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Ultrafine particles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321937/ultrafine-particles-and-black-carbon-personal-exposures-in-asthmatic-and-non-asthmatic-children-at-school-age
#1
Pau Pañella, Maribel Casas, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Raquel Garcia-Esteban, Oliver Robinson, Antònia Valentín, John Gulliver, Isabelle Momas, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Martine Vrijheid, Jordi Sunyer
Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure during childhood is associated with asthma; however, the contribution of the different TRAP pollutants in each microenvironment (home, school, transportation, others) in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children is unknown. Daily (24 h) personal black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP), and alveolar lung deposited surface area (LDSA) individual exposure measurements were obtained from 100 children (29 past and 21 current asthmatics, 50 non-asthmatics) aged 9±0.7 years from the INMA-Sabadell cohort (Catalonia, Spain)...
March 20, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283350/ultrafine-carbon-particles-promote-rotenone-induced-dopamine-neuronal-loss-through-activating-microglial-nadph-oxidase
#2
Yinxi Wang, Dan Liu, Huifeng Zhang, Yixin Wang, Ling Wei, Yutong Liu, Jieying Liao, Hui-Ming Gao, Hui Zhou
BACKGROUND: Atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFPs) and pesticide rotenone were considered as potential environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, whether and how UFPs alone and in combination with rotenone affect the pathogenesis of PD remains largely unknown. METHODS: Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, a surrogate of UFPs) and rotenone were used individually or in combination to determine their roles in chronic dopaminergic (DA) loss in neuron-glia, and neuron-enriched, mix-glia cultures...
March 7, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282961/pedestrians-in-traffic-environments-ultrafine-particle-respiratory-doses
#3
Maurizio Manigrasso, Claudio Natale, Matteo Vitali, Carmela Protano, Pasquale Avino
Particulate matter has recently received more attention than other pollutants. PM10 and PM2.5 have been primarily monitored, whereas scientists are focusing their studies on finer granulometric sizes due both to their high number concentration and their high penetration efficiency into the respiratory system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the population exposure to UltraFine Particles (UFP, submicrons in general) in outdoor environments. The particle number doses deposited into the respiratory system have been compared between healthy individuals and persons affected by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279581/exposure-of-in-pram-babies-to-airborne-particles-during-morning-drop-in-and-afternoon-pick-up-of-school-children
#4
Prashant Kumar, Ioar Rivas, Lovish Sachdeva
In-pram babies are more susceptible to air pollution effects, yet studies assessing their exposure are limited. We measured size-resolved particle mass (PMC; 0.25-32 μm) and number (PNC; 0.2-1 μm) concentrations on a 2.7 km route. The instruments were placed inside a baby pram. The route passed through 4 traffic intersections (TIs) and a bus stand. A total of ∼87 km road length was covered through 64 trips, made during school drop-in (morning) and pick-up (afternoon) hours. The objectives were to assess PMC and PNC exposure to in-pram babies at different route segments, understand their physicochemical characteristics and exposure differences between in-pram babies and adults carrying them...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278377/surfactant-modified-ultrafine-gold-nanoparticles-with-magnetic-responsiveness-for-reversible-convergence-and-release-of-biomacromolecules
#5
Lu Xu, Shuli Dong, Jingcheng Hao, Jiwei Cui, Heinz Hoffmann
It is difficult to synthesize magnetic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with ultrafine sizes (< 2 nm) based on conventional method via coating AuNPs using magnetic particles, compounds or ions. Here the magnetic cationic surfactants, C16H33N+(CH3)3[CeCl3Br]- (CTACe) and C16H33N+(CH3)3[GdCl3Br]- (CTAGd), are prepared by one-step coordination reaction, i.e., C16H33N+(CH3)3Br- (CTABr) + CeCl3 or GdCl3 → CTACe or CTAGd. A simple strategy to fabricate ultrafine (< 2 nm) magnetic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via surface modification with weak oxidizing paramagnetic cationic surfactants, CTACe or CTAGd, is developed...
March 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278066/characterization-of-exposure-to-byproducts-from-firing-lead-free-frangible-ammunition-in-an-enclosed-ventilated-firing-range
#6
Christin M Grabinski, Mark M Methner, Jerimiah M Jackson, Alexander L Moore, Laura E Flory, Trevor Tilly, Saber M Hussain, Darrin K Ott
U.S. Air Force small arms firing ranges began using copper-based, lead-free frangible ammunition in the early 2000s due to environmental and health concerns related to the use of lead-based ammunition. Exposure assessments at these firing ranges have routinely detected chemicals and metals in amounts much lower than their mass-based occupational exposure limits, yet, instructors report work-related health concerns including respiratory distress, nausea, and headache. The objective of this study at one firing range was to characterize the aerosol emissions produced by weapons during firing events and evaluate the ventilation system's effectiveness in controlling instructor exposure to these emissions...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276550/particle-size-specific-distribution-of-perfluoro-alkyl-substances-in-atmospheric-particulate-matter-in-asian-cities
#7
H Ge, E Yamazaki, N Yamashita, S Taniyasu, A Ogata, M Furuuchi
Seasonal and local characteristics of perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) were examined using size-segregated particles including an ultrafine range. The examination included sampling and analysis of ambient particles collected at four sites located in different environments in three different countries, Japan (Kanazawa and Okinawa), Hong Kong and India. To minimize the evaporation artefacts derived from PFASs during the sampling, an air sampler that permitted particles smaller than 0.1 μm (PM0.1) to be separated at a moderate pressure drop (<5-15 kPa), was used for all of the air sampling procedures...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245934/the-chemical-composition-of-ultrafine-particles-and-associated-biological-effects-at-an-alpine-town-impacted-by-wood-burning
#8
Emanuela Corsini, Roberta Vecchi, Laura Marabini, Paola Fermo, Silvia Becagli, Vera Bernardoni, Donatella Caruso, Lorenza Corbella, Manuela Dell'Acqua, Corrado L Galli, Giovanni Lonati, Senem Ozgen, Angela Papale, Stefano Signorini, Ruggero Tardivo, Gianluigi Valli, Marina Marinovich
This work is part of the TOBICUP (TOxicity of BIomass Combustion generated Ultrafine Particles) project which aimed at providing the composition of ultrafine particles (UFPs, i.e. particles with aerodynamic diameter, dae, lower than 100nm) emitted by wood combustion and elucidating the related toxicity. Results here reported are from two ambient monitoring campaigns carried out at an alpine town in Northern Italy, where wood burning is largely diffused for domestic heating in winter. Wintertime and summertime UFP samples were analyzed to assess their chemical composition (i...
February 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244744/land-use-regression-models-for-ultrafine-particles-in-six-european-areas
#9
Erik van Nunen, Roel Vermeulen, Ming-Yi Tsai, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Alex Ineichen, Mark Davey, Medea Imboden, Regina Ducret-Stich, Alessio Naccarati, Daniela Raffaele, Andrea Ranzi, Cristiana Ivaldi, Claudia Galassi, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Ariadna Curto, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Marta Cirach, Leda Chatzi, Mariza Kampouri, Jelle Vlaanderen, Kees Meliefste, Daan Buijtenhuijs, Bert Brunekreef, David Morley, Paolo Vineis, John Gulliver, Gerard Hoek
Long-term ultrafine particle (UFP) exposure estimates at a fine spatial scale are needed for epidemiological studies. Land use regression (LUR) models were developed and evaluated for six European areas based on repeated 30 min monitoring following standardized protocols. In each area; Basel (Switzerland), Heraklion (Greece), Amsterdam, Maastricht, and Utrecht ("The Netherlands"), Norwich (United Kingdom), Sabadell (Spain), and Turin (Italy), 160-240 sites were monitored to develop LUR models by supervised stepwise selection of GIS predictors...
March 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241115/robustness-of-land-use-regression-models-developed-from-mobile-air-pollutant-measurements
#10
Marianne Hatzopoulou, Marie France Valois, Ilan Levy, Cristian Mihele, Gang Lu, Scott Bagg, Laura Minet, Jeffrey Brook
Land-use regression (LUR) models are useful for resolving fine scale spatial variations in average air pollutant concentrations across urban areas. With the rise of mobile air pollution campaigns, characterized by short-term monitoring and large spatial extents, it is important to investigate the effects of sampling protocols on the resulting LUR. In this study a mobile lab was used to repeatedly visit a large number of locations (∼1800), defined by road segments, to derive average concentrations across the city of Montreal, Canada...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223692/human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-pbmcs-from-smokers-release-higher-levels-of-il-1-like-cytokines-after-exposure-to-combustion-generated-ultrafine-particles
#11
Gianluigi De Falco, Michela Terlizzi, Mariano Sirignano, Mario Commodo, Andrea D'Anna, Rita P Aquino, Aldo Pinto, Rosalinda Sorrentino
Ultrafine particles (UFP) generated by combustion processes are often associated with adverse health effects. However, little is known about the inflammatory processes generated by UFP that may underlie their toxicological activity. Murine macrophages (J774.1 cells) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used to evaluate the molecular mechanism underlying the pro-inflammatory activity of UFP. The addition of soot particles to J774.1 cells induced a concentration-dependent release of IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-33 This effect was not associated with cell death and, in contrast to literature, was pronounced at very low concentrations (5-100 pg/ml)...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211537/ambient-ultrafine-particle-ingestion-alters-gut-microbiota-in-association-with-increased-atherogenic-lipid-metabolites
#12
Rongsong Li, Jieping Yang, Arian Saffari, Jonathan Jacobs, Kyung In Baek, Greg Hough, Muriel H Larauche, Jianguo Ma, Nelson Jen, Nabila Moussaoui, Bill Zhou, Hanul Kang, Srinivasa Reddy, Susanne M Henning, Matthew J Campen, Joseph Pisegna, Zhaoping Li, Alan M Fogelman, Constantinos Sioutas, Mohamad Navab, Tzung K Hsiai
Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is associated with atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Ultrafine particles (UFP, dp < 0.1-0.2 μm) are redox active components of PM. We hypothesized that orally ingested UFP promoted atherogenic lipid metabolites in both the intestine and plasma via altered gut microbiota composition. Low density lipoprotein receptor-null (Ldlr(-/-)) mice on a high-fat diet were orally administered with vehicle control or UFP (40 μg/mouse/day) for 3 days a week...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188054/exposure-to-air-pollutants-during-commuting-in-london-are-there-inequalities-among-different-socio-economic-groups
#13
Ioar Rivas, Prashant Kumar, Alex Hagen-Zanker
People with low income often experience higher exposures to air pollutants. We compared the exposure to particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10), Black Carbon (BC) and ultrafine particles (PNCs; 0.02-1μm) for typical commutes by car, bus and underground from 4 London areas with different levels of income deprivation (G1 to G4, from most to least deprived). The highest BC and PM concentrations were found in G1 while the highest PNC in G3. Lowest concentrations for all pollutants were observed in G2. We found no systematic relationship between income deprivation and pollutant concentrations, suggesting that differences between transport modes are a stronger influence...
April 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179003/respiratory-outcomes-of-ultrafine-particulate-matter-ufpm-as-a-surrogate-measure-of-near-roadway-exposures-among-bicyclists
#14
Hye-Youn Park, Susan Gilbreath, Edward Barakatt
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown a consistent association between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and adverse health effects. In particular, exposure can be high for cyclists who travel near roadways. The objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between short-term exposure of near-road traffic emissions and acute changes in lung function among individuals who frequently bike in the Sacramento and Davis areas in California. Ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM) was used as a surrogate for near-roadway exposure in this study since the main source of this pollutant is from motor vehicle exhaust...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167447/associations-between-ambient-wood-smoke-and-other-particulate-pollutants-and-biomarkers-of-systemic-inflammation-coagulation-and-thrombosis-in-cardiac-patients
#15
Daniel P Croft, Scott J Cameron, Craig N Morrell, Charles J Lowenstein, Frederick Ling, Wojciech Zareba, Philip K Hopke, Mark J Utell, Sally W Thurston, Kelly Thevenet-Morrison, Kristin A Evans, David Chalupa, David Q Rich
BACKGROUND: Increased particulate air pollution has been associated with both an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and adverse changes in cardiac biomarkers. Up to 30% of ambient wintertime fine particles (PM2.5) in Rochester, NY are from wood burning. Our study examined associations between ambient levels of a marker of wood smoke (Delta-C) and other particulate air pollutants and biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis. METHODS: We measured blood concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, fibrinogen, P-selectin, platelet factor 4 (PF-4), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) of 135 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization during the winters of 2011-2013...
April 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165927/is-3d-printing-safe-analysis-of-the-thermal-treatment-of-thermoplastics-abs-pla-pet-and-nylon
#16
Szymon Wojtyła, Piotr Klama, Tomasz Baran
The fast development of low-cost desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers has made those devices widely accessible for goods manufacturing at home. However, is it safe? Users may belittle the effects or influences of pollutants (organic compounds and ultrafine particles) generated by the devices in question. Within the scope of this study, the authors attempt to investigate thermal decomposition of the following commonly used, commercially available thermoplastic filaments: acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), polylactic acid (PLA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and nylon...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165418/participatory-democracy-community-organizing-and-the-community-assessment-of-freeway-exposure-and-health-cafeh-partnership
#17
Linda Sprague Martinez, Ellin Reisner, Maria Campbell, Doug Brugge
Background: Conflicting interests, power imbalance and relationships characterized by distrust are just a few of the many challenges community-academic research partnerships face. In addition, the time it takes to build relationships is often overlooked, which further complicates matters and can leave well-intentioned individuals re-creating oppressive conditions through inauthentic partnerships. This paper presents a novel approach of using meeting minutes to explore partnership dynamics. The Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) partnership is used as an illustrative case study to identify how community academic partnerships overcome the challenges associated with community-based participatory research (CBPR)...
February 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163602/differential-pattern-of-deposition-of-nanoparticles-in-the-airways-of-exposed-workers
#18
Elizabeth Fireman, Rinat Edelheit, Moshe Stark, Amir Bar Shai
Ultrafine particles (UFP) have been postulated to significantly contribute to the adverse health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM). Due to their extremely small size (aerodynamic diameter <100 nm), UFP are able to deposit deep within the lung after inhalation and evade many mechanisms responsible for the clearance of larger particles. There is a lack of biologically relevant personal exposure metrics for exposure to occupational- and environmental-related micro- and nano-sized PM...
2017: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160538/fine-and-ultrafine-aerosol-in-ostrava-ambient-air
#19
Karel Lach, Karel Klouda, Vladimír Mička, Lucie Hellebrandová
Air quality in the Moravian-Silesian Region and especially in the Ostrava agglomeration represents a very important factor influencing the environment and health of the local population. The area has been burdend for more than two centuries with rapid development of the mining industry and related metallurgical and chemical production. As a result, hundreds of tons of pollutants have progressively been released into the atmosphere. Some of them have been gradually eliminated from the environment; others, such as some heavy metals, remain locally present and burden the local landscape...
December 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153538/photo-pollution-stress-in-skin-traces-of-pollutants-pah-and-particulate-matter-impair-redox-homeostasis-in-keratinocytes-exposed-to-uva1
#20
Jérémie Soeur, Jean-Philippe Belaïdi, Christel Chollet, Laurence Denat, Ariane Dimitrov, Christophe Jones, Philippe Perez, Martine Zanini, Olivia Zobiri, Sakina Mezzache, Dominique Erdmann, Guillaume Lereaux, Joan Eilstein, Laurent Marrot
BACKGROUND: It is likely that skin is exposed to low concentrations of pollutants such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) either through topical penetration by ultrafine particles or by systemic distribution. No precise estimation of pollutants in living skin is available, but literature has reported contamination of blood by PAH at concentrations in the nanomolar range. Some pollutants (PAH for example) are photo-reactive and phototoxic: sunlight and pollution might thus synergistically compromise skin health...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
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