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Ultrafine particles

Yuki Osaka, Satoshi Sugano, Shuichi Hashimoto
Fabricating nano-sized through-holes on a coverslip approximately 100 μm thick is challenging but rewarding when applied to ultrafine filters that separate proteins and DNA of various sizes and isolate viruses from cells. Toward this end, we developed an in situ etching-assisted laser processing technique exploiting gold nanoparticles. Plasmonic heating of a single gold nanoparticle through focused illumination of a continuous-wave laser beam enables structural modifications to be localized to the contact area on the glass surface...
October 18, 2016: Nanoscale
Xiaoru Zhang, Yan Yin, Zhenyi Lin, Yongxiang Han, Jian Hao, Liang Yuan, Kui Chen, Jinghua Chen, Shaofei Kong, Yunpeng Shan, Hui Xiao, Wen Tan
To quantify the physical/chemical properties, and the formation and growth processes of aerosol particles on mountainous regions in Southeast China, an intensive field campaign was conducted from April to July 2008 on the top of Mt. Huang (1840m above mean sea level). The average particle number concentration was 2.35×10(3)cm(-3), and the ultrafine particles (<0.1μm) represented 70.5% of the total particle number concentration. Excluding the accumulation mode particles, the average daytime particle number concentrations were prominently higher than those measured at nighttime, suggesting there was a diurnal pattern of changes between planetary boundary layer and free troposphere air...
October 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
V Rizza, L Stabile, G Buonanno, L Morawska
In the present study a mobile monitoring approach (i.e. bike with onboard instruments) was proposed and applied to investigate the spatial variability of all the key airborne particle metrics in an Italian urban area from a statistical point of view. Particle number, alveolar-deposited surface area, and PM10 concentrations were measured through hand-held monitors and compared to simultaneous background concentrations by means of non-parametric tests and further post-hoc tests (Kruskal-Wallis test). Streets characterized by exposure levels statistically higher than the background levels for all the particle metrics were identified for different seasons in a pilot urban area (Cassino, Italy)...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Shouwei Zhang, Huihui Gao, Xia Liu, Yong-Shun Huang, Xijin Xu, Njud S Alharbi, Tasawar Hayat, Jia-Xing Li
The smaller particle sizes, better dispersion and more heterojunction interfaces can enhance the photocatalytic performance of photocatalysts. Herein, ultradispersed amorphous silver silicates/ultrathin g-C3N4 nanosheets heterojunction composites (a-AgSiO/CNNS) with intimate interfacial coupling effect were synthesized through the facile in situ precipitation of ultrafine a-AgSiO (~5.2 nm) uniformly dispersed on the entire surface of hierarchical ultrathin CNNS. In this process, the ultrathin CNNS not only perform as the support to form heterostructures, but are employed as dispersant to confine the aggregation of a-AgSiO nanoparticles...
October 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Carlos Luna, Enrique Díaz Barriga-Castro, Alberto Gómez-Treviño, Nuria O Núñez, Raquel Mendoza-Reséndez
Coriander leaves and seeds have been highly appreciated since ancient times, not only due to their pleasant flavors but also due to their inhibitory activity on food degradation and their beneficial properties for health, both ascribed to their strong antioxidant activity. Recently, it has been shown that coriander leaf extracts can mediate the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles through oxidation/reduction reactions. In the present study, extracts of coriander leaves and seeds have been used as reaction media for the wet chemical synthesis of ultrafine silver nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters, with urchin- and tree-like shapes, coated by biomolecules (mainly, proteins and polyphenols)...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Evangelia Samoli, Richard W Atkinson, Antonis Analitis, Gary W Fuller, David Beddows, David C Green, Ian S Mudway, Roy M Harrison, H Ross Anderson, Frank J Kelly
BACKGROUND: There is ample evidence of adverse associations between short-term exposure to ambient particle mass concentrations and health but little is known about the relative contribution from various sources. METHODS: We used air particle composition and number networks in London between 2011 and 2012 to derive six source-related factors for PM10 and four factors for size distributions of ultrafine particles (NSD). We assessed the associations of these factors, at pre-specified lags, with daily total, cardiovascular (CVD) and respiratory mortality and hospitalizations using Poisson regression...
September 29, 2016: Environment International
Chun-Sheng Li, Yan Sun, Wei-Hong Lai, Jia-Zhao Wang, Shu-Lei Chou
The exploration of highly efficient catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction to improve sluggish kinetics still remains a great challenge for advanced energy conversion and storage in metal/air batteries. In this work, ultrafine Mn3O4 nanowires/three-dimensional graphene/single-walled carbon nanotube catalysts with an electron transfer number of 3.95 (at 0.60 V vs Ag/AgCl) and kinetic current density of 21.7-28.8 mA cm(-2) were developed via a microwave-irradiation-assisted hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant procedure to greatly enhance the overall catalytic performance in Mg/air batteries...
October 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Grethel León-Mejía, Luis F O Silva, Matheus S Civeira, Marcos L S Oliveira, Miriana Machado, Izabel Vianna Villela, Andreas Hartmann, Suziane Premoli, Dione Silva Corrêa, Juliana Da Silva, João Antônio Pêgas Henriques
Exposure to coal and coal ashes can cause harmful effects in in vitro and in vivo systems, mainly by the induction of oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic effects using the V79 cell line treated with coal and coal fly ash particles derived from a coal power plant located in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Two coal samples (COAL11 and COAL16) and two coal fly ash samples (CFA11 and CFA16) were included in this study. COAL16 was co-firing with a mixture of fuel oil and diesel oil...
September 16, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
P Piqueras, F Li, V Castelluccio, M Matsumoto, A Asa-Awuku
Airborne particle emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have been associated with health repercussions but particulate quantification studies are scarce. In this study, particulate matter (PM) number concentrations and size distributions in the ultrafine range (7-300 nm) were measured from two different sources: a laboratory-scale aerobic bioreactor and the activated sludge aeration basins at Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD). The relationships between wastewater parameters (total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total suspended solids (TSS)), aeration flow rate and particle concentrations were also explored...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Ekaterini Velali, Eleni Papachristou, Anastasia Pantazaki, Theodora Choli-Papadopoulou, Nikoleta Argyrou, Theodora Tsourouktsoglou, Stergios Lialiaris, Alexandros Constantinidis, Dimitrios Lykidis, Thedore S Lialiaris, Athanasios Besis, Dimitra Voutsa, Constantini Samara
Three organic fractions of different polarity, including a non polar organic fraction (NPOF), a moderately polar organic fraction (MPOF), and a polar organic fraction (POF) were obtained from size-segregated (<0.49, 0.49-0.97, 0.97-3 and >3 μm) urban particulate matter (PM) samples, and tested for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity using a battery of in vitro assays. The cytotoxicity induced by the organic PM fractions was measured by the mitochondrial dehydrogenase (MTT) cell viability assay applied on MRC-5 human lung epithelial cells...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Ida Teresia Kero, Rikke Bramming Jørgensen
The aim of this study was to compare the applicability and the correlation between three commercially available instruments capable of detection, quantification, and characterization of ultrafine airborne particulate matter in the industrial setting of a tapping area in a silicon alloy production plant. The number concentration of ultrafine particles was evaluated using an Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI(TM)), a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS(TM)), and a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). The results are discussed in terms of particle size distribution and temporal variations linked to process operations...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jing Wu, Yanfeng Shi, Collins Otieno Asweto, Lin Feng, Xiaozhe Yang, Yannan Zhang, Hejing Hu, Junchao Duan, Zhiwei Sun
Both ultrafine particles (UFP) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely present in the environment, thus increasing their chances of exposure to human in the daily life. However, the study on the combined toxicity of UFP and PAHs on respiratory system is still limited. In this study, we examined the potential interactive effects of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Cells were exposed to SiNPs and B[a]P alone or in combination for 24 h...
September 3, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jyotilima Saikia, Bardwi Narzary, Sonali Roy, Manobjyoti Bordoloi, Prasenjit Saikia, Binoy K Saikia
Studies on coal-derived nanoparticles as well as nano-minerals are important in the context of the human health and the environment. The coal combustion-generated aerosols also affect human health and environmental quality aspects in any coal-fired station. In this study, the feed coals and their combustion-generated aerosols from coal-fired boilers of two tea industry facilities were investigated for the presence of nanoparticles/nano minerals, fullerene aggregates, and potentially hazardous elements (PHEs)...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Haiyan Zhang, Longjian Chen, Minsheng Lu, Junbao Li, Lujia Han
BACKGROUND: Ultrafine grinding is an environmentally friendly pretreatment that can alter the degree of polymerization, the porosity and the specific surface area of lignocellulosic biomass and can, thus, enhance cellulose hydrolysis. Enzyme adsorption onto the substrate is a prerequisite for the enzymatic hydrolysis process. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the enzyme adsorption properties of corn stover pretreated by ultrafine grinding. RESULTS: The ultrafine grinding pretreatment was executed on corn stover...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Jessica L Axson, Nathaniel W May, Isabel D Colón-Bernal, Kerri A Pratt, Andrew P Ault
Aerosol production from wave breaking on freshwater lakes, including the Laurentian Great Lakes, is poorly understood in comparison to sea spray aerosol (SSA). Aerosols from freshwater have the potential to impact regional climate and public health. Herein, lake spray aerosol (LSA) is defined as aerosol generated from freshwater through bubble bursting, analogous to SSA from seawater. A chemical signature for LSA was determined from measurements of ambient particles collected on the southeastern shore of Lake Michigan during an event (July 6-8, 2015) with wave heights up to 3...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Cecilia Leoni, Jan Hovorka, Veronika Dočekalová, Tomáš Cajthaml, Soňa Marvanová
Industrial particulate matter (PM) air pollution exposing nearby residential areas forms several European air pollution hot-spots. One of these hot-spot is the residential district of Ostrava Radvanice-Bartovice with frequent exceedances for PM and benzo[a]pyrene B[a]P, a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) of MW > 228 amu. Such PAHs are highly bonded to the ultrafine particles (UFPs), the smallest PM size fraction, which deposits most efficiently in the alveolar region of human lungs. Airborne measurements identified UFP point sources in the adjacent metallurgical complex and mapped limited horizontal and vertical dispersion of industrial plumes enriched with UFPs (3...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Zonggao Hu, Yafei Zhao, Jindun Liu, Jingtao Wang, Bing Zhang, Xu Xiang
The highly active and selective aerobic oxidation of aromatic alcohols over earth-abundant, inexpensive and recyclable catalysts is highly desirable. We fabricated herein MnO2/graphene oxide (GO) composites by a facile in-situ growth approach at room temperature and used them in selective aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. TEM, XRD, FTIR, XPS and N2 adsorption/desorption analysis were employed to systematically investigate the morphology, particle size, structure and surface properties of the catalysts...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Yukiko Yasukawa, Xiaoxi Liu, Sagar E Shirsath, Hisayuki Suematsu, Yukio Kotaki, Yoshihiro Nemoto, Masaki Takeguchi, Akimitsu Morisako
Ordered, two-dimensional, self-organized Au nanoparticles were fabricated using radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The particles were uniformly spherical in shape and ultrafine in size (3-7 nm) and showed an ultrahigh density in the order of ∼10(12) inch(-2). A custom-developed sputtering apparatus that employs low sputtering power density and a minimized sputtering time (1 min) was used to markedly simplify the preparation conditions for Au nanoparticle fabrication. The spatial distribution of Au nanoparticles was rigorously controlled by placing a Ta interfacial layer between the Au nanoparticles and substrate as well as by post-annealing samples in an Ar atmosphere after the formation of Au nanoparticles...
September 23, 2016: Nanotechnology
Litao Yan, Gen Chen, Swagotom Sarker, Stephanie Richins, Huiqiang Wang, Weichuan Xu, Xianhong Rui, Hongmei Luo
Ultrafine niobium oxide nanocrystals/reduced graphene oxide (Nb2O5 NCs/rGO) was demonstrated as a promising anode material for sodium ion battery with high rate performance and high cycle durability. Nb2O5 NCs/rGO was synthesized by controllable hydrolysis of niobium ethoxide and followed by heat treatment at 450 °C in flowing forming gas. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that Nb2O5 NCs with average particle size of 3 nm were uniformly deposited on rGO sheets and voids among Nb2O5 NCs existed...
August 31, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yanan Chen, Yiju Li, Yanbin Wang, Kun Fu, Valencia A Danner, Jiaqi Dai, Steven D Lacey, Yonggang Yao, Liangbing Hu
High capacity battery electrodes require nanosized components to avoid pulverization associated with volume changes during the charge-discharge process. Additionally, these nanosized electrodes need an electronically conductive matrix to facilitate electron transport. Here, for the first time, we report a rapid thermal shock process using high-temperature radiative heating to fabricate a conductive reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite with silicon nanoparticles. Silicon (Si) particles on the order of a few micrometers are initially embedded in the RGO host and in situ transformed into 10-15 nm nanoparticles in less than a minute through radiative heating...
September 14, 2016: Nano Letters
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