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Ultrafine particles

Carolyn Klocke, Joshua L Allen, Marissa Sobolewski, Margot Mayer-Pröschel, Jason L Blum, Dana Lauterstein, Judith T Zelikoff, Deborah A Cory-Slechta
Increasing evidence indicates that the central nervous system (CNS) is a target of air pollution. We previously reported that postnatal exposure of mice to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (UFP; ≤100nm) via the University of Rochester HUCAPS system during a critical developmental window of CNS development, equivalent to human 3(rd) trimester, produced male-predominant neuropathological and behavioral characteristics common to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in humans...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Nassib Jabbour, E Rohan Jayaratne, Graham R Johnson, Joel Alroe, Erik Uhde, Tunga Salthammer, Luke Cravigan, Ehsan Majd Faghihi, Prashant Kumar, Lidia Morawska
While the crushing of concrete gives rise to large quantities of coarse dust, it is not widely recognized that this process also emits significant quantities of ultrafine particles. These particles impact not just the environments within construction activities but those in entire urban areas. The origin of these ultrafine particles is uncertain, as existing theories do not support their production by mechanical processes. We propose a hypothesis for this observation based on the volatilisation of materials at the concrete fracture interface...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Shichao Zhang, Hui Liu, Fenglei Zuo, Xia Yin, Jianyong Yu, Bin Ding
The filtration capacity of fibrous media for airborne particles is restricted by their thick diameter, low porosity, and limited frontal area. The ability to solve this problem would have broad technological implications for various air filtration applications; despite many past efforts, it remains a great challenge to achieve. Herein, a facile and scalable strategy to fabricate the ripple-like polyamide-6 nanofiber/nets (PA-6 NF/N) air filter via combining electrospinning/netting technique with receiving substrate design is demonstrated...
January 6, 2017: Small
Stefan Karrasch, Myriam Simon, Britta Herbig, Jeanette Langner, Stefan Seeger, Angelika Kronseder, Stefan Peters, Gisela Dietrich-Gümperlein, Rudolf Schierl, Dennis Nowak, Rudolf A Jörres
Ultrafine particles emitted from laser printers are suspected to elicit adverse health effects. We performed 75-minute exposures to emissions of laser printing devices (LPDs) in a standardized, randomized, cross-over manner in 23 healthy subjects, 14 mild, stable asthmatics and 15 persons reporting symptoms associated with LPD emissions. Low level exposures (LLE) ranged at the particle background (3,000 cm(-3) ), high level exposures (HLE) at 100,000 cm(-3) . Examinations before and after exposures included spirometry, body plethysmography, transfer factors for CO and NO (TLCO, TLNO), bronchial and alveolar NO, cytokines in serum and nasal secretions (IL-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, IFNγ, TNFα), serum ECP, and IgE...
January 5, 2017: Indoor Air
Masakazu Umezawa, Atsuto Onoda, Ken Takeda
 The toxicity of nanoparticles (nanotoxicology) is being investigated to understand both the health impacts of atmospheric ultrafine particles-the size of which is a fraction (<0.1 μm aerodynamic diameter) of that of PM2.5 (<2.5 μm diameter)-and the safer use of engineered nanomaterials. Developmental toxicity of nanoparticles has been studied since their transfer from pregnant body to fetal circulation and offspring body was first reported. Here we reviewed the developmental toxicity of nanoparticles on the brain, one of the most important organs in maintenance of mental health and high quality of life...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Audrey de Nazelle, Olivier Bode, Juan Pablo Orjuela
BACKGROUND: Transport microenvironments tend to have higher air pollutant concentrations than other settings most people encounter in their daily lives. The choice of travel modes may affect significantly individuals' exposures; however such considerations are typically not accounted for in exposure assessment used in environmental health studies. In particular, with increasing interest in the promotion of active travel, health impact studies that attempt to estimate potential adverse consequences of potential increased pollutant inhalation during walking or cycling have emerged...
December 30, 2016: Environment International
Praveen K Shahi, Priyam Singh, Akhilesh K Singh, Sunil K Singh, Shyam B Rai, Rajiv Prakash
We have synthesized a novel inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructure (IOHN) composed of fluoride nanophosphor (NaGd0.78Er0.02Yb0.2F4) and β-diketones complex (Eu(DBM)3Phen). The Le Bail fitting of X-ray diffraction data suggests that the nanophoshor crystallizes in a hexagonal structure (P63/m space group). The TEM studies reveal that the nanophosphor and the IOHN both have average particle size of 6-8nm. The Eu(DBM)3Phen and NaGd0.78Er0.02Yb0.2F4 show characteristic down-shifting (DS) and up-conversion (UC) emission, under UV and NIR excitation, respectively...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
G Buonanno, L Stabile, L Morawska, G Giovinco, X Querol
In order to estimate the lung cancer risk associated to airborne particles, exposure and risk-assessment studies ordinarily use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter. Consequently, the corresponding air quality targets are based on this metrics, neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles (UFPs) due to their negligible mass. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of air quality targets in protecting Italian non-smoking people from lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation...
December 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
T Moreno, X Querol, V Martins, M C Minguillón, C Reche, L H Ku, H R Eun, K H Ahn, M Capdevila, E de Miguel
Most particles in the rail subway environment are sub-micron sized ferruginous flakes and splinters generated mechanically by frictional wear of brake pads, wheels and rails. To better understand the mechanisms of formation and the alteration processes affecting inhalable particles in subways, PM samples (1-2.5 μm and 2.5-10 μm) were collected in the Barcelona Metro and then studied under a scanning electron microscope. Most particles in these samples are hematitic (up to 88%), with relatively minor amounts of mineral matter (up to 9%) and sulphates (up to 5%)...
December 21, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Lance Arthur Wallace, Wayne R Ott, Charles J Weschler, Alvin C K Lai
Ultrafine particles (UFP) produced by electric heating of stoves and metal cooking pans, absent food, have been hypothesized to be created from a surface film of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) sorbed from the surrounding air. This study tests that hypothesis by size-resolved measurements extending the lower range of the UFP studied from 10 nm to 2.3 nm, and including other surfaces (glass, aluminum, and porcelain). Heating glass Petri dishes or squares of aluminum foil to about 350-400 oC for 4-6 minutes removed all sorbed organic substances completely...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Emanuela Corsini, Senem Ozgen, Angela Papale, Valentina Galbiati, Giovanni Lonati, Paola Fermo, Lorenza Corbella, Gianluigi Valli, Vera Bernardoni, Manuela Dell'Acqua, Silvia Becagli, Donatella Caruso, Roberta Vecchi, Corrado L Galli, Marina Marinovich
This study aimed to collect, characterize ultrafine particles (UFP) generated from the combustion of wood pellets and logs (softwood and hardwood) and to evaluate their pro-inflammatory effects in THP-1 and A549 cells. Both cell lines responded to UFP producing interleukin-8 (IL-8), with wood log UFP being more active compared to pellet UFP. With the exception of higher effect observed with beech wood log UFP in THP-1, the ability of soft or hard woods to induce IL-8 release was similar. In addition, on weight mass, IL-8 release was similar or lower compared to diesel exhaust particles (DEP), arguing against higher biological activity of smaller size particles...
January 15, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Maximilien Debia, Marie-Claude Trachy-Bourget, Charles Beaudry, Eve Neesham-Grenon, Stéphane Perron, Caroline Lapointe
Diesel exhaust (DE) emissions from a parking garage located in the basement of a school were characterized during spring and winter using direct reading devices and integrated sampling methods. Concentrations of CO and NO2 were evaluated using electrochemical sensors and passive colorimetric tubes, respectively. Elemental and total carbon concentrations were measured using the NIOSH 5040 method. Particle number concentrations (PNCs), respirable particulate matter (PMresp) mass concentrations, and size distributions were evaluated using direct reading devices...
December 14, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Allison P Patton, Chad Milando, John L Durant, Prashant Kumar
Comparative evaluations are needed to assess the suitability of near-road air pollution models for traffic-related ultrafine particle number concentration (PNC). Our goal was to evaluate the ability of dispersion (CALINE4, AERMOD, R-LINE, and QUIC) and regression models to predict PNC in a residential neighborhood (Somerville) and an urban center (Chinatown) near highways in and near Boston, Massachusetts. PNC was measured in each area, and models were compared to each other and measurements for hot (>18 °C) and cold (<10 °C) hours with wind directions parallel to and perpendicular downwind from highways...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Robert Sturm
BACKGROUND: Ultrafine particles (UFP) of biogenic and anthropogenic origin occur in high numbers in the ambient atmosphere. In addition, aerosols containing ultrafine powders are used for the inhalation therapy of various diseases. All these facts make it necessary to obtain comprehensive knowledge regarding the exact behavior of UFP in the respiratory tract. METHODS: Theoretical simulations of local UFP deposition are based on previously conducted inhalation experiments, where particles with various sizes (0...
November 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Virginie Dubes, Thibaud Parpaite, Thomas Ducret, Jean-François Quignard, Stéphane Mornet, Nora Reinhardt, Isabelle Baudrimont, Mathilde Dubois, Véronique Freund-Michel, Roger Marthan, Bernard Muller, Jean-Pierre Savineau, Arnaud Courtois
The development and use of nanomaterials, especially engineered nanoparticles (NP), is expected to provide many benefits. But at the same time the development of such materials is also feared because of their potential human health risks. Indeed, NP display some characteristics similar to ultrafine environmental particles which are known to exert deleterious cardiovascular effects including pro-hypertensive ones. In this context, the effect of NP on calcium signalling, whose deregulation is often involved in hypertensive diseases, remain poorly described...
January 15, 2017: Toxicology
Patrizia Di Filippo, Donatella Pomata, Carmela Riccardi, Francesca Buiarelli, Daniela Uccelletti, Elena Zanni
Airborne bacteria are components of the atmospheric aerosol particles and can be responsible of allergic disease, regardless of their viability. In this paper, we report a method for the determination of total (viable and nonviable) bacterial content in airborne particles, using muramic and dipicolinic acids as biomarkers of bacteria and bacterial spores, respectively. The analytical procedure was optimized with bacteria and spores of Bacillus subtilis. After extraction and purification, the two biomarkers were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and their percentage was evaluated to be used as conversion factor...
December 7, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Massimo Stafoggia, Alexandra Schneider, Josef Cyrys, Evangelia Samoli, Zorana Jovanovic Andersen, Getahun Bero Bedada, Tom Bellander, Giorgio Cattani, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Annunziata Faustini, Barbara Hoffmann, Bénédicte Jacquemin, Klea Katsouyanni, Andreas Massling, Juha Pekkanen, Noemi Perez, Annette Peters, Ulrich Quass, Tarja Yli-Tuomi, Francesco Forastiere
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence on the association between short-term exposure to ultrafine particles and mortality is weak, due to the lack of routine measurements of these particles and standardized multi-center studies. We investigated the relationship between ultrafine particles and particulate matter (PM) and daily mortality in eight European urban areas. METHODS: We collected daily data on non-accidental and cardio-respiratory mortality, particle number concentrations (as proxy for ultrafine particle number concentration), fine and coarse PM, gases and meteorologic parameters in eight urban areas of Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Greece, between 1999 and 2013...
November 29, 2016: Epidemiology
B C Singer, W W Delp, D R Black, I S Walker
This study evaluated nine ventilation and filtration systems in an unoccupied 2006 house located 250 m downwind of the I-80 freeway in Sacramento, California. Systems were evaluated for reducing indoor concentrations of outdoor particles in summer and fall/winter, ozone in summer, and particles from stir-fry cooking. Air exchange rate was measured continuously. Energy use was estimated for year-round operation in California. Exhaust ventilation without enhanced filtration provided indoor PM2.5 that was 70% lower than outdoors...
December 5, 2016: Indoor Air
Kathrin Wolf, Josef Cyrys, Tatiana Harciníková, Jianwei Gu, Thomas Kusch, Regina Hampel, Alexandra Schneider, Annette Peters
Important health relevance has been suggested for ultrafine particles (UFP) and ozone, but studies on long-term effects are scarce, mainly due to the lack of appropriate spatial exposure models. We designed a measurement campaign to develop land use regression (LUR) models to predict the spatial variability focusing on particle number concentration (PNC) as indicator for UFP, ozone and several other air pollutants in the Augsburg region, Southern Germany. Three bi-weekly measurements of PNC, ozone, particulate matter (PM10, PM2...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Zhijun Wu, Jing Zheng, Yu Wang, Dongjie Shang, Zhoufei Du, Yuanhang Zhang, Min Hu
Biomass burning emits large amounts of both trace gases and particles into the atmosphere. It plays a profound role in regional air quality and climate change. In the present study, an intensive campaign was carried out at an urban site in Beijing, China, in June 2014, which covered the winter wheat harvest season over the North China Plain (NCP). Meanwhile, two evident biomass-burning events were observed. A clear burst in ultrafine particles (below 100nm in diameter, PM1) and subsequent particle growth took place during the events...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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