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Ultrafine particles

Mei Mei, Haojun Song, Lina Chen, Bin Hu, Ru Bai, Diandou Xu, Ying Liu, Yuliang Zhao, Chunying Chen
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested that elevated levels of air pollution contribute to an increased incidence or severity of asthma. Although late-onset adult asthma seems to be more attributable to environmental risk factors, limited data is available on the impact of early-life exposure to size-fractionated ambient particulate matter (PM) on asthma in adults. We aimed to determine the effect on the development and exacerbation of asthma in the adult after the mice were exposed as juveniles to three size-fractionated ambient particulates collected from Beijing...
March 14, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
F L Chan, R House, I Kudla, J C Lipszyc, N Rajaram, S M Tarlo
Background: 3D printers emit potentially hazardous ultrafine particles and volatile organic compounds. Workers using 3D printing technologies may be at risk of respiratory illness from occupational exposure. Aims: To assess whether 3D printing is associated with health effects in occupational users. Methods: This was a preliminary survey. Workers in 17 companies using 3D printing, including commercial prototyping businesses, educational institutions and public libraries, in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada, were asked to complete survey questionnaires concerning demographic, occupational and health information...
March 10, 2018: Occupational Medicine
Veronika Deffner, Helmut Küchenhoff, Susanne Breitner, Alexandra Schneider, Josef Cyrys, Annette Peters
The ultrafine particle measurements in the Augsburger Umweltstudie, a panel study conducted in Augsburg, Germany, exhibit measurement error from various sources. Measurements of mobile devices show classical possibly individual-specific measurement error; Berkson-type error, which may also vary individually, occurs, if measurements of fixed monitoring stations are used. The combination of fixed site and individual exposure measurements results in a mixture of the two error types. We extended existing bias analysis approaches to linear mixed models with a complex error structure including individual-specific error components, autocorrelated errors, and a mixture of classical and Berkson error...
March 13, 2018: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
Fengxia Li, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Josef Cyrys, Kathrin Wolf, Erwin Karg, Jianwei Gu, Jürgen Orasche, Gülcin Abbaszade, Annette Peters, Ralf Zimmermann
OBJECTIVE: to study the sources contributing to quasi-ultrafine particle (UFP) organic carbon and the spatial temporal variability of the sources. METHOD: 24h quasi-UFP (particulate matter <0.36μm in this study) was sampled at a reference site continuously and at one of 5 other sites (T1, T2, T3, T4 and B1) in parallel in Augsburg, Germany from April 11th, 2014 to February 22nd, 2015, attempting to conduct 2-week campaigns at each site in 3 different seasons...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sam Clifford, Mandana Mazaheri, Farhad Salimi, Wafaa Nabil Ezz, Bijan Yeganeh, Samantha Low-Choy, Katy Walker, Kerrie Mengersen, Guy B Marks, Lidia Morawska
It is known that ultrafine particles (UFP, particles smaller than 0.1 μm) can penetrate deep into the lungs and potentially have adverse health effects. However, epidemiological data on the health effects of UFP is limited. Therefore, our objective was to test the hypothesis that exposure to UFPs is associated with respiratory health status and systemic inflammation among children aged 8 to 11 years. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 655 children (43.3% male) attending 25 primary (elementary) schools in the Brisbane Metropolitan Area, Australia...
March 4, 2018: Environment International
Yen-Yi Lee, Sheng-Lun Lin, Chung-Shin Yuan, Ming-Yeng Lin, Kang-Shin Chen
Atmospheric particles are a major problem that could lead to harmful effects on human health, especially in densely populated urban areas. Chiayi is a typical city with very high population and traffic density, as well as being located at the downwind side of several pollution sources. Multi-contributors for PM2.5 and ultrafine particles cause complicated air quality problems. This study focused on the inhibition of local emission sources by restricting the idling vehicles around a school area and evaluating the changes in surrounding atmospheric PM conditions...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Payam Dadvand, Jesus Pujol, Dídac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Marion Mortamais, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Raquel Fenoll, Mikel Esnaola, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Mónica López-Vicente, Xavier Basagaña, Michael Jerrett, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer
BACKGROUND: Proponents of the biophilia hypothesis believe that contact with nature, including green spaces, has a crucial role in brain development in children. Currently, however, we are not aware of evidence linking such exposure with potential effects on brain structure. OBJECTIVE: We determined whether lifelong exposure to residential surrounding greenness is associated with regional differences in brain volume based on 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) among children attending primary school...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Ina Gümperlein, Elke Fischer, Gisela Dietrich-Gümperlein, Stefan Karrasch, Dennis Nowak, Rudolf A Jörres, Rudolf Schierl
3D printers are increasingly run at home. Nanoparticle emissions from those printers have been reported, which raises the question whether adverse health effects from ultrafine particles (UFP) can be elicited by 3D printers. We exposed 26 healthy adults in a single-blinded, randomized, cross-over design to emissions of a desktop 3D printer using fused deposition modeling (FDM) for one hour (high UFP-emitting acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) versus low-emitting polylactic acid (PLA)). Before and after exposures, cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, INF-γ) and ECP in nasal secretions, exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), urinary 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-iso PGF2α ) and self-reported symptoms were assessed...
March 3, 2018: Indoor Air
Adewale Adeosun, Qian Huang, Tianxiang Li, Akshay Gopan, Xuebin Wang, Shuiqing Li, Richard L Axelbaum
In pulverized coal burners, coal particles usually transition from a locally reducing environment to an oxidizing environment. The locally reducing environment in the near-burner region is due to a dense region of coal particles undergoing devolatilization. Following this region, the particles move into an oxidizing environment. This "reducing-to-oxidizing" transition can influence combustion processes such as ignition, particulate formation, and char burnout. To understand these processes at a fundamental level, a system is required that mimics such a transition...
February 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Y J Zhang, D H Zhou, Z P Bai, F X Xue
Objective: To quantitatively analyze the current status and development trends regarding the land use regression (LUR) models on ambient air pollution studies. Methods: Relevant literature from the PubMed database before June 30, 2017 was analyzed, using the Bibliographic Items Co-occurrence Matrix Builder (BICOMB 2.0). Keywords co-occurrence networks, cluster mapping and timeline mapping were generated, using the CiteSpace 5.1.R5 software. Relevant literature identified in three Chinese databases was also reviewed...
February 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Laura Minet, Rick Liu, Marie-France Valois, Junshi Xu, Scott Weichenthal, Marianne Hatzopoulou
Land-use regression (LUR) models of air pollutants are frequently developed based on short-term stationary or mobile monitoring approaches, which raises the question of whether these two data collection protocols lead to similar exposure surfaces. In this study, we measured Ultrafine Particles (UFP) and Black Carbon (BC) concentrations in Toronto during summer 2016, using two short-term data collection approaches: mobile, involving 3,023 road segments sampled on bicycles, and stationary, involving 92 sidewalk locations...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Frauke Hennig, Ulrich Quass, Bryan Hellack, Miriam Küpper, Thomas A J Kuhlbusch, Massimo Stafoggia, Barbara Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Although epidemiologic studies have shown associations between particle mass and daily mortality, evidence on other particle metrics is weak. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations of size-specific particle number concentration (PNC) and lung-deposited particle surface area concentration (PSC) with cause-specific daily mortality in contrast to PM10 . METHODS: We used time-series data (March 2009-December 2014) on daily natural, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality (NM, CVM, RM) of three adjacent cities in the Ruhr Area, Germany...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Stephen M Roberts, Annette C Rohr, Vladimir B Mikheev, John Munson, Tara Sabo-Attwood
OBJECTIVE: Most studies report that inhaled volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs) tend to deposit in the upper respiratory tract, while ultrafine (or near ultrafine) particulate matter (PM) (∼100 nm) reaches the lower airways. The objective of this study was to determine whether carbon particle co-exposure carries VOCs/SVOCs deeper into the lungs where they are deposited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by inhalation (nose-only) to radiolabeled toluene (20 ppm) or naphthalene (20 ppm) on a single occasion for 1 h, with or without concurrent carbon particle exposure (∼5 mg/m3 )...
February 21, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
Wenshi Xu, Mengyu Guo, Jing Liu, Yating Xiao, Guoqiang Zhou, Ying Liu, Chunying Chen
The incidence of many diseases is closely related to air pollution. Suspended particulate matter of different sizes represents a major source of environmental pollution. Fine particles, especially ultrafine particles smaller than 2.5 μm, might be more harmful to human health because of their extremely small size, which enables them to penetrate human lungs and bronchi and makes them difficult to filter out. Therefore, the fatal risks associated with PM call for the development of air purification materials with high efficiency and low resistance...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Mehdi Amouei Torkmahalleh, Saltanat Ospanova, Aknur Baibatyrova, Shynggys Nurbay, Gulaina Zhanakhmet, Dhawal Shah
Grilling ground beef meat was conducted in two locations at Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan. The experiments were designed such that only particles from beef meat were isolated. A similar experimental protocol was applied at both locations. The average particle number and mass emission rates for grilling pure meat itself (excluding particles from pan and burner) were found to be 9.4 × 1012 (SD = 7.2 × 1012 particle min-1 and 7.6 × 10 (SD = 6.3 × 10) mg.min-1 , respectively. The PM emissions (number and mass) from the burner were found to be negligible compared to the pan and meat emissions...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Research
Tiina Titma
The precise knowledge on various interactions of metal nanoparticles (NP) in a living organism is scarce. It is expected that metals can bind to nucleic acids, peptides and proteins (e.g. enzymes), and modify the functioning of vital cellular compartments after entering the organism. The predictive factors for quantitative nanostructure-activity relationship (QNAR) analysis could enhance efficient and harmless usage of nanoparticles (NPs) in the industry as well in the medicine. The studies value the composition of the NP corona determined by time, temperature and source of protein which has been found to implicate the physiological behaviour of NPs...
February 16, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Min Sil Kang, Na-Hyun Lee, Rajendra K Singh, Nandin Mandakhbayar, Roman A Perez, Jung-Hwan Lee, Hae-Won Kim
Biomedical cements are considered promising injectable materials for bone repair and regeneration. Calcium phosphate composition sized with tens of micrometers is currently one of the major powder forms. Here we report a unique cement form made from mesoporous bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGn). The nanopowder could harden in reaction with aqueous solution at powder-to-liquid ratios as low as 0.4-0.5 (vs. 2.0-3.0 for conventional calcium phosphate cement CPC). The cementation mechanism investigated from TEM, XRD, FT-IR, XPS, and NMR analyses was demonstrated to be the ionic (Si and Ca) dissolution and then reprecipitation to form Si-Ca-(P) based amorphous nano-islands that could network the particles...
February 3, 2018: Biomaterials
G Jordakieva, I Grabovac, E Valic, K E Schmidt, A Graff, A Schuster, K Hoffmann-Sommergruber, C Oberhuber, O Scheiner, A Goll, J Godnic-Cvar
Background: Inhalation exposure to fine and ultrafine particles (UFPs) has been associated with respiratory diseases. However, little is known on the quality, threshold levels and concentration of these particles causing adverse health effects. Methods: The impact of occupational exposure to submicrometer and UFPs was assessed in 30 healthy police shooting instructors by clinical investigation, self-assessment questionnaire, sputum and spirometry and compared to a control group...
2018: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
Veronika Pilz, Kathrin Wolf, Susanne Breitner, Regina Rückerl, Wolfgang Koenig, Wolfgang Rathmann, Josef Cyrys, Annette Peters, Alexandra Schneider
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution contributes to the global burden of disease by particularly affecting cardiovascular (CV) causes of death. We investigated the association between particle number concentration (PNC), a marker for ultrafine particles, and other air pollutants and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as a potential link between air pollution and CV disease. METHODS: We cross-sectionally analysed data from the second follow up (2013 and 2014) of the German KORA baseline survey which was conducted in 1999-2001...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Kinam Park
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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