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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156743/hepatitis-c-virus-core-overcomes-all-trans-retinoic-acid-induced-apoptosis-in-human-hepatoma-cells-by-inhibiting-p14-expression-via-dna-methylation
#1
Juri Kwak, Jung-Hye Choi, Kyung Lib Jang
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), the most biologically active metabolite of vitamin A, is known to induce p14 expression via promoter hypomethylation to activate the p14-MDM2-p53 pathway, which leads to activation of the p53-dependent apoptotic pathway and subsequent induction of apoptosis in human hepatoma cells. In the present study, we found that hepatitis C virus (HCV) Core derived from ectopic expression or HCV infection overcomes ATRA-induced apoptosis in p53-positive hepatoma cells. For this effect, HCV Core upregulated both protein levels and enzyme activities of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), DNMT3a, and DNMT3b and thereby repressed p14 expression via promoter hypermethylation, resulting in inactivation of the pathway leading to p53 accumulation in the presence of ATRA...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156692/increased-transcriptional-and-metabolic-capacity-for-lipid-metabolism-in-the-peripheral-zone-of-the-prostate-may-underpin-its-increased-susceptibility-to-cancer
#2
Omar Al Kadhi, Maria H Traka, Antonietta Melchini, Perla Troncoso-Rey, Wiktor Jurkowski, Marianne Defernez, Purnima Pachori, Robert D Mills, Richard Y Ball, Richard F Mithen
The human prostate gland comprises three distinct anatomical glandular zones, namely the peripheral, central and transitional zones. Although prostate cancer can arise throughout the prostate, it is more frequent in the peripheral zone. In contrast, hyperplasia occurs most frequently in the transitional zone. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that peripheral and transitional zones have distinct metabolic adaptations that may underlie their different inherent predispositions to cancer and hyperplasia. In order to do this, we undertook RNA sequencing and high-throughput metabolic analyses of non-cancerous tissue from the peripheral and transitional zones of patients undergoing prostatectomy...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156684/a-prenatal-interruption-of-disc1-function-in-the-brain-exhibits-a-lasting-impact-on-adult-behaviors-brain-metabolism-and-interneuron-development
#3
Dazhi Deng, Chongdong Jian, Ling Lei, Yijing Zhou, Colleen McSweeney, Fengping Dong, Yilun Shen, Donghua Zou, Yonggang Wang, Yuan Wu, Limin Zhang, Yingwei Mao
Mental illnesses like schizophrenia (SCZ) and major depression disorder (MDD) are devastating brain disorders. The SCZ risk gene, disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), has been associated with neuropsychiatric conditions. However, little is known regarding the long-lasting impacts on brain metabolism and behavioral outcomes from genetic insults on fetal NPCs during early life. We have established a new mouse model that specifically interrupts DISC1 functions in NPCs in vivo by a dominant-negative DISC1 (DN-DISC1) with a precise temporal and spatial regulation...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156609/green-routes-for-the-production-of-enantiopure-benzylisoquinoline-alkaloids
#4
REVIEW
Francesca Ghirga, Alessandra Bonamore, Lorenzo Calisti, Ilaria D'Acquarica, Mattia Mori, Bruno Botta, Alberto Boffi, Alberto Macone
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are among the most important plant secondary metabolites, in that they include a number of biologically active substances widely employed as pharmaceuticals. Isolation of BIAs from their natural sources is an expensive and time-consuming procedure as they accumulate in very low levels in plant. Moreover, total synthesis is challenging due to the presence of stereogenic centers. In view of these considerations, green and scalable methods for BIA synthesis using fully enzymatic approaches are getting more and more attention...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156542/computational-approaches-for-integrative-analysis-of-the-metabolome-and-microbiome
#5
REVIEW
Jasmine Chong, Jianguo Xia
The study of the microbiome, the totality of all microbes inhabiting the host or an environmental niche, has experienced exponential growth over the past few years. The microbiome contributes functional genes and metabolites, and is an important factor for maintaining health. In this context, metabolomics is increasingly applied to complement sequencing-based approaches (marker genes or shotgun metagenomics) to enable resolution of microbiome-conferred functionalities associated with health. However, analyzing the resulting multi-omics data remains a significant challenge in current microbiome studies...
November 18, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156512/the-possible-mechanisms-involved-in-citrinin-elimination-by-cryptococcus-podzolicus-y3-and-the-effects-of-extrinsic-factors-on-the-degradation-of-citrinin
#6
Xiaoyun Zhang, Zhen Lin, Maurice Tibiru Apaliya, Xiangyu Gu, Xiangfeng Zheng, Lina Zhao, Mandour Haydar Abdelhai, Hongyin Zhang, Weicheng Hu
Citrinin (CIT) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by fungi belonging to the Penicillium, Aspergillus and Monascus spp. This toxin has been detected in many agricultural products. In this study, a strain Y3 with the ability to eliminate CIT was screened and identified as Cryptococcus podzolicus based on the sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Neither uptake of CIT by cells nor adsorption by cell wall was involved in CIT elimination by Cryptococcus podzolicus Y-3. The extracellular metabolites of Cryptococcus podzolicus Y-3 stimulated by CIT or not showed no degradation for CIT...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156487/evolution-and-molecular-mechanism-of-four-electron-reducing-ferredoxin-dependent-bilin-reductases-from-oceanic-phages
#7
Benjamin Ledermann, Meike Schwan, Johannes A Sommerkamp, Eckhard Hofmann, Oded Béjà, Nicole Frankenberg-Dinkel
Ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductases (FDBRs) are a class of enzymes reducing the heme metabolite biliverdin IXα (BV) to form open-chain tetrapyrroles used for light-perception and light-harvesting in photosynthetic organisms. Thus far, seven FDBR families have been identified, each catalyzing a distinct reaction and either transferring two or four electrons from ferredoxin onto the substrate. The newest addition to the family is PcyX, originally identified from metagenomics data derived from phage. Phylogenetically, PcyA is the closest relative catalyzing the reduction of BV to phycocyanobilin...
November 20, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156431/pathway-of-oxfendazole-from-the-host-into-the-worm-trichuris-suis-in-pigs
#8
Tina V A Hansen, Andrew R Williams, Matthew Denwood, Peter Nejsum, Stig M Thamsborg, Christian Friis
It is well known that the efficacy of a single oral dose of benzimidazoles against Trichuris spp. infections in humans and animals is poor, but is currently still used in control programmes against human trichuriasis. However, the route of the benzimidazoles from the treated host to Trichuris remains unknown. As parts of adult Trichuris are situated intracellularly in the caecum, they might be exposed to anthelmintic drugs in the intestinal content as well as the mucosa. In this study, the pathway of oxfendazole and its metabolites was explored using a T...
November 9, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156365/antidepressant-polypharmacy-and-the-potential-of-pharmacokinetic-interactions-doxepin-but-not-mirtazapine-causes-clinically-relevant-changes-in-venlafaxine-metabolism
#9
Michael Paulzen, Ekkehard Haen, Christoph Hiemke, Bianca Fay, Sandra Unholzer, Gerhard Gründer, Georgios Schoretsanitis
BACKGROUND: To uncover pharmacokinetic interactions between venlafaxine and doxepin or mirtazapine in a naturalistic sample. METHODS: A therapeutic drug monitoring database containing plasma concentrations of venlafaxine (VEN) and its active metabolite O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODVEN) was analyzed. We included 1067 of 1594 patients in the analysis. Three study groups were considered; a group of patients under venlafaxine without confounding medications, V0 (n = 905), a group of patients co-medicated with doxepin, VDOX (n = 25) and a second group, co-medicated with mirtazapine, VMIR, n = 137...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156344/neurotransmitter-changes-in-rat-brain-regions-following-glyphosate-exposure
#10
María-Aránzazu Martínez, Irma Ares, José-Luis Rodríguez, Marta Martínez, María-Rosa Martínez-Larrañaga, Arturo Anadón
The effects of glyphosate oral exposure (35, 75, 150 and 800mg/kg bw, 6 days) on brain region monoamine levels of male Wistar rats were examined. Glyphosate-treated rats (35, 75, 150 and 800mg/kg bw, 6 days), had no visible injury, i.e., no clinical signs of dysfunction were observed. After last dose of glyphosate, serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) and its metabolites levels were determined in the brain regions striatum, hippocampus, prefrontal, cortex, hypothalamus and midbrain, by HPLC...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156328/role-of-hair-pigmentation-in-drug-incorporation-into-hair
#11
Hyerim Yu, Won-Jun Jang, Jung-Hee Jang, Byoungduck Park, Young Ho Seo, Chul-Ho Jeong, Sooyeun Lee
Hair analysis has notably expanded its application as a bio-monitor for drug or toxicant exposure. Hair pigmentation is proposed as a major factor affecting drug incorporation into hair; however, the mechanisms underlying the incorporation of drugs into hair are still unclear. In the present study, the effect of hair pigmentation on drug incorporation into hair was examined using rats carrying hair with different melanin status and human cells (SK-Mel-28 cells, HaCaT cells and the co-cultured HaCaT cells with SK-Mel-28 cells) representing the main pigmentary unit in hair...
November 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156309/recent-development-of-computational-resources-for-new-antibiotics-discovery
#12
REVIEW
Hyun Uk Kim, Kai Blin, Sang Yup Lee, Tilmann Weber
Understanding a complex working mechanism of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) encoding secondary metabolites is a key to discovery of new antibiotics. Computational resources continue to be developed in order to better process increasing volumes of genome and chemistry data, and thereby better understand BGCs. In this context, this review highlights recent advances in computational resources for secondary metabolites with emphasis on genome mining, compound identification and dereplication as well as databases...
November 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156286/phytotoxicity-of-pyrethroid-pesticides-and-its-metabolite-towards-cucumis-sativus
#13
I Bragança, Paulo C Lemos, Piedade Barros, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Valentina F Domingues
Pyrethroid pesticides residues have been frequently detected in soils and have been recognized to contribute to soil toxicity. The phytotoxic impact of pesticides was evaluated in Cucumis sativus (C. sativus) seeds. Percentage of seed germination, root elongation, shoot length and leaf length were considered as endpoints to assess the possible acute phytotoxicity of soil by the exposure to pyrethroid pesticides (cypermethrin, deltamethrin and cyhalothrin) and its metabolite phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), in a concentration range between 50 and 500μgkg(-1)...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156282/pesticides-in-agricultural-headwater-streams-in-southwestern-germany-and-effects-on-macroinvertebrate-populations
#14
Gero Weber, Nicole Christmann, Ann-Cathrin Thiery, Dieter Martens, Jochen Kubiniok
Pesticides are a major burden for stream ecosystems in the central European cultivated landscape. The objective of the present study was to investigate the applicability of ecological indicator methods in relation to toxicity of pesticides under the specific hydro-morphological conditions in small water bodies. Thus, an association of toxicity evaluating methods with different ecological indicators was to be attempted. Based on three random samples taken within the 2016 vegetation period, 23 headwater areas in the Saarland were investigated to test for pesticides and their metabolites...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156274/determination-of-2-6-di-tert-butyl-hydroxytoluene-and-its-transformation-products-in-indoor-dust-and-sediment-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-coupled-with-precolumn-derivatization
#15
Ruirui Zhang, Chao Li, Yunzi Li, Xinyi Cui, Lena Q Ma
We developed an analytical method to simultaneously determine 2,6-di-tert-butyl-hydroxytoluene (BHT) and its four transformation products in indoor dust and sediment samples. BHT, 2,6-di-tert-butylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (BHT-Q), and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (BHT-CHO) were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after ultrasonic extraction with hexane/dichloromethane (1:3), while 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(hydroxymethyl) phenol (BHT-OH) and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (BHT-COOH) were derivatized using N, O-bis (trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide before GC-MS analysis...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156265/occurrence-and-fate-of-most-prescribed-antibiotics-in-different-water-environments-of-tehran-iran
#16
Roya Mirzaei, Masud Yunesian, Simin Nasseri, Mitra Gholami, Esfandiyar Jalilzadeh, Shahram Shoeibi, Alireza Mesdaghinia
The presence of most prescribed antibiotic compounds from four therapeutic classes (β-lactam, cephalosporins, macrolides, fluoroquinolones) were studied at two full-scale WWTPs, two rivers, thirteen groundwater resources, and five water treatment plants in Tehran. Analytical methodology was based on high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction. Samples were collected at 33 sample locations on three sampling periods over four months from June to August 2016. None of the target antibiotics were detected in groundwater resources and water treatment plants, while seven out of nine target antibiotics were analyzed in two studied river waters as well as the influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plants at concentrations ranging from <LOQ to 926...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156217/characterization-of-udp-glucosyltransferase-from-indigofera-tinctoria
#17
Shintaro Inoue, Toshiki Moriya, Rihito Morita, Keiko Kuwata, Sanjog T Thul, Bijaya K Sarangi, Yoshiko Minami
Indican is a secondary metabolite in Indigofera tinctoria; its synthesis from indoxyl and UDP-glucose is catalyzed by a UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT). In this study, we partially purified UGT extracted from I. tinctoria leaves and analyzed the protein by peptide mass fingerprinting. We identified two fragments that were homologous to UGT after comparison with the transcriptomic data of I. tinctoria leaves. The fragments were named itUgt1 and itUgt2 and were amplified using rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction to obtain full-length cDNAs...
November 6, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156137/biologically-consistent-annotation-of-metabolomics-data
#18
Nicholas Alden, Smitha Krishnan, Vladimir Porokhin, Ravali Raju, Kyle McElearney, Alan Gilbert, Kyongbum Lee
Annotation of metabolites remains a major challenge in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based untargeted metabolomics. The current gold standard for metabolite identification is to match the detected feature with an authentic standard analyzed on the same equipment and using the same method as the experimental samples. However, there are substantial practical challenges in applying this approach to large datasets. One widely used annotation approach is to search spectral libraries in reference databases for matching metabolites; however, this approach is limited by the incomplete coverage of these libraries...
November 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156043/tenofovir-alafenamide-fumarate-a-new-tenofovir-prodrug-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection
#19
Maria Buti, Mar Riveiro-Barciela, Rafael Esteban
Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF), a new prodrug of tenofovir and a potential successor of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), has been approved in the United States and Europe for treating adolescents and adults with chronic hepatitis B infection. TAF is formulated to deliver the active metabolite to target cells more efficiently than TDF at lower doses, thereby reducing systemic exposure to tenofovir. In patients with chronic hepatitis B, TAF appears to be as effective as TDF, with lower bone and renal toxicity...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156005/abiofilm-a-resource-of-anti-biofilm-agents-and-their-potential-implications-in-targeting-antibiotic-drug-resistance
#20
Akanksha Rajput, Anamika Thakur, Shivangi Sharma, Manoj Kumar
Biofilms play an important role in the antibiotic drug resistance, which is threatening public health globally. Almost, all microbes mimic multicellular lifestyle to form biofilm by undergoing phenotypic changes to adapt adverse environmental conditions. Many anti-biofilm agents have been experimentally validated to disrupt the biofilms during last three decades. To organize this data, we developed the 'aBiofilm' resource (http://bioinfo.imtech.res.in/manojk/abiofilm/) that harbors a database, a predictor, and the data visualization modules...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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