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Ultrafine particles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629719/alpha-ketoglutarate-nanoparticles-a-potentially-effective-treatment-for-cyanide-poisoning
#1
Shaheen Sultana, Sushma Talegaonkar, Dhruv Kumar Nishad, Gaurav Mittal, F J Ahmad, Aseem Bhatnagar
The purpose of this research work was to prepare nanosized formulation of alpha ketoglutarate as dry powder inhaler for cyanide poisoning. Nanosizing can be approached by solid phase and liquid phase method. The different conditions encountered in both these approaches can greatly affect the particle characteristics. In this study milling and precipitation technique were compared to study their effect on α-KG particles characteristics. Differences in choice of stabilizers were observed between the two processing techniques...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629640/is-physical-activity-a-modifier-of-the-association-between-air-pollution-and-arterial-stiffness-in-older-adults-the-sapaldia-cohort-study
#2
Simon Endes, Emmanuel Schaffner, Seraina Caviezel, Julia Dratva, Daiana Stolz, Christian Schindler, Nino Künzli, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Nicole Probst-Hensch
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Air pollution and insufficient physical activity have been associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, molecular mechanisms linked to arterial stiffness and cardiovascular disease. There are no studies on how physical activity modifies the association between air pollution and arterial stiffness. We examined whether the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution were modified by individual physical activity levels in 2823 adults aged 50-81 years from the well-characterized Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases (SAPALDIA)...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629362/long-term-exposure-to-ambient-ultrafine-particles-and-respiratory-disease-incidence-in-in-toronto-canada-a-cohort-study
#3
Scott Weichenthal, Li Bai, Marianne Hatzopoulou, Keith Van Ryswyk, Jeffrey C Kwong, Michael Jerrett, Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall V Martin, Richard T Burnett, Hong Lu, Hong Chen
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term health effects of ambient ultrafine particles (<0.1 μm) (UFPs) including their association with respiratory disease incidence. In this study, we examined the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient UFPs and the incidence of lung cancer, adult-onset asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Our study cohort included approximately 1.1 million adults who resided in Toronto, Canada and who were followed for disease incidence between 1996 and 2012...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628138/-effects-of-exposure-to-ambient-particulate-matter-and-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-on-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-in-the-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
Y Zhang, X M Song, Q Zhao, T Wang, L J Li, J Chen, H B Xu, B B Liu, X Y Sun, B He, W Huang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on systemic oxidative stress biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. METHODS: A panel of forty-five diagnosed and stable COPD patients, whose residences were within 5 kilometers from Peking University Health Science Center (PKUHSC), were recruited and followed up twice between November 2014 and May 2015. The lung function index percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) to predicted value (FEV1%pred), was measured to reflect the severity of COPD patients...
June 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623310/one-pot-synthesis-of-geas-ultrafine-particles-from-coal-fly-ash-by-vacuum-dynamic-flash-reduction-and-inert-gas-condensation
#5
Lingen Zhang, Zhenming Xu
Ge-monopnictides (GeAs) plays critical role in high-tech industry, especially in the field of advanced optical devices and infrared. As a secondary material, coal fly ash could be further recycled to retrieve germanium and prepare GeAs material with high added values. Hence, the aim of this paper is to propose a one-pot synthesis that uses vacuum flash reduction and inert-gas consolidation method to prepare GeAs ultrafine particles. Germanium in coal fly ash can be successfully recycled; simultaneously, GeAs ultrafine particles were prepared...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595043/the-association-between-the-incidence-of-postmenopausal-breast-cancer-and-concentrations-at-street-level-of-nitrogen-dioxide-and-ultrafine-particles
#6
Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Scott Weichenthal, Eric Lavigne, Marie-France Valois, Marianne Hatzopoulou, Keith Van Ryswyk, Maryam Shekarrizfard, Paul J Villeneuve, Daniel Crouse, Marie-Élise Parent
BACKGROUND: There is scant information as to whether traffic-related air pollution is associated with the incidence of breast cancer. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ultrafine particles (UFPs, <0.1µm), are two pollutants that capture intra-urban variations in traffic-related air pollution and may also be associated with incidence. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, case-control study of street-level concentrations of NO2 and UFPs and incident postmenopausal breast cancer in Montreal, Canada...
June 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578391/nanoscale-spheroidized-cementite-induced-ultrahigh-strength-ductility-combination-in-innovatively-processed-ultrafine-grained-low-alloy-medium-carbon-steel
#7
N Jia, Y F Shen, J W Liang, X W Feng, H B Wang, R D K Misra
We describe here innovative processing of low alloy medium-carbon steel with a duplex microstructure composed of nanoscale spheroidized cementite (Fe3C) in an ultrafine-grained (UFG) ferritic steel. After multi-pass rolling and intermittent annealing at 550 °C for 300 s, the obtained UFG-1 steel showed an average ferrite grain size of ~430 nm, containing nanoscale spheroidized cementite (Fe3C) particles with an average size of ~70 nm. On annealing at 600 °C for 300 s, the average size of ferritic grains was increased to ~680 nm and the average size of spheroidized Fe3C particles increased to ~90 nm, referred as UFG-2 steel...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558429/workplace-exposure-and-release-of-ultrafine-particles-during-atmospheric-plasma-spraying-in-the-ceramic-industry
#8
M Viana, A S Fonseca, X Querol, A López-Lilao, P Carpio, A Salmatonidis, E Monfort
Atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is a frequently used technique to produce enhanced-property coatings for different materials in the ceramic industry. This work aimed to characterise and quantify the impact of APS on workplace exposure to airborne particles, with a focus on ultrafine particles (UFPs, <100nm) and nanoparticles (<50nm). Particle number, mass concentrations, alveolar lung deposited surface area concentration, and size distributions, in the range 10nm-20μm were simultaneously monitored at the emission source, in the potential worker breathing zone, and in outdoor air...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556812/ultrafine-particle-distribution-and-chemical-composition-assessment-during-military-operative-trainings
#9
Marcello Campagna, Ilaria Pilia, Gabriele Marcias, Andrea Frattolillo, Sergio Pili, Manuele Bernabei, Ernesto d'Aloja, Pierluigi Cocco, Giorgio Buonanno
(1) Background: The assessment of airborne particulate matter (PM) and ultrafine particles (UFPs) in battlefield scenarios is a topic of particular concern; (2) Methods: Size distribution, concentration, and chemical composition of UFPs during operative military training activities (target drone launches, ammunition blasting, and inert bomb impact) were investigated using an electric low-pressure impactor (ELPI+) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM), equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS); (3) Results: The median of UFPs, measured for all sampling periods and at variable distance from sources, was between 1...
May 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548846/ambient-size-distributions-and-lung-deposition-of-aerosol-dithiothreitol-measured-oxidative-potential-contrast-between-soluble-and-insoluble-particles
#10
Ting Fang, Linghan Zeng, Dong Gao, Vishal Verma, Aleksandr B Stefaniak, Rodney J Weber
Ambient particulate matter may upset redox homeostasis, leading to oxidative stress and adverse health effects. Size distributions of water-insoluble and water-soluble OP(DTT) (dithiothreitol assay, measure of oxidative potential per air volume) are reported for a roadside site and an urban site. The average water-insoluble fractions were 23% and 51%, and 37% and 39%, for fine and coarse modes at the roadside and urban sites, respectively, measured during different periods. Water-soluble OP(DTT) was unimodal, peaked near 1-2...
June 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544997/exposure-to-ultrafine-particles-in-different-transport-modes-in-the-city-of-rome
#11
Mario Grana, Nicola Toschi, Laura Vicentini, Antonio Pietroiusti, Andrea Magrini
There is evidence of adverse health impacts from human exposure to particulate air pollution, including increased rates of respiratory and cardiovascular illness, hospitalizations, and pre-mature mortality. Most recent hypotheses assign an important role to ultrafine particles (UFP) (<0.1 μm) and to associated transition metals (in particular Fe). In a large city like Rome, where many active people spend more than one hour per day in private or public transportation, it may be important to evaluate the level of exposure to harmful pollutants which occurs during urban travelling...
May 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541795/near-roadway-monitoring-of-vehicle-emissions-as-a-function-of-mode-of-operation-for-ldvs
#12
Dongqi Wen, Wenjuan Zhai, Sheng Xiang, Zhice Hu, Tongchuan Wei, Kenneth E Noll
Determination of the effect of vehicles emissions on air quality near roadways is important because vehicles are a major source of air pollution. A near roadway monitoring program was undertaken in Chicago between August 4 and October 30 2014 to measure ultrafine particles, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, traffic volume and speed, and wind direction and speed. The objective of this study was to develop a method to relate short term changes in traffic mode of operation to air quality near roadways using data averaged over 5 minute intervals to provide a better understanding of the processes controlling air pollution concentrations near roadways...
May 25, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540736/effects-of-diesel-exhaust-on-cardiovascular-function-and-oxidative-stress
#13
Simon Wilson, Mark R Miller, David E Newby
SIGNIFICANCE: Air pollution is a major global health concern with the particulate matter (PM) being especially associated with marked increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Diesel exhaust emissions are a particularly rich source of the smallest sizes of PM ("fine" and "ultrafine") in urban environments, and it is these particles that are believed to be the most detrimental to cardiovascular health. Recent Advances: Controlled exposure studies to diesel exhaust in animals and man demonstrate alterations in blood pressure, heart rate, vascular tone, endothelial function, myocardial perfusion, thrombosis, atherogenesis and plaque stability...
May 25, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518076/facile-preparation-of-ultrafine-aluminum-hydroxide-particles-with-or-without-mesoporous-mcm-41-in-ambient-environments
#14
Viktor Dubovoy, Ravi Subramanyam, Michael Stranick, Laurence Du-Thumm, Long Pan
An aqueous suspension of nanogibbsite was synthesized via the titration of aluminum aqua acid [Al(H2O)6](3+) with L-arginine to pH 4.6. Since the hydrolysis of aqueous aluminum salts is known to produce a wide array of products with a wide range of size distributions, a variety of state-of-the-art instruments (i.e., (27)Al/(1)H NMR, FTIR, ICP-OES, TEM-EDX, XPS, XRD, and BET) were used to characterize the synthesis products and identification of byproducts. The product, which was comprised of nanoparticles (10-30 nm), was isolated using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) column technique...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513319/effect-of-surface-functionalizations-of-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-on-neoplastic-transformation-potential-in-primary-human-lung-epithelial-cells
#15
Todd A Stueckle, Donna C Davidson, Ray Derk, Peng Wang, Sherri Friend, Diane Schwegler-Berry, Peng Zheng, Nianqiang Wu, Vince Castranova, Yon Rojanasakul, Liying Wang
Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (fMWCNT) development has been intensified to improve their surface activity for numerous applications, and potentially reduce toxic effects. Although MWCNT exposures are associated with lung tumorigenesis in vivo, adverse responses associated with exposure to different fMWCNTs in human lung epithelium are presently unknown. This study hypothesized that different plasma-coating functional groups determine MWCNT neoplastic transformation potential. Using our established model, human primary small airway epithelial cells (pSAECs) were continuously exposed for 8 and 12 weeks at 0...
June 2, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494836/pulmonary-toxicity-in-rats-caused-by-exposure-to-intratracheal-instillation-of-sio2-nanoparticles
#16
Hong Yang, Qiu Yun Wu, Ming Yue Li, Can Shan Lao, Ying Jian Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The effect of the silica nanoparticles (SNs) on lungs injury in rats was investigated to evaluate the toxicity and possible mechanisms for SNs. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were instilled intratracheally with 1 mL of saline containing 6.25, 12.5, and 25.0 mg of SNs or 25.0 mg of microscale SiO2 particles suspensions for 30 d, were then sacrificed. Histopathological and ultrastructural change in lungs, and chemical components in the urine excretions were investigated by light microscope, TEM and EDS...
April 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494303/hemocompatibility-of-inhaled-environmental-nanoparticles-potential-use-of-in-vitro-testing
#17
REVIEW
Eleonore Fröhlich
Hemocompatibility testing is an important part in the evaluation of nano-based medicines. However, it is not systematically used for the assessment of environmental particles since they do not come in contact with blood immediately. Studies on human exposure to air-borne particles and pulmonary exposure of rodents have reported alterations in blood physiology. It is not clear, whether these effects are majorly caused by tissue inflammation or translocated particles in blood. This review addresses the question, if in vitro hemocompatibility testing could help in the risk evaluation of inhaled particles...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485591/a-laboratory-comparison-of-emission-factors-number-size-distributions-and-morphology-of-ultrafine-particles-from-11-different-household-cookstove-fuel-systems
#18
Guofeng Shen, Chethan K Gaddam, Seth M Ebersviller, Randy L Vander Wal, Craig Williams, Jerroll W Faircloth, James J Jetter, Michael D Hays
Ultrafine particle (UFP) emissions and particle number size distributions (PNSD) are critical in the evaluation of air pollution impacts; however, data on UFP number emissions from cookstoves, which are a major source of many pollutants, are limited. In this study, 11 fuel-stove combinations covering a variety of fuels and different stoves are investigated for UFP emissions and PNSD. The combustion of LPG and alcohol (∼10(11) particles per useful energy delivered, particles/MJd), and kerosene (∼10(13) particles/MJd), produced emissions that were lower by 2-3 orders of magnitude than solid fuels (10(14)-10(15) particles/MJd)...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468124/temporal-evolution-of-ultrafine-particles-and-of-alveolar-deposited-surface-area-from-main-indoor-combustion-and-non-combustion-sources-in-a-model-room
#19
Maurizio Manigrasso, Matteo Vitali, Carmela Protano, Pasquale Avino
Aerosol number size distributions, PM mass concentrations, alveolar deposited surface areas (ADSAs) and VOC concentrations were measured in a model room when aerosol was emitted by sources frequently encountered in indoor environments. Both combustion and non-combustion sources were considered. The most intense aerosol emission occurred when combustion sources were active (as high as 4.1×10(7)particlescm(-3) for two meat grilling sessions; the first with exhaust ventilation, the second without). An intense spike generation of nucleation particles occurred when appliances equipped with brush electric motors were operating (as high as 10(6)particlescm(-3) on switching on an electric drill)...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458352/preparation-of-an-ultrafine-rebamipide-ophthalmic-suspension-with-high-transparency
#20
Takakuni Matsuda, Shogo Hiraoka, Hiroki Urashima, Ako Ogura, Tatsuhiro Ishida
A 2% commercially available, milky-white, rebamipide micro-particle suspension is used to treat dry eyes, and it causes short-term blurring of the patient's vision. In the current study, to improve the transparency of a rebamipide suspension, we attempted to obtain a clear rebamipide suspension by transforming the rebamipide particles to an ultrafine state. In the initial few efforts, various rebamipide suspensions were prepared using a neutralizing crystallization method with additives, but the suspensions retained their opaque quality...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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