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Environmental pollutants

Masafumi Yoshinaga, Hiromasa Ninomiya, M M Aeorangajeb Al Hossain, Makoto Sudo, Anwarul Azim Akhand, Nazmul Ahsan, Md Abdul Alim, Md Khalequzzaman, Machiko Iida, Ichiro Yajima, Nobutaka Ohgami, Masashi Kato
Chromium (Cr) pollution caused by wastewater from tanneries is a worldwide environmental problem. To develop a countermeasure, we performed a comprehensive study using Hazaribagh, the tannery area in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, as a model. Our environmental monitoring indicated that the soluble form of Cr, but not barium or arsenic, in Buriganga River is derived from Hazaribagh. Our chemical analysis next showed that Cr, the primary pollutant in canal water at Hazaribagh, consisted of ≤0.7 μM hexavalent Cr [Cr(VI)] and ≤1705 μM trivalent Cr [Cr(III)]...
March 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Jiade Wang, Tian Zhang, Yu Mei, Bingjun Pan
Reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) of printing and dyeing wastewater remains as a daunting environmental issue, which is characterized by high salinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), chroma and low biodegradability. In this study electro-oxidation process (PbO2 /Ti electrode) coupled with oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) online monitor was applied to treat such a ROC effluent. The results show that with the increase of specific electrical charge (Qsp ), the removal efficiencies of COD, TN and chroma increased significantly at the incipience and then reached a gentle stage; the optimal total current efficiency (12...
March 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Priti Sengupta, Aniruddha Ganguly, Adity Bose
The crucial role of chemosensor for the immediate recognition of environment pollutant motivates the researchers to develop variety of sensing protocols. Of various chemosensory protocols, the colour change observed by the naked eye is considered to be a conceivable and on-site way to indicate the presence of an analyte. We herein report a colourimetric and commercially available absorption probe, sinapic acid (SA) that is completely ready to use for "on-site" visual determination of copper ions. The molecule, SA is well-known phenolic acid, often utilized for its antibacterial activity...
March 3, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Rachel M Speer, Catherine F Wise, Jamie L Young, AbouEl-Makarim Aboueissa, Mark Martin Bras, Mike Barandiaran, Erick Bermúdez, Lirio Márquez-D'Acunti, John Pierce Wise
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a marine pollution of concern as recent studies show it has a global distribution, with some regions showing high Cr concentrations in marine animal tissue, and it is extensively used. Leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are an endangered marine species that may experience prolonged exposures to environmental contaminants including Cr(VI). Human activities have led to global Cr(VI) contamination of the marine environment. While Cr(VI) has been identified as a known human carcinogen, the health effects in marine species are poorly understood...
March 4, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Sohail Ahmed Rajper, Sana Ullah, Zhongqiu Li
Air pollution causes severe physical and psychological health complications. Considering China's continuously-deteriorating air quality, this study aimed to assess the self-reported effects of air pollution on the behavior and physical health of the students of 13 densely populated cities, and their awareness, practices, and perception of air pollution and its associated public health risks. A detailed, closed-ended questionnaire was administered to 2100 students from 54 universities and schools across China...
2018: PloS One
Ravi Prakash Saini, Venkat Raman, Gurusamy Dhandapani, Era Vaidya Malhotra, Rohini Sreevathsa, Polumetla Ananda Kumar, Tilak R Sharma, Debasis Pattanayak
The polyphagous insect-pest, Helicoverpa armigera, is a serious threat to a number of economically important crops. Chemical application and/or cultivation of Bt transgenic crops are the two strategies available now for insect-pest management. However, environmental pollution and long-term sustainability are major concerns against these two options. RNAi is now considered as a promising technology to complement Bt to tackle insect-pests menace. In this study, we report host-delivered silencing of HaAce1 gene, encoding the predominant isoform of H...
2018: PloS One
Ya-Chi Li, Hui-Ling Lin, Fang-Chun Liao, Sing-Siang Wang, Hsiu-Chu Chang, Hung-Fu Hsu, Sue-Hsien Chen, Gwo-Hwa Wan
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the difference in bacterial contamination between conventional reused ventilator systems and disposable closed ventilator-suction systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination rates of the reused and disposable ventilator systems, and the association between system disconnection and bacterial contamination of ventilator systems. METHODS: The enrolled intubated and mechanically ventilated patients used a conventional reused ventilator system and a disposable closed ventilator-suction system, respectively, for a week; specimens were then collected from the ventilator circuit systems to evaluate human and environmental bacterial contamination...
2018: PloS One
Maryam Dastoorpoor, Gholamreza Goudarzi, Narges Khanjani, Esmaeil Idani, Hamidreza Aghababaeian, Abbas Bahrampour
OBJECTIVES: There are few studies about the association between breathing polluted air and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and cardiac death in the Middle East. This study aimed to investigate the relation between air pollutants and cardiovascular mortality (based on ICD-10) in Ahvaz. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this ecological study, the data about cardiovascular disease mortality and air pollutants from March 2008 until March 2015 was inquired from the Ahvaz City Authority and the Khuzestan Province Environmental Protection Agency...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Joseph Ashley Kirkly, Gretchen K Bielmyer-Fraser, John F Elder, David L Bechler
This study examines the microgeographic structure of the Alapahoochee watershed, part of the Suwannee River basin, south-central GA, USA, and relates it to variations in liver metal concentrations and genetic structure of the Florida cottonmouth, Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti. One objective was to determine if liver metal concentrations in A. piscivorus differ between Grand Bay and Mud creeks, which form the watershed's upper portion. Grand Bay Creek is relatively pristine, whereas Mud Creek is polluted with various metals...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Bechir Raggad
This study investigates the existence of long-run relationship between CO2 emissions, economic growth, energy use, and urbanization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971-2014. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach with structural breaks, where structural breaks are identified with the recently impulse saturation break tests, is applied to conduct the analysis. The bounds test result supports the existence of long-run relationship among the variables. The existence of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis has also been tested...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dipesh Rupakheti, Shichang Kang, Maheswar Rupakheti, Zhiyuan Cong, Lekhendra Tripathee, Arnico K Panday, Brent N Holben
For the first time, aerosol optical properties are measured over Lumbini, Nepal, with CIMEL sunphotometer of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) program. Lumbini is a sacred place as the birthplace of Lord Buddha, and thus a UNESCO world heritage site, located near the northern edge of the central Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and before the Himalayan foothills (and Himalayas) to its north. Average aerosol optical depth (AOD) is found to be 0.64 ± 0.38 (0.06-3.28) over the sampling period (January 2013-December 2014), with the highest seasonal AOD during the post-monsoon season (0...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yehuda Ben-Shahar
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that acts as a metal co-factor in diverse biochemical and cellular functions. However, chronic environmental exposure to high levels of Mn is a well-established risk factor for the etiology of severe, atypical parkinsonian syndrome (manganism) via its accumulation in the basal ganglia, pallidum, and striatum brain regions, which is often associated with abnormal dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neural signaling. Recent studies have indicated that chronic Mn exposure at levels that are below the risk for manganism can still cause behavioral, cognitive, and motor dysfunctions via poorly understood mechanisms at the molecular and cellular levels...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Shumeng Kou, Gilles Vincent, Emmanuel Gonzalez, Frederic E Pitre, Michel Labrecque, Nicholas J B Brereton
Industrial and agricultural activities have caused extensive metal contamination of land throughout China and across the globe. The pervasive nature of metal pollution can be harmful to human health and can potentially cause substantial negative impact to the biosphere. To investigate the impact of anthropogenic metal pollution found in high concentrations in industrial, agricultural, and urban environments, 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to track change in the amplified microbial community after metal contamination in a large-scale field experiment in Shanghai...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Immacolata Castellano, Oriana Migliaccio, Giarita Ferraro, Elisa Maffioli, Daniela Marasco, Antonello Merlino, Adriana Zingone, Gabriella Tedeschi, Anna Palumbo
The major yolk protein toposome plays crucial roles during gametogenesis and development of sea urchins. We previously found that nitration of toposome increases in the gonads of a Paracentrotus lividus population living in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata, compared to control populations. This modification is associated with ovatoxin accumulation, high levels of nitric oxide in the gonads, and a remarkable impairment of progeny development. However, nothing is known about the environmental-mediated-regulation of the structure and biological function of toposome...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jenny Q Ouyang, Scott Davies, Davide Dominoni
Alternation between day and night is a predictable environmental fluctuation that organisms use to time their activities. Since the invention of artificial lighting, this predictability has been disrupted and continues to change in a unidirectional fashion with increasing urbanization. As hormones mediate individual responses to changing environments, endocrine systems might be one of the first systems affected, as well as being the first line of defense to ameliorate any negative health impacts. In this Review, we first highlight how light can influence endocrine function in vertebrates...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jia Wen, Ying Fang, Guangming Zeng
The efficient removal of heavy metals (HMs) from the environment has become an important issue from both biological and environmental perspectives. Recently, porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), combining central metals and organic ligands, have been proposed as promising materials in the capture of various toxic substances, including HMs, due to their unique characteristics. Here we review recent progress in the field of water remediation from the perspective of primary HMs (including divalent metals and variable-valent metals) in water pollution and the corresponding MOFs (including virgin and modified MOFs, magnetic MOFs composites and so on) that can remove these metals from water...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Anyu Yu, Guangshe Jia, Jianxin You, Puwei Zhang
The particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 ) is a serious air-pollutant emission in China, which has caused serious risks to public health. To reduce the pollution and corresponding public mortality, this paper proposes a method by incorporating slacks-based data envelopment analysis (DEA) and an integrated exposure risk (IER) model. By identifying the relationship between the PM2.5 concentration and mortality, the potential PM2.5 concentration efficiency and mortality reduction were measured. The proposed method has been applied to China's 243 cities in 2015...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Michael J Fay, Lauren A C Alt, Dominika Ryba, Ribhi Salamah, Ryan Peach, Alexander Papaeliou, Sabina Zawadzka, Andrew Weiss, Nil Patel, Asad Rahman, Zyaria Stubbs-Russell, Peter C Lamar, Joshua R Edwards, Walter C Prozialeck
Cadmium (Cd) is a nephrotoxic environmental pollutant that causes a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule characterized by polyuria and proteinuria. Even though the effects of Cd on the kidney have been well-characterized, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects have not been fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate cellular and physiologic function by modulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The goal of the present study was to determine if Cd affects renal cortex miRNA expression in a well-established animal model of Cd-induced kidney injury...
March 15, 2018: Toxics
Liancheng Bing, Aixiu Tian, Fang Wang, Kaifeng Yi, Xingyuan Sun, Guangjian Wang
Hierarchical SSZ-13 microspheres with abundant mesoporous channels have been successfully synthesized by addition of calcined SSZ-13 crystals in the starting gel in the absence of any organic templates. This strategy not only remarkably reduces the production cost and environmental pollution but also significantly decreases the crystallization time as well as evidently reducing the zeolite crystal sizes in many cases. The synthesized sample was characterized by XRD, BET, ICP, SEM, TEM, TG, and NH3-TPD, which indicates that the organic template free synthesized SSZ-13 exhibits high crystallinity, textural properties, and acidity...
March 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Prabha R Nair, Revathy S Ajayakumar, Liji Mary David, Imran A Girach, Kavitha Mottungan
This paper presents the first observational results from an Indian station on the long-term changes in surface ozone (O3 )-a major environmental pollutant and green house gas-over a period of about 40 years. It is based on the in situ measurements carried out during 1973-1975, 1983-1985, 1997-1998 and 2004-2014 at the tropical coastal station, Thiruvananthapuram. From 1973 to 1997, surface O3 shows a slow increase of ~ 0.1 ppb year-1 and a faster increase of 0.4 ppb year-1 afterwards till 2009 after which it showed a levelling off till 2012 followed by a minor decrease...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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