T Anastasopolos, Greg Evans, Liu Sun, Kelly Sabaliauskas, Ryan Kulka, Lance Wallace, Scott Weichenthal
System-representative commuter air pollution exposure data were collected for the metro systems of Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver, Canada. Pollutants measured included PM2.5 (PM = particulate matter), PM10, ultrafine particles, black carbon, and the elemental composition of PM2.5. Sampling over three weeks was conducted in summer and winter for each city and covered each system on a daily basis. Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to identify system features related to particulate exposures. Ambient levels of PM2...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437087/al-coated-conductive-fibrous-filters-with-low-pressure-drop-for-efficient-electrostatic-capture-of-ultrafine-particulate-pollutants
#13
Dong Yun Choi, Soo-Ho Jung, Dong-Keun Song, Eun Jeong An, Duckshin Park, Tae-Oh Kim, Jae Hee Jung, Hye Moon Lee
Here, we demonstrate a new strategy of air filtration based on an Al-coated conductive fibrous filter for high efficient nanoparticulate removals. The conductive fibrous filter was fabricated by a direct decomposition of Al precursor ink, AlH3{O(C4H9)2}, onto surfaces of a polyester air filter via a cost-effective and scalable solution-dipping process. The prepared conductive filters showed a low sheet resistance (< 1.0 Ω sq(-1)), robust mechanical durability and high oxidative stability. By electrostatic force between the charged fibers and particles, the ultrafine particles of 30 - 400 nm in size were captured with a removal efficiency of ~99...
April 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434263/plant-protein-based-hydrophobic-fine-and-ultrafine-carrier-particles-in-drug-delivery-systems
#14
Hedieh Malekzad, Hamed Mirshekari, Parham Sahandi Zangabad, S M Moosavi Basri, Fazel Baniasadi, Maryam Sharifi Aghdam, Mahdi Karimi, Michael R Hamblin
For thousands of years, plants and their products have been used as the mainstay of medicinal therapy. In recent years, besides attempts to isolate the active ingredients of medicinal plants, other new applications of plant products, such as their use to prepare drug delivery vehicles, have been discovered. Nanobiotechnology is a branch of pharmacology that can provide new approaches for drug delivery by the preparation of biocompatible carrier nanoparticles (NPs). In this article, we review recent studies with four important plant proteins that have been used as carriers for targeted delivery of drugs and genes...
April 24, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432989/the-effect-of-natural-ventilation-strategy-on-indoor-air-quality-in-schools
#15
Luca Stabile, Marco Dell'Isola, Aldo Russi, Angelamaria Massimo, Giorgio Buonanno
In order to reduce children's exposure to pollutants in classrooms a proper ventilation strategy need to be adopted. Such strategy is even more important in naturally ventilated schools where the air exchange rate is only based on the manual airing of classrooms. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of the manual airing strategy on indoor air quality in Italian classrooms. For this aim, schools located in the Central Italy were investigated. Indoor air quality was studied in terms of CO2, particle number and PM concentrations and compared to corresponding outdoor levels...
October 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411581/silica-nanoparticles-and-lead-acetate-co-exposure-triggered-synergistic-cytotoxicity-in-a549-cells-through-potentiation-of-mitochondria-dependent-apoptosis-induction
#16
Chun-Feng Lu, Li-Zhong Li, Wei Zhou, Jun Zhao, Yi-Mei Wang, Shuang-Qing Peng
The adverse effects of PM2.5 are the results of combined toxicities of finer particles and their adsorbed toxic pollutants. Nevertheless, the combined toxicity of finer particles and air pollutants still remains unclear. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate the combined cytotoxicity of silica nanoparticles (nano-SiO2, a typical atmospheric ultrafine particle) and lead acetate (Pb, a representative air pollutant) in A549 cells focusing on mitochondria-dependent apoptosis induction. The results showed that Pb exposure alone induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in A549 cells, as evidenced by increased apoptotic rate and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, up-regulated caspases 3 and 9 expressions as well as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential...
April 3, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410499/comparing-the-impact-of-ultrafine-particles-from-petrodiesel-and-biodiesel-combustion-to-bacterial-metabolism-by-targeted-hplc-ms-ms-metabolic-profiling
#17
Fanyi Zhong, Mengyang Xu, Katie Schelli, Joshua Rutowski, Britt A Holmén, Jiangjiang Zhu
Alterations of gut bacterial metabolism play an important role in their host metabolism, and can result in diseases such as obesity and diabetes. While many factors were discovered influencing the gut bacterial metabolism, exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) from engine combustions were recently proposed to be a potential risk factor for the perturbation of gut bacterial metabolism, and consequentially to obesity and diabetes development. This study focused on evaluation of how UFPs from diesel engine combustions impact gut bacterial metabolism...
August 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404541/making-air-pollution-visible-a-tool-for-promoting-environmental-health-literacy
#18
Ekaterina Galkina Cleary, Allison P Patton, Hsin-Ching Wu, Alan Xie, Joseph Stubblefield, William Mass, Georges Grinstein, Susan Koch-Weser, Doug Brugge, Carolyn Wong
BACKGROUND: Digital maps are instrumental in conveying information about environmental hazards geographically. For laypersons, computer-based maps can serve as tools to promote environmental health literacy about invisible traffic-related air pollution and ultrafine particles. Concentrations of these pollutants are higher near major roadways and increasingly linked to adverse health effects. Interactive computer maps provide visualizations that can allow users to build mental models of the spatial distribution of ultrafine particles in a community and learn about the risk of exposure in a geographic context...
April 12, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395241/spatial-variations-in-ambient-ultrafine-particle-concentrations-and-the-risk-of-incident-prostate-cancer-a-case-control-study
#19
Scott Weichenthal, Eric Lavigne, Marie-France Valois, Marianne Hatzopoulou, Keith Van Ryswyk, Maryam Shekarrizfard, Paul J Villeneuve, Mark S Goldberg, Marie-Elise Parent
BACKGROUND: Diesel exhaust contains large numbers of ultrafine particles (UFPs, <0.1µm) and is a recognized human carcinogen. However, epidemiological studies have yet to evaluate the relationship between UFPs and cancer incidence. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of UFPs and incident prostate cancer in Montreal, Canada. Cases were identified from all main Francophone hospitals in the Montreal area between 2005 and 2009. Population controls were identified from provincial electoral lists of French Montreal residents and frequency-matched to cases using 5-year age groups...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391931/characterization-of-particulate-matter-from-diesel-passenger-cars-tested-on-chassis-dynamometers
#20
Sungwoon Jung, Jaehyun Lim, Sangil Kwon, Sangwoo Jeon, Jeongsoo Kim, Jongtae Lee, Sunmoon Kim
Emission characterization of particle number as well as particle mass from three diesel passenger cars equipped with diesel particulate filter (DPF), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) under the vehicle driving cycles and regulatory cycle. Total particle number emissions (PNEs) decreased gradually during speed-up of vehicle from 17.3 to 97.3km/hr. As the average vehicle speed increases, the size-segregated peak of particle number concentration shifts to smaller size ranges of particles...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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