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Ultrafine particles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741740/ultrafine-fine-and-black-carbon-particle-concentrations-in-california-child-care-facilities
#1
Fraser W Gaspar, Randy Maddalena, Jeffery Williams, Rosemary Castorina, Zhong-Min Wang, Kazukiyo Kumagai, Thomas E McKone, Asa Bradman
Although many U.S. children spend time in child care, little information exists on exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) in this environment, even though PM may be associated with asthma and other respiratory illness, which is a key concern for young children. To address this data gap, we measured ultrafine particles (UFP), PM2.5 , PM10 , and black carbon in 40 California child care facilities and examined associations with potential determinants. We also tested a low-cost optical particle measuring device (Dylos monitor)...
July 25, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735838/cardiovascular-effects-of-air-pollution
#2
REVIEW
Thomas Bourdrel, Marie-Abèle Bind, Yannick Béjot, Olivier Morel, Jean-François Argacha
Air pollution is composed of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide and ozone. PM is classified according to size into coarse particles (PM10), fine particles (PM2.5) and ultrafine particles. We aim to provide an original review of the scientific evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies examining the cardiovascular effects of outdoor air pollution. Pooled epidemiological studies reported that a 10μg/m(3) increase in long-term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with an 11% increase in cardiovascular mortality...
July 20, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720799/reduced-ultrafine-particle-levels-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-s-atmosphere-during-shifts-from-gasoline-to-ethanol-use
#3
Alberto Salvo, Joel Brito, Paulo Artaxo, Franz M Geiger
Despite ethanol's penetration into urban transportation, observational evidence quantifying the consequence for the atmospheric particulate burden during actual, not hypothetical, fuel-fleet shifts, has been lacking. Here we analyze aerosol, meteorological, traffic, and consumer behavior data and find, empirically, that ambient number concentrations of 7-100-nm diameter particles rise by one-third during the morning commute when higher ethanol prices induce 2 million drivers in the real-world megacity of São Paulo to substitute to gasoline use (95% confidence intervals: +4,154 to +13,272 cm(-3))...
July 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692927/coal-emissions-adverse-human-health-effects-associated-with-ultrafine-nano-particles-role-and-resultant-engineering-controls
#4
Marcos L S Oliveira, Orlando G Navarro, Tito J Crissien, Bernardo F Tutikian, Kátia da Boit, Elba C Teixeira, Juan J Cabello, Dayana M Agudelo-Castañeda, Luis F O Silva
There are multiple elements which enable coal geochemistry: (1) boiler and pollution control system design parameters, (2) temperature of flue gas at collection point, (3) feed coal and also other fuels like petroleum coke, tires and biomass geochemistry and (4) fuel feed particle size distribution homogeneity distribution, maintenance of pulverisers, etc. Even though there is a large number of hazardous element pollutants in the coal-processing industry, investigations on micrometer and nanometer-sized particles including their aqueous colloids formation reactions and their behaviour entering the environment are relatively few in numbers...
July 7, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688352/inter-comparison-of-personal-monitors-for-nanoparticles-exposure-at-workplaces-and-in-the-environment
#5
Ana Maria Todea, Stefanie Beckmann, Heinz Kaminski, Delphine Bard, Sébastien Bau, Simon Clavaguera, Dirk Dahmann, Hélène Dozol, Nico Dziurowitz, Karine Elihn, Martin Fierz, Göran Lidén, Asmus Meyer-Plath, Christian Monz, Volker Neumann, Johannes Pelzer, Barbara Katrin Simonow, Patrick Thali, Ilse Tuinman, Arjan van der Vleuten, Huub Vroomen, Christof Asbach
Personal monitors based on unipolar diffusion charging (miniDiSC/DiSCmini, NanoTracer, Partector) can be used to assess the individual exposure to nanoparticles in different environments. The charge acquired by the aerosol particles is nearly proportional to the particle diameter and, by coincidence, also nearly proportional to the alveolar lung-deposited surface area (LDSA), the metric reported by all three instruments. In addition, the miniDiSC/DiSCmini and the NanoTracer report particle number concentration and mean particle size...
July 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679072/long-term-associations-of-morbidity-with-air-pollution-a-catalogue-and-synthesis
#6
Frederick W Lipfert
I searched the NIH Medline database through January 2017 for long-term studies of morbidity and air pollution and cataloged them with respect to cardiovascular, respiratory, cancer, diabetes, hospitalization, neurological, and pregnancy-birth endpoints. The catalogue is presented as an online appendix. Associations with PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 were evaluated most frequently among the 417 ambient air quality studies identified. Associations with TSP, carbon, ozone, sulfur, vehicular traffic, radon, and indoor air quality were also reported...
July 5, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677949/preparation-of-mno2-modified-graphite-sorbents-from-spent-li-ion-batteries-for-the-treatment-of-water-contaminated-by-lead-cadmium-and-silver
#7
Tuo Zhao, Ying Yao, Meiling Wang, Renjie Chen, Yajuan Yu, Feng Wu, Cunzhong Zhang
Herein, a novel adsorbent was prepared via grafting MnO2 particles on graphite recovered from spent lithium-ion batteries to treat water contaminated by lead, cadmium, and silver. This is the first study reporting the recovery of spent LIB anode material and its application to heavy-metal-contaminated wastewater treatment. Characterizations using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and Fourier transform infrared showed that the adsorbent surface was coated with MnO2 ultrafine particles that served as the sorption mechanism to remove heavy-metal ions...
July 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676265/ultrafine-particles-ufps-from-domestic-wood-stoves-genotoxicity-in-human-lung-carcinoma-a549-cells
#8
Marabini Laura, Ozgen Senem, Turacchi Silvia, Aminti Stefania, Arnaboldi Francesca, Lonati Giovanni, Fermo Paola, Corbella Lorenza, Valli Gianluigi, Bernardoni Vera, Dell'Acqua Manuela, Vecchi Roberta, Becagli Silvia, Caruso Donatella, Corrado L Galli, Marinovich Marina
In this paper, results on the potential toxicity of ultrafine particles (UFPs d<100nm) emitted by the combustion of logwood and pellet (hardwood and softwood) are reported. The data were collected during the TOBICUP (TOxicity of BIomass COmbustion generated Ultrafine Particles) project, carried out by a team composed of interdisciplinary research groups. The genotoxic evaluation was performed on A549 cells (human lung carcinomacells) using UFPs whose chemical composition was assessed by a suite of analytical techniques...
August 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662448/arterial-blood-pressure-responses-to-short-term-exposure-to-fine-and-ultrafine-particles-from-indoor-sources-a-randomized-sham-controlled-exposure-study-of-healthy-volunteers
#9
Vanessa J Soppa, Roel P F Schins, Frauke Hennig, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Bryan Hellack, Ulrich Quass, Heinz Kaminski, Birgitta Sasse, Samir Shinnawi, Thomas A J Kuhlbusch, Barbara Hoffmann
OBJECTIVES: Particulate air pollution is linked to adverse cardiovascular effects. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of short-term exposure to indoor particles on blood pressure (BP). METHODS: We analyzed the association of particle emissions from indoor sources (candle burning, toasting bread, frying sausages) with BP changes in 54 healthy volunteers in a randomized cross-over controlled exposure study. Particle mass concentration (PMC), size-specific particle number concentration (PNC) and lung-deposited particle surface area concentration (PSC) were measured during the 2h exposure...
June 26, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655429/a-study-of-the-correlation-between-ultrafine-particle-emissions-in-motorcycle-smoke-and-mice-erythrocyte-damages
#10
Arinto Y P Wardoyo, Unggul P Juswono, Johan A E Noor
Sharply increasing of motor vehicles every year contributes to amounts of ultrafine particles (UFPs) in the air. Besides, the existence of UFPs in the blood may cause erythrocyte damages that subject to shape deformation. This study was aimed to investigate the influence of UFPs in the motorcycle smoke exposed to mice in different concentrations to the erythrocyte damages. The experiments were conducted by injecting the motorcycle smoke with the varied amounts in an experimental chamber (dimension of 30×20×20cm(3)) where the mice were put in advance for exposuring twice a day (100s)...
June 24, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649460/pulmonary-diseases-induced-by-ambient-ultrafine-and-engineered-nanoparticles-in-twenty-first-century
#11
Tian Xia, Yifang Zhu, Lina Mu, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Sijin Liu
Air pollution is a severe threat to public health globally, affecting everyone in developed and developing countries alike. Among different air pollutants, particulate matter (PM), particularly combustion-produced fine PM (PM2.5) has been shown to play a major role in inducing various adverse health effects. Strong associations have been demonstrated by epidemiological and toxicological studies between increases in PM2.5 concentrations and premature mortality, cardiopulmonary diseases, asthma and allergic sensitization, and lung cancer...
December 2016: National Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647244/on-board-measurement-of-particle-numbers-and-their-size-distribution-from-a-light-duty-diesel-vehicle-influences-of-vsp-and-altitude
#12
Jia Liu, Yunshan Ge, Xin Wang, Lijun Hao, Jianwei Tan, Zihang Peng, Chuanzhen Zhang, Huiming Gong, Ying Huang
In this study, the particle size-resolved distribution from a China-3 certificated light-duty diesel vehicle was measured by using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS). In order to examine the influences of vehicle specific power (VSP) and high-altitude operation, measurements were conducted at 8 constant speeds, which ranged from 10 to 80km/hr at 10km/hr intervals, and two different high altitudes, namely 2200 and 3200m. The results demonstrated that the numbers of particles in all size ranges decreased significantly as VSP increased when the test vehicle was running at lower speeds (<20km/hr), while at a moderate speed (between 30 and 60km/hr), the particle number was statistically insensitive to increase VSP...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637465/early-pulmonary-response-is-critical-for-extra-pulmonary-carbon-nanoparticle-mediated-effects-comparison-of-inhalation-versus-intra-arterial-infusion-exposures-in-mice
#13
Koustav Ganguly, Dariusch Ettehadieh, Swapna Upadhyay, Shinji Takenaka, Thure Adler, Erwin Karg, Fritz Krombach, Wolfgang G Kreyling, Holger Schulz, Otmar Schmid, Tobias Stoeger
BACKGROUND: The death toll associated with inhaled ambient particulate matter (PM) is attributed mainly to cardio-vascular rather than pulmonary effects. However, it is unclear whether the key event for cardiovascular impairment is particle translocation from lung to circulation (direct effect) or indirect effects due to pulmonary particle-cell interactions. In this work, we addressed this issue by exposing healthy mice via inhalation and intra-arterial infusion (IAI) to carbon nanoparticles (CNP) as surrogate for soot, a major constituent of (ultrafine) urban PM...
June 20, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629719/alpha-ketoglutarate-nanoparticles-a-potentially-effective-treatment-for-cyanide-poisoning
#14
Shaheen Sultana, Sushma Talegaonkar, Dhruv Kumar Nishad, Gaurav Mittal, F J Ahmad, Aseem Bhatnagar
The purpose of this research work was to prepare nanosized formulation of alpha ketoglutarate as dry powder inhaler for cyanide poisoning. Nanosizing can be approached by solid phase and liquid phase method. The different conditions encountered in both these approaches can greatly affect the particle characteristics. In this study milling and precipitation technique were compared to study their effect on α-KG particles characteristics. Differences in choice of stabilizers were observed between the two processing techniques...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629640/is-physical-activity-a-modifier-of-the-association-between-air-pollution-and-arterial-stiffness-in-older-adults-the-sapaldia-cohort-study
#15
Simon Endes, Emmanuel Schaffner, Seraina Caviezel, Julia Dratva, Daiana Stolz, Christian Schindler, Nino Künzli, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Nicole Probst-Hensch
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Air pollution and insufficient physical activity have been associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, molecular mechanisms linked to arterial stiffness and cardiovascular disease. There are no studies on how physical activity modifies the association between air pollution and arterial stiffness. We examined whether the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution were modified by individual physical activity levels in 2823 adults aged 50-81 years from the well-characterized Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases (SAPALDIA)...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629362/long-term-exposure-to-ambient-ultrafine-particles-and-respiratory-disease-incidence-in-in-toronto-canada-a-cohort-study
#16
Scott Weichenthal, Li Bai, Marianne Hatzopoulou, Keith Van Ryswyk, Jeffrey C Kwong, Michael Jerrett, Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall V Martin, Richard T Burnett, Hong Lu, Hong Chen
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term health effects of ambient ultrafine particles (<0.1 μm) (UFPs) including their association with respiratory disease incidence. In this study, we examined the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient UFPs and the incidence of lung cancer, adult-onset asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Our study cohort included approximately 1.1 million adults who resided in Toronto, Canada and who were followed for disease incidence between 1996 and 2012...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628138/-effects-of-exposure-to-ambient-particulate-matter-and-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-on-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-in-the-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#17
Y Zhang, X M Song, Q Zhao, T Wang, L J Li, J Chen, H B Xu, B B Liu, X Y Sun, B He, W Huang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on systemic oxidative stress biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. METHODS: A panel of forty-five diagnosed and stable COPD patients, whose residences were within 5 kilometers from Peking University Health Science Center (PKUHSC), were recruited and followed up twice between November 2014 and May 2015. The lung function index percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) to predicted value (FEV1%pred), was measured to reflect the severity of COPD patients...
June 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623310/one-pot-synthesis-of-geas-ultrafine-particles-from-coal-fly-ash-by-vacuum-dynamic-flash-reduction-and-inert-gas-condensation
#18
Lingen Zhang, Zhenming Xu
Ge-monopnictides (GeAs) plays critical role in high-tech industry, especially in the field of advanced optical devices and infrared. As a secondary material, coal fly ash could be further recycled to retrieve germanium and prepare GeAs material with high added values. Hence, the aim of this paper is to propose a one-pot synthesis that uses vacuum flash reduction and inert-gas consolidation method to prepare GeAs ultrafine particles. Germanium in coal fly ash can be successfully recycled; simultaneously, GeAs ultrafine particles were prepared...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595043/the-association-between-the-incidence-of-postmenopausal-breast-cancer-and-concentrations-at-street-level-of-nitrogen-dioxide-and-ultrafine-particles
#19
Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Scott Weichenthal, Eric Lavigne, Marie-France Valois, Marianne Hatzopoulou, Keith Van Ryswyk, Maryam Shekarrizfard, Paul J Villeneuve, Daniel Crouse, Marie-Élise Parent
BACKGROUND: There is scant information as to whether traffic-related air pollution is associated with the incidence of breast cancer. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ultrafine particles (UFPs, <0.1µm), are two pollutants that capture intra-urban variations in traffic-related air pollution and may also be associated with incidence. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, case-control study of street-level concentrations of NO2 and UFPs and incident postmenopausal breast cancer in Montreal, Canada...
June 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578391/nanoscale-spheroidized-cementite-induced-ultrahigh-strength-ductility-combination-in-innovatively-processed-ultrafine-grained-low-alloy-medium-carbon-steel
#20
N Jia, Y F Shen, J W Liang, X W Feng, H B Wang, R D K Misra
We describe here innovative processing of low alloy medium-carbon steel with a duplex microstructure composed of nanoscale spheroidized cementite (Fe3C) in an ultrafine-grained (UFG) ferritic steel. After multi-pass rolling and intermittent annealing at 550 °C for 300 s, the obtained UFG-1 steel showed an average ferrite grain size of ~430 nm, containing nanoscale spheroidized cementite (Fe3C) particles with an average size of ~70 nm. On annealing at 600 °C for 300 s, the average size of ferritic grains was increased to ~680 nm and the average size of spheroidized Fe3C particles increased to ~90 nm, referred as UFG-2 steel...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
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