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Ultrafine particles

Provat K Saha, Ellis S Robinson, Rishabh Urvesh Shah, Naomi Zimmerman, Joshua Schulz Apte, Allen L Robinson, Albert A Presto
Nucleation is an important source of ambient ultrafine particles (UFP). We present observational evidence of the changes in the frequency and intensity of nucleation events in urban air by analyzing long-term particle size distribution measurements at an urban background site in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania during 2001-02 and 2016-17. We find that both frequency and intensity of nucleation events have been reduced by 40-50 % over the past 15 years, resulting in a 70% reduction in UFP concentrations from nucleation...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Matthew C Simon, Allison P Patton, Elena N Naumova, Jonathan I Levy, Prashant Kumar, Doug Brugge, John L Durant
Significant spatial and temporal variation in ultrafine particle (UFP; <100 nanometers in diameter) concentrations creates challenges in developing predictive models for epidemiological investigations. We compared the performance of land-use regression models built by combining mobile and stationary measurements (hybrid model) with a regression model built using mobile measurements only (mobile model) in Chelsea and Boston, MA (USA). In each study area, particle number concentration (PNC; a proxy for UFP) was measured at a stationary reference site and with a mobile laboratory driven along a fixed route during a ~1-year monitoring period...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Josef Cyrys, H-Erich Wichmann, Regina Rückerl, Annette Peters
Low Emission Zones (LEZs) were implemented as a measure for improving the quality of ambient air. As of February 2018, 58 LEZs were in operation in Germany; however they differ significantly, especially regarding their size.The effectiveness of LEZs has been investigated by dispersion modelling as well as by analysis of PM10 (particles which pass through a size-selective inlet with a 50 % efficiency cut-off at 10 μm aerodynamic diameter) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) measurement values. Recent studies show a clear trend...
May 14, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Kyung In Baek, Yichen Ding, Chih-Chiang Chang, Megan Chang, René R Sevag Packard, Jeffrey J Hsu, Peng Fei, Tzung K Hsiai
The advent of 4-dimensional (4D) light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) has provided an entry point for rapid image acquisition to uncover real-time cardiovascular structure and function with high axial resolution and minimal photo-bleaching/-toxicity. We hereby review the fundamental principles of our LSFM system to investigate cardiovascular morphogenesis and regeneration after injury. LSFM enables us to reveal the micro-circulation of blood cells in the zebrafish embryo and assess cardiac ventricular remodeling in response to chemotherapy-induced injury using an automated segmentation approach...
May 9, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Himanshi Rohra, Rahul Tiwari, Puja Khare, Ajay Taneja
Attempts have been made to comprehend size distribution pattern of Particulate Matter (PM) and associated elemental concentration within coarse (2.5-10μm), quasi-accumulation (q-Acc) (0.25-2.5μm) and quasi-ultrafine (q-UF) (<0.25μm) ranges at indoors and outdoors of residential homes of Agra. Overall, the average mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in indoors were found to be 263.24±59.24 and 212.01±38.06μgm-3 while in outdoors the concentrations accounted to 194.28±15.25 and 152.88±16.31μgm-3 respectively; exceeding WHO standards...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Anthi Liati, Daniel Schreiber, Yadira Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler
Ultrafine (<100 nm) particles related to traffic are of high environmental and human health concern, as they are supposed to be more toxic than larger particles. In the present study transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is applied to obtain a concrete picture on the nature, morphology and chemical composition of non-volatile ultrafine particles in the exhaust of state-of-the-art, Euro 6b, Gasoline and Diesel vehicles. The particles were collected directly on TEM grids, at the tailpipe, downstream of the after-treatment system, during the entire duration of typical driving cycles on the chassis dynamometer...
April 27, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Andrea Grilli, Rossella Bengalli, Eleonora Longhin, Laura Capasso, Maria Carla Proverbio, Mattia Forcato, Silvio Bicciato, Maurizio Gualtieri, Cristina Battaglia, Marina Camatini
BACKGROUND: Emissions from diesel vehicles and biomass burning are the principal sources of primary ultrafine particles (UFP). The exposure to UFP has been associated to cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer. Although many aspects of the toxicology of ambient particulate matter (PM) have been unraveled, the molecular mechanisms activated in human cells by the exposure to UFP are still poorly understood. Here, we present an RNA-seq time-course experiment (five time point after single dose exposure) used to investigate the differential and temporal changes induced in the gene expression of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) by the exposure to UFP generated from diesel and biomass combustion...
April 27, 2018: BMC Genomics
Olaf Holz, Karsten Heusser, Meike Müller, Horst Windt, Katharina Schwarz, Christoph Schindler, Jens Tank, Jens M Hohlfeld, Jens Jordan
Increased adverse health effects in older subjects due to exposure to ambient air pollutants may be related to the inflammatory response induced by these contaminants. The aim of this study was to assess airway and systemic inflammatory responses in older healthy subjects to a controlled experimental exposure with spark-generated elemental carbon black ultrafine particles (cbUFPs) and ozone (O3 ). Twenty healthy subjects, age 52-75 years, were exposed on three occasions separated by at least 8 weeks. The exposures to filtered air (FA), to cbUFP (50 μg/m3 ), or to cbUFP in combination with 250 ppb ozone (cbUFP + O3 ) for 3 h with intermittent exercise were performed double blind, and in random order...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Еlena Yausheva, Sergey Miroshnikov, Еlena Sizova
The research included the study of influence of ultrafine particle preparations (nanoparticles of copper, zinc, iron, CuZn alloy) and metal salts (iron pyrophosphate, copper asparginate, zinc asparginate) on the composition of cecal microbiota of broiler chickens. Before adding the studied nanoparticles and metal salts to the diet, cecal microbiota of broiler chickens was represented by 76% Firmicutes taxon and 16% Bacteroidetes. Numerous among them were the bacteria of the taxa Anaerotruncus spp., Lactobacillus spp...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kai Chen, Kathrin Wolf, Susanne Breitner, Antonio Gasparrini, Massimo Stafoggia, Evangelia Samoli, Zorana Jovanovic Andersen, Getahun Bero-Bedada, Tom Bellander, Frauke Hennig, Bénédicte Jacquemin, Juha Pekkanen, Regina Hampel, Josef Cyrys, Annette Peters, Alexandra Schneider
BACKGROUND: Although epidemiological studies have reported associations between mortality and both ambient air pollution and air temperature, it remains uncertain whether the mortality effects of air pollution are modified by temperature and vice versa. Moreover, little is known on the interactions between ultrafine particles (diameter ≤ 100 nm, UFP) and temperature. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the short-term associations of particle number concentration (PNC in the ultrafine range (≤100 nm) or total PNC ≤ 3000 nm, as a proxy for UFP), particulate matter ≤ 2...
April 21, 2018: Environment International
Mingxing Zhang, Haiyan Chen
Bulk industrial solid wastes occupy a lot of our resources and release large amounts of toxic and hazardous substances to the surrounding environment, demanding innovative strategies for grinding, classification, collection, and recycling for economically ultrafine powder. A new technology for grinding, classification, collection, and recycling solid waste is proposed, using the superheated steam produced from the industrial exhaust steam to disperse, grind, classify, and collect the industrial solid waste...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Michelle L North, Musawir Ahmed, Sepehr Salehi, Kavindi Jayasinghe, Manisha Tilak, Joyce Wu, Cheol-Heon Jeong, Greg J Evans, Chung-Wai Chow
RATIONALE: Chronic lung allograft dysfunction is the biggest impediment to long-term survival after lung transplantation. Studies have shown an increased risk for chronic lung allograft dysfunction in patients exposed to traffic-related air pollution, using residential distance to roadways and outdoor pollution. OBJECTIVES: Personal monitoring and the indoor environment post-lung transplantation have not been investigated. The exposome is a novel conceptual framework that allows for concurrent examination of multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including environmental exposures, as well as changes in exposures over time, to elucidate the complex environmental factors that affect health outcomes...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Pei Zhang, Chunjun Chen, Xinchen Kang, Lujun Zhang, Congyi Wu, Jianling Zhang, Buxing Han
In this work, we developed a strategy to in situ synthesize sub-nanometer metal particle/hierarchically mesoporous metal-organic framework (MOF) composites in emulsion. In this route, water droplets in the emulsion acted as both a solvent of the metal precursors and a template for the hierarchical mesopores of MOFs, and the surfactant was an emulsifier and a reductant for generating metal particles. Au/Zn-MOFs (MOFs formed by Zn2+ and methylimidazole), Ru/Zn-MOFs, Pd/Zn-MOFs, and Au/Cu-MOFs (MOFs formed by Cu2+ and methylimidazole) were prepared using this method, in which ultrafine metal particles ( e...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Kwang Yul Lee, Tsatsral Batmunkh, Hung Soo Joo, Kihong Park
The size distribution and chemical components of a fine fraction (<2.5 μm) of road dust collected at urban sites in Korea (Gwangju) and Mongolia (Ulaanbaatar) where distinct urban characteristics exist were measured. A clear bimodal size distribution was observed for the resuspended fine road dust at the urban sites in Korea. The first mode peaked at 100-110 nm, and the second peak was observed at 435-570 nm. Ultrafine mode (~30 nm) was found for the fine road dust at the Mongolia site, which was significantly affected by residential coal/biomass burning...
April 18, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
M Dall Osto, C Geels, D C S Beddows, D Boertmann, R Lange, J K Nøjgaard, Roy M Harrison, R Simo, H Skov, A Massling
Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) and growth significantly influences the indirect aerosol-cloud effect within the polar climate system. In this work, the aerosol population is categorised via cluster analysis of aerosol number size distributions (9-915 nm, 65 bins) taken at Villum Research Station, Station Nord (VRS) in North Greenland during a 7 year record (2010-2016). Data are clustered at daily averaged resolution; in total, we classified six categories, five of which clearly describe the ultrafine aerosol population, one of which is linked to nucleation events (up to 39% during summer)...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pavel Mikuška, Lukáš Čapka, Zbyněk Večeřa
A new aerosol sampler based on the original version of Aerosol Counterflow Two-Jets Unit (ACTJU) is described. The ACTJU collector, connected with a water-based Condensation Growth Unit (CGU) placed upstream of the ACTJU, accomplished the quantitative collection of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles down to a few nanometers in diameter. Condensation of water vapor in the CGU enlarges nanometer sized particles to larger sizes in the supermicrometer range and the formed droplets are then collected into water in the ACTJU collector...
August 22, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Luís Mendes, Maria I Gini, George Biskos, Ian Colbeck, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis
Ultrafine particle number concentrations and size distributions were measured on the platform of a metro station in Athens, Greece, and compared with those recorded at an urban background station. The volatility of the sampled particles was measured in parallel, providing further insights on the mixing state and composition of the sampled particles. Particle concentration exhibited a mean value of 1.2 × 104 # cm-3 and showed a weak correlation with train passage frequency, but exhibited a strong correlation with urban background particle concentrations...
April 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Mingcan Xia, Hani Harb, Arian Saffari, Constantinos Sioutas, Talal A Chatila
BACKGROUND: Exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (PM) promotes asthma and allergic diseases. However, the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms by which PM exposure acts to mediate these effects remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to elucidate the cellular targets and signaling pathways critical for the augmentation of allergic airway inflammation induced by ambient ultra fine particles (UFP). METHODS: We employed in vitro cell culture assays using lung-derived antigen presenting cells and allergen-specific T cells, and in vivo mouse models of allergic airway inflammation that employed myeloid lineage-specific gene deletions, cellular reconstitution approaches and antibody inhibition studies...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jelle Hofman, Roeland Samson, Steven Joosen, Ronny Blust, Silvia Lenaerts
Urban environments typically exhibit large atmospheric pollution variation, in both space and time. In contrast to traditional monitoring networks suffering from a limited spatial coverage, mobile platforms enable personalized high-resolution monitoring, providing valuable insights into personal atmospheric pollution exposure, and the identification of potential pollution hotspots. This study evaluated personal cyclist exposure to UFPs, BC and heavy metals whilst commuting near Antwerp, Belgium, by performing mobile measurements with wearable black carbon (BC) and ultrafine particle (UFP) instruments...
April 4, 2018: Environmental Research
Laura Corlin, Mark Woodin, Jaime E Hart, Matthew C Simon, David M Gute, Joanna Stowell, Katherine L Tucker, John L Durant, Doug Brugge
BACKGROUND: Few longitudinal studies have examined the association between ultrafine particulate matter (UFP, particles < 0.1 μm aerodynamic diameter) exposure and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. We used data from 791 adults participating in the longitudinal Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (Massachusetts, USA) between 2004 and 2015 to assess whether UFP exposure was associated with blood pressure and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, a biomarker of systemic inflammation)...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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