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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779267/%C3%AE-synuclein-activates-innate-immunity-but-suppresses-interferon-%C3%AE-expression-in-murine-astrocytes
#1
Jintang Wang, Zheng Chen, Jeremy Walston, Peisong Gao, Maolong Gao, Sean X Leng
Glial activation and neuroinflammation contribute to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, linked to neuron loss and dysfunction. α-Synuclein (α-syn), as a metabolite of neuron, can induce microglia activation to trigger innate immune response. However, whether α-syn, as well as its mutants (A53T, A30P and E46K), induces astrocyte activation and inflammatory response is not fully elucidated. In this study, we used A53T mutant and wildtype α-syns to stimulate primary astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manners (0...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779239/indoor-trichoderma-strains-emitting-peptaibols-in-guttation-droplets
#2
E Castagnoli, T Marik, R Mikkola, L Kredics, M A Andersson, H Salonen, J Kurnitski
AIMS: The production of peptaibols, toxic secondary metabolites of Trichoderma, in the indoor environment is not well-documented. Here we investigated the toxicity of peptaibols in the guttation droplets and biomass of Trichoderma strains isolated from problematic buildings. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seven indoor-isolated strains of T. atroviride, T. trixiae, T. paraviridescens and T. citrinoviride were cultivated on malt extract agar, gypsum boards and paperboards. Their biomass extracts and guttation droplets were highly cytotoxic in resting and motile boar sperm cell assays and in inhibition of somatic cell proliferation assays...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779229/codeinone-reductase-isoforms-with-differential-stability-efficiency-and-product-selectivity-in-opium-poppy
#3
Mehran Dastmalchi, Limei Chang, Miguel A Torres, Kenneth K S Ng, Peter J Facchini
Codeinone reductase (COR) catalyzes the reversible NADPH-dependent reduction of codeinone to codeine as the penultimate step of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). COR also irreversibly reduces neopinone, which forms by spontaneous isomerization in aqueous solution from codeinone, to neopine. In a parallel pathway involving 3-O-desmethylated analogs, COR converts morphinone to morphine, and neomorphinone to neomorphine. Similar to neopine, neomorphine formation by COR is irreversible...
May 19, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779216/glutamate-metabolism-in-cerebral-mitochondria-after-ischemia-and-post-ischemic-recovery-during-aging-relationships-with-brain-energy-metabolism
#4
Federica Ferrari, Antonella Gorini, Siegfried Hoyer, Roberto Federico Villa
Glutamate is involved in cerebral ischemic injury, but its role has not been completely clarified and studies are required to understand how minimize its detrimental effects, contemporarily boosting the positive ones. In fact, glutamate is not only a neurotransmitter, but primarily a key metabolite for brain bioenergetics. Thus, we investigated the relationships between glutamate and brain energy metabolism in an in vivo model of complete cerebral ischemia of 15 min and during post-ischemic recovery after 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs in 1 year- adult and 2 year-old aged rats...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779173/long-lasting-high-lysine-diet-aggravates-white-matter-injury-in-glutaryl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficient-gcdh-mice
#5
Silvia Olivera-Bravo, Bianca Seminotti, Eugenia Isasi, César A Ribeiro, Guilhian Leipnitz, Michael Woontner, Stephen I Goodman, Diogo Souza, Luis Barbeito, Moacir Wajner
Glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I) is a neurometabolic disease caused by deficient activity of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) that results in accumulation of metabolites derived from lysine (Lys), hydroxylysine, and tryptophan catabolism. GA-I patients typically develop encephalopatic crises with striatal degeneration and progressive white matter defects. However, late onset patients as well as Gcdh-/- mice only suffer diffuse myelinopathy, suggesting that neuronal death and white matter defects are different pathophysiological events...
May 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779093/pharmacokinetics-of-the-novel-selective-non-steroidal-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonist-finerenone-in-healthy-volunteers-results-from-an-absolute-bioavailability-study-and-drug-drug-interaction-studies-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Roland Heinig, Michael Gerisch, Anna Engelen, Johannes Nagelschmitz, Stephanie Loewen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Finerenone is a selective, non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. In vivo and in vitro studies were performed to assess absolute bioavailability of finerenone, the effect of metabolic enzyme inhibitors on the pharmacokinetics of finerenone and its metabolites, the quantitative contribution of the involved enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and CYP2C8 and the relevance of gut wall versus liver metabolism. METHODS: The pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of finerenone (1...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778932/dynamics-of-paralytic-shellfish-toxins-and-their-metabolites-during-timecourse-exposure-of-scallops-chlamys-farreri-and-mussels-mytilus-galloprovincialis-to-alexandrium-pacificum
#7
Jiangbing Qiu, Fanping Meng, Ling Ding, Yijia Che, Pearse McCarron, Daniel G Beach, Aifeng Li
New C-11 hydroxyl metabolites of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) have been reported in shellfish. To gain further information on these metabolites, as well as the potential for formation of phase-II metabolites and acyl esters of PSTs, bivalves were fed with the PSTs-producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum (strain ATHK). Through independent experiments, scallops (Chlamys farreri) were fed for 9 days and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) for 5 days plus an additional 5 days of depuration, with representative samples taken throughout...
May 16, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778874/simultaneous-determination-of-dihydrotestosterone-and-its-metabolites-in-mouse-sera-by-lc-ms-ms-with-chemical-derivatization
#8
Shashank Gorityala, Shuming Yang, Monica M Montano, Yan Xu
Androgens play a vital role in prostate cancer development, and their elimination and blockade are essential in the disease management. DHT is the key ligand for androgen receptor (AR) in the prostate. It is locally synthesized from testosterone. In the prostate, DHT is predominantly metabolized to α-diol and β-diol. Recent studies indicate that impaired DHT catabolism is associated with prostate cancer, signifying the necessity of a sensitive quantitative method for the determination of DHT and its metabolites...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778873/bioanalysis-of-ibrutinib-and-its-dihydrodiol-and-glutathione-cycle-metabolites-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#9
J J M Rood, P J A Dormans, M J van Haren, J H M Schellens, J H Beijnen, R W Sparidans
Ibrutinib is a targeted covalent inhibitor frequently used for the treatment of various lymphomas. In addition to oxidative metabolism, it is metabolized through glutathione coupling. The quantitative insight into this kind of metabolism is scarce, and tools for quantitation are lacking. The non-oxidative metabolism could prove a more prominent role when oxidative metabolism is impaired. Also, in-vitro studies could over-estimate the effect of CYP450-inhibition. To gain quantitative insight into this relatively unknown biotransformation pathway of the drug we have developed a validated simple, fast and sensitive bio-analytical assay for ibrutinib, dihydrodiol-ibrutinib, and the glutathione, cysteinylglycine and cysteine conjugates of ibrutinib in human plasma...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778872/derivatization-method-for-the-quantification-of-lactic-acid-in-cell-culture-media-via-gas-chromatography-and-applications-in-the-study-of-cell-glycometabolism
#10
Hua-Yin Zhang, Ping-Ping Zhang, Xiao-Xin Tan, Ze-Ze Wang, Kao-Qi Lian, Xiang-Dong Xu, Wei-Jun Kang
Lactic acid represents an important metabolite that reflects mitochondria function and may further serve as energy source for cancer cells. In light of this physiological and pathological significance, we developed a novel and sensitive gas chromatography method to detect lactic acid in cell culture media. Here, ethyl chloroformate was selected as derivative reagent and the derivatization process was further optimized in terms of number of reagents and reaction time as well as extraction reagents. Under optimal conditions, good linearity was achieved in the tested calibration range...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778843/a-synbiotic-improves-the-immunity-of-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-metabolomic-analyses-reveal-compelling-evidence
#11
Truong-Giang Huynh, Ann-Chang Cheng, Chia-Chun Chi, Kuo-Hsun Chiu, Chun-Hung Liu
In this study, we examined the synergistic effects of a diet-administered synbiotic comprising galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 7-40 on immune responses, immune-related gene expressions, and disease resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. To unravel the regulatory role of the synbiotic in activating the immune system of shrimp, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic analyses were used to investigate hepatopancreas metabolites, then significantly altered metabolites were confirmed in both the hepatopancreas and plasma by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and spectrophotometric analyses...
May 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778832/glucocorticoid-metabolites-in-newborns-a-marker-for-traffic-noise-related-stress
#12
Manuella Lech Cantuaria, Jakob Usemann, Elena Proietti, Victoria Blanes-Vidal, Bernhard Dick, Christa E Flück, Simone Rüedi, Harris Héritier, Jean-Marc Wunderli, Philipp Latzin, Urs Frey, Martin Röösli, Danielle Vienneau
BACKGROUND: Traffic noise has been associated with an increased risk for several non-auditory health effects, which may be explained by a noise-induced release of stress hormones (e.g. glucocorticoids). Although several studies in children and adults have indicated an increased secretion of glucocorticoids after exposure to noise, information regarding newborns is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between residential exposure to road traffic noise and postnatal stress response, as assessed by the concentration of glucocorticoids at five weeks of age...
May 17, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778814/environmental-and-lifestyle-factors-affecting-exposure-to-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-the-general-population-in-a-middle-eastern-area
#13
Mohammad Hoseini, Ramin Nabizadeh, Juana Maria Delgado-Saborit, Ata Rafiee, Kamyar Yaghmaeian, Saeid Parmy, Sasan Faridi, Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand, Masud Yunesian, Kazem Naddafi
The aim of this study was to investigate environmental and lifestyle factors affecting exposure to PAHs in the general population in a large city of the Middle East (Tehran) by measuring urinary monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and establishing relationships between PAHs exposure and related factors. Urine samples were collected from 222 randomly chosen subjects who were living in the urban area of Tehran, Iran. Subjects were required to complete a detailed questionnaire aimed to document their personal and sociodemographic information, activities, cooking-related appliances, smoking history/exposure, and consumed foodstuff...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778785/oral-ibuprofen-differentially-affects-plasma-and-sweat-lipid-mediator-profiles-in-healthy-adult-males
#14
Karan Agrawal, Rémy Bosviel, Brian D Piccolo, John W Newman
Sweat contains a variety of lipid mediators, but whether they originate from the plasma filtrate or from the cutaneous sweat glandular tissues themselves is unknown. To explore this knowledge gap, we collected plasma and sweat from healthy men (n = 9) immediately before and 0.5, 2 and 4 h after oral administration of 400 mg ibuprofen. Of the over 100 lipid mediators assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, ~45 were detected in both plasma and sweat, and 36 were common to both matrices...
May 17, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778741/changes-in-lipid-protein-and-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-spodoptera-exigua-larvae-associated-with-infection-by-heliothis-virescens-ascovirus-3h
#15
Zi-Qi Li, Huan Yu, Guo-Hua Huang
Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae were used to analyze the regulation of lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism in host larvae infected with the Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3h (HvAV-3h). Using histological sections, significant pathological changes were found in the fat bodies of infected larvae from 24 h to 72 h post-infection (hpi). The lipid and protein contents of the infected larvae were significantly higher than those of the uninfected larvae, while the carbohydrate content of the infected larvae was significantly lower than that of the mock-infected larvae...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778575/tanzawaic-acid-derivatives-from-freshwater-sediment-derived-fungus-penicillium-sp
#16
Miada F Abdelwahab, Mostafa A Fouad, Mohamed S Kamel, Ferhat Can Özkaya, Rainer Kalscheuer, Werner E G Müller, Wenhan Lin, Zhen Liu, Weaam Ebrahim, Georgios Daletos, Peter Proksch
Chemical investigation of a freshwater sediment-derived fungus, Penicillium sp. (S1a1), led to the isolation of three new tanzawaic acid derivatives, including penitanzchroman (1), tanzawaic acids Y (2) and Z (3), along with six known tanzawaic acid analogues (4-9), three known isochromans (10-12) and two known benzoquinones (13 and 14). The structures of the new compounds were established based on high-resolution mass spectrometry, and detailed analysis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The relative configuration of the new compounds was assigned on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data including ROESY spectra...
May 17, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778573/metabolites-from-the-endophytic-fungus-cylindrocarpon-sp-isolated-from-tropical-plant-sapium-ellipticum
#17
Ramsay S T Kamdem, Wafo Pascal, Nidja Rehberg, Lasse van Geelen, Simon-Patrick Höfert, Tim-Oliver Knedel, Christoph Janiak, Parichat Sureechatchaiyan, Matthias U Kassack, Wenhan Lin, Rainer Kalscheuer, Zhen Liu, Peter Proksch
Three new polyketides, cylindrocarpones A-C (1-3), two new pyridone alkaloids, cylindrocarpyridones A-B (5-6), a new pyrone cylindropyrone (7), together with seven know compounds were isolated from the endophytic fungus, Cylindrocarpon sp., obtained from the tropical plant Sapium ellipticum. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS). The absolute configuration of 19-O-methyl-pyrrocidine B (13) was confirmed by X-ray analysis...
May 17, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778564/simultaneous-quantification-of-systemic-azoles-and-their-major-metabolites-in-human-serum-by-hplc-pda-role-of-azole-metabolic-rate
#18
Alicia Gomez-Lopez, Laura Alcazar-Fuoli, Leticia Bernal-Martínez
We describe the development and validation of a novel liquid chromatography assay (HPLC/PDA) for simultaneous quantification of voriconazole, itraconazole, and posaconazole, as well as some of their major metabolites, voriconazole N-oxide and hydroxy-itraconazole, in human serum. Analytes were detected using a PDA system that allows the characterization of the specific UV spectra of each compound. The assay exhibited linearity between 0.25-16 mg/L for all the compounds tested. The accuracy and within- and between-day precision of the assay were in acceptable ranges...
April 14, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778495/protection-of-photosynthesis-in-desiccation-tolerant-resurrection-plants
#19
Dinakar Challabathula, Qingwei Zhang, Dorothea Bartels
Inhibition of photosynthesis is a central, primary response that is observed in both desiccation-tolerant and desiccation-sensitive plants affected by drought stress. Decreased photosynthesis during drought stress can either be due to the limitation of carbon dioxide entry through the stomata and the mesophyll cells, due to increased oxidative stress or due to decreased activity of photosynthetic enzymes. Although the photosynthetic rates decrease in both desiccation-tolerant and sensitive plants during drought, the remarkable difference lies in the complete recovery of photosynthesis after rehydration in desiccation-tolerant plants...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778492/tanovea%C3%A2-for-the-treatment-of-lymphoma-in-dogs
#20
REVIEW
Erik De Clercq
Tanovea® (first named GS-9219, then VDC-1101, generic name: rabacfosadine) is a pro-prodrug or "double" prodrug of PMEG [9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)guanine], which has been conditionally approved by the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) for the treatment of lymphoma in dogs. Tanovea has been demonstrated to be effective against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in dogs, as well as canine cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, spontaneous canine multiple myeloma, naïve canine multicentric lymphoma and relapsed canine B-cell lymphoma...
May 17, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
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