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Land use regression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924705/long-term-air-pollution-and-traffic-noise-exposures-and-cognitive-function-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-heinz-nixdorf-recall-study
#1
Lilian Tzivian, Martha Dlugaj, Angela Winkler, Frauke Hennig, Kateryna Fuks, Dorothee Sugiri, Tamara Schikowski, Hermann Jakobs, Raimund Erbel, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Susanne Moebus, Barbara Hoffmann, Christian Weimar
Investigations of adverse effects of air pollution (AP) and ambient noise on cognitive functions are apparently scarce, and findings seem to be inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of long-term exposure to AP and traffic noise with cognitive performance. At the second examination of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (2006-2008), cognitive performance was evaluated in 4086 participants. Long-term residential exposure to size-specific particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) with land use regression, to and traffic noise (weighted 24-h (LDEN) and nighttime (LNIGHT) means), was assessed according to the European Union (EU) Directive 2002/49/EC...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916311/land-use-regression-modeling-of-ultrafine-particles-ozone-nitrogen-oxides-and-markers-of-particulate-matter-pollution-in-augsburg-germany
#2
Kathrin Wolf, Josef Cyrys, Tatiana Harciníková, Jianwei Gu, Thomas Kusch, Regina Hampel, Alexandra Schneider, Annette Peters
Important health relevance has been suggested for ultrafine particles (UFP) and ozone, but studies on long-term effects are scarce, mainly due to the lack of appropriate spatial exposure models. We designed a measurement campaign to develop land use regression (LUR) models to predict the spatial variability focusing on particle number concentration (PNC) as indicator for UFP, ozone and several other air pollutants in the Augsburg region, Southern Germany. Three bi-weekly measurements of PNC, ozone, particulate matter (PM10, PM2...
December 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914929/structured-additive-distributional-regression-for-analyzing-landings-per-unit-effort-in-fisheries-research
#3
Valeria Mamouridis, Nadja Klein, Thomas Kneib, Carmen Cadarso Suarez, Francesc Maynou
We analysed the landings per unit effort (LPUE) from the Barcelona trawl fleet targeting the red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus) using novel Bayesian structured additive distributional regression to gain a better understanding of the dynamics and determinants of variation in LPUE. The data set, covering a time span of 17 years, includes fleet-dependent variables (e.g. the number of trips performed by vessels), temporal variables (inter- and intra-annual variability) and environmental variables (the North Atlantic Oscillation index)...
November 30, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905949/burden-of-cumulative-risk-factors-associated-with-non-communicable-diseases-among-adults-in-uganda-evidence-from-a-national-baseline-survey
#4
Ronald Wesonga, David Guwatudde, Silver K Bahendeka, Gerald Mutungi, Fabian Nabugoomu, James Muwonge
BACKGROUND: Modification of known risk factors has been the most tested strategy for dealing with non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The cumulative number of NCD risk factors exhibited by an individual depicts a disease burden. However, understanding the risk factors associated with increased NCD burden has been constrained by scarcity of nationally representative data, especially in the developing countries and not well explored in the developed countries as well. METHODS: Assessment of key risk factors for NCDs using population data drawn from 3987 participants in a nationally representative baseline survey in Uganda was made...
December 1, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904748/patterns-of-medication-use-and-factors-associated-with-antibiotic-use-among-adult-fever-patients-at-singapore-primary-care-clinics
#5
Zaw Myo Tun, Mahesh Moorthy, Martin Linster, Yvonne C F Su, Richard James Coker, Eng Eong Ooi, Jenny Guek-Hong Low, Gavin J D Smith, Clarence C Tam
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a public health problem of global importance. In Singapore, much focus has been given to antibiotic usage patterns in hospital settings. Data on antibiotic use in primary care is lacking. We describe antibiotic usage patterns and assess factors contributing to antibiotic usage among adults presenting with acute febrile illness (AFI) in primary care settings in Singapore. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Early Dengue infection and outcome study...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901618/genome-wide-interaction-analysis-of-air-pollution-exposure-and-childhood-asthma-with-functional-follow-up
#6
Anna Gref, Simon Kebede Merid, Olena Gruzieva, Stéphane Ballereau, Allan Becker, Tom Bellander, Anna Bergström, Yohan Bossé, Matteo Bottai, Moira Chan-Yeung, Elaine Fuertes, Despo Ierodiakonou, Ruiwei Jiang, Stéphane Joly, Meaghan Jones, Michael S Kobor, Michal Korek, Anita L Kozyrskyj, Ashish Kumar, Nathanaël Lemonnier, Elaina MacIntyre, Camille Ménard, David Nickle, Ma'en Obeidat, Johann Pellet, Marie Standl, Annika Sääf, Cilla Söderhäll, Carla Mt Tiesler, Maarten van den Berge, Judith M Vonk, Hita Vora, Cheng-Jian Xu, Josep M Antó, Charles Auffray, Michael Brauer, Jean Bousquet, Bert Brunekreef, W James Gauderman, Joachim Heinrich, Juha Kere, Gerard H Koppelman, Dirkje Postma, Christopher Carlsten, Göran Pershagen, Erik Melén
RATIONALE: The evidence supporting an association between traffic-related air pollution exposure and incident childhood asthma is inconsistent, and may depend on genetic factors. OBJECTIVES: To identify gene-environment interaction effects on childhood asthma using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data and air pollution exposure. Identified loci were further analyzed at epigenetic and transcriptomic levels. METHODS: We used land use regression models to estimate individual air pollution exposure (represented by outdoor NO2 levels) at the birth address and performed a genome-wide interaction study for doctor's diagnosis of asthma up to 8 years in three European birth cohorts (n=1,534) with look-up for interaction in two separate North American cohorts, CHS and CAPPS/SAGE (n=1,602 and 186 subjects, respectively)...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898782/prediction-of-pesticide-toxicity-in-midwest-streams
#7
Megan E Shoda, Wesley W Stone, Lisa H Nowell
The occurrence of pesticide mixtures is common in stream waters of the United States, and the impact of multiple compounds on aquatic organisms is not well understood. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models were developed to predict Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) values in unmonitored streams in the Midwest and are referred to as WARP-PTI models. The PTI is a tool for assessing the relative toxicity of pesticide mixtures to fish, benthic invertebrates, and cladocera in stream water. One hundred stream sites in the Midwest were sampled weekly in May through August 2013, and the highest calculated PTI for each site was used as the WARP-PTI model response variable...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889213/spatiotemporal-estimation-of-air-temperature-patterns-at-the-street-level-using-high-resolution-satellite-imagery
#8
Ran Pelta, Alexandra A Chudnovsky
Although meteorological monitoring stations provide accurate measurements of Air Temperature (AT), their spatial coverage within a given region is limited and thus is often insufficient for exposure and epidemiological studies. In many applications, satellite imagery measures energy flux, which is spatially continuous, and calculates Brightness Temperature (BT) that used as an input parameter. Although both quantities (AT-BT) are physically related, the correlation between them is not straightforward, and varies daily due to parameters such as meteorological conditions, surface moisture, land use, satellite-surface geometry and others...
November 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888456/soil-ph-and-electrical-conductivity-are-key-edaphic-factors-shaping-bacterial-communities-of-greenhouse-soils-in-korea
#9
Jeong Myeong Kim, An-Sung Roh, Seung-Chul Choi, Eun-Jeong Kim, Moon-Tae Choi, Byung-Koo Ahn, Sun-Kuk Kim, Young-Han Lee, Jae-Ho Joa, Seong-Soo Kang, Shin Ae Lee, Jae-Hyung Ahn, Jaekyeong Song, Hang-Yeon Weon
Soil microorganisms play an essential role in soil ecosystem processes such as organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling, and plant nutrient availability. The land use for greenhouse cultivation has been increasing continuously, which involves an intensive input of agricultural materials to enhance productivity; however, relatively little is known about bacterial communities in greenhouse soils. To assess the effects of environmental factors on the soil bacterial diversity and community composition, a total of 187 greenhouse soil samples collected across Korea were subjected to bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881173/walkability-and-walking-for-transport-characterizing-the-built-environment-using-space-syntax
#10
Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Neville Owen, Ester Cerin, Billie Giles-Corti, Takemi Sugiyama
BACKGROUND: Neighborhood walkability has been shown to be associated with walking behavior. However, the availability of geographical data necessary to construct it remains a limitation. Building on the concept of space syntax, we propose an alternative walkability index, space syntax walkability (SSW). This study examined associations of the full walkability index and SSW with walking for transport (WT). METHODS: Data were collected in 2003-2004 from 2544 adults living in 154 Census Collection Districts (CCD) in Adelaide, Australia...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881079/detection-of-west-nile-virus-in-wild-birds-in-tana-river-and-garissa-counties-kenya
#11
Doris Nyamwaya, Virginia Wang'ondu, Joshua Amimo, George Michuki, Moses Ogugo, Enoch Ontiri, Rosemary Sang, Johanna Lindahl, Delia Grace, Bernard Bett
BACKGROUND: West Nile fever virus is a zoonotic arboviral infection maintained in a sylvatic cycle involving mosquito vectors and birds. It is one the arboviruses whose geographical range is expanding because of climate and land use changes that enhance the densities of mosquitoes and promote mosquito-bird-human interactions. We carried out a survey to determine the reservoirs of WNV among wild birds in Tana River and Garissa counties, Kenya. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 361 randomly trapped wild birds...
November 23, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870035/large-connected-floodplain-forests-prone-to-flooding-best-sustain-plant-diversity
#12
Sarah E Johnson, Kathryn L Amatangelo, Philip A Townsend, Donald M Waller
Dams, levees, and water withdrawals disrupt hydrologic regimes and associated floodplain forests. Because these forests are also responding to changes in land use, species invasions, and climate change, the relative effects of these factors are hard to disentangle. Most studies of floodplain forests lack historic data, requiring us to rely on recent data or contemporary spatial relationships to these drivers to infer those causes of vegetation dynamics. Here, we use survey data from the 1950s to reconstruct plant community changes across 40 floodplain forests in Wisconsin...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869950/-time-trend-analysis-of-homicide-and-traffic-accident-mortality-in-foz-do-igua%C3%A3-u-brazil-2000-2010
#13
Gilberto Garcia da Rocha, Bruno Pereira Nunes, Érica Ferreira da Silva, Fernando César Wehrmeister
OBJECTIVE: to perform time-trend analysis of homicide and land transport accident (LTA) mortality in Foz do Iguaçu city, Brazil, 2000-2010. METHODS: this was a time series study, using Mortality Information System data on people resident in the city; death rates by sex were calculated and standardized by age; Prais-Winsten regression was used. RESULTS: 3,459 deaths were recorded in the period (881 owing to LTA and 2,578 owing to homicides); the highest homicide mortality rate was 104...
April 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867215/resolving-large-scale-pressures-on-species-and-ecosystems-propensity-modelling-identifies-agricultural-effects-on-streams
#14
Caitlin E Pearson, Steve J Ormerod, William O C Symondson, Ian P Vaughan
Although agriculture is amongst the world's most widespread land uses, studies of its effects on stream ecosystems are often limited in spatial extent. National monitoring data could extend spatial coverage and increase statistical power, but present analytical challenges where covarying environmental variables confound relationships of interest.Propensity modelling is used widely outside ecology to control for confounding variables in observational data. Here, monitoring data from over 3000 English and Welsh river reaches are used to assess the effects of intensive agricultural land cover (arable and pastoral) on stream habitat, water chemistry and invertebrates, using propensity scores to control for potential confounding factors (e...
April 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863516/residential-neighbourhood-greenspace-is-associated-with-reduced-risk-of-incident-diabetes-in-older-people-a-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Alice M Dalton, Andrew P Jones, Stephen J Sharp, Andrew J M Cooper, Simon Griffin, Nicholas J Wareham
BACKGROUND: Three cross sectional studies suggest that neighbourhood greenspace may protect against incident diabetes. This study uses data from a longitudinal study with a large sample size to investigate the association between greenspace and the occurrence of incident diabetes over time. METHODS: Data was from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer Norfolk, UK, cohort, recruitment 1993-2007 (N = 23,865). Neighbourhoods were defined as 800 m circular buffers around participants' home locations, according to their home postcode (zip code)...
November 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860011/climatic-ecological-and-socioeconomic-factors-associated-with-west-nile-virus-incidence-in-atlanta-georgia-u-s-a
#16
Graeme Lockaby, Navideh Noori, Wayde Morse, Wayne Zipperer, Latif Kalin, Robin Governo, Rajesh Sawant, Matthew Ricker
The integrated effects of the many risk factors associated with West Nile virus (WNV) incidence are complex and not well understood. We studied an array of risk factors in and around Atlanta, GA, that have been shown to be linked with WNV in other locations. This array was comprehensive and included climate and meteorological metrics, vegetation characteristics, land use / land cover analyses, and socioeconomic factors. Data on mosquito abundance and WNV mosquito infection rates were obtained for 58 sites and covered 2009-2011, a period following the combined storm water - sewer overflow remediation in that city...
December 2016: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853179/spatial-analysis-of-pahs-in-soils-along-an-urban-suburban-rural-gradient-scale-effect-distribution-patterns-diffusion-and-influencing-factors
#17
Chi Peng, Meie Wang, Weiping Chen
Spatial statistical methods including Cokriging interpolation, Morans I analysis, and geographically weighted regression (GWR) were used for studying the spatial characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) accumulation in urban, suburban, and rural soils of Beijing. The concentrations of PAHs decreased spatially as the level of urbanization decreased. Generally, PAHs in soil showed two spatial patterns on the regional scale: (1) regional baseline depositions with a radius of 16.5 km related to the level of urbanization and (2) isolated pockets of soil contaminated with PAHs were found up to around 3...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852421/individual-and-environmental-factors-associated-with-the-seroprevalence-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-in-belgian-farmers-and-veterinarians
#18
Mathilde De Keukeleire, Annie Robert, Benoît Kabamba, Elise Dion, Victor Luyasu, Sophie O Vanwambeke
BACKGROUND: Lyme disease (LD) is a common tick-borne disease in Europe. Diverse factors at various scales determine the spatial distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi infection risk and a better understanding of those factors in a spatially explicit framework is needed for disease management and prevention. While the ecology of ticks and the landscape favoring their abundance have been extensively studied, the environmental conditions favoring an intense contact with susceptible humans, including groups at risk, are sparse...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847149/isolating-the-impact-of-septic-systems-on-fecal-pollution-in-streams-of-suburban-watersheds-in-georgia-united-states
#19
Robert A Sowah, Mussie Y Habteselassie, David E Radcliffe, Ellen Bauske, Mark Risse
The presence of multiple sources of fecal pollution at the watershed level presents challenges to efforts aimed at identifying the influence of septic systems. In this study multiple approaches including targeted sampling and monitoring of host-specific Bacteroidales markers were used to identify the impact of septic systems on microbial water quality. Twenty four watersheds with septic density ranging from 8 to 373 septic units/km(2) were monitored for water quality under baseflow conditions over a 3-year period...
January 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846230/influence-of-elevation-data-resolution-on-spatial-prediction-of-colluvial-soils-in-a-luvisol-region
#20
Vít Penížek, Tereza Zádorová, Radka Kodešová, Aleš Vaněk
The development of a soil cover is a dynamic process. Soil cover can be altered within a few decades, which requires updating of the legacy soil maps. Soil erosion is one of the most important processes quickly altering soil cover on agriculture land. Colluvial soils develop in concave parts of the landscape as a consequence of sedimentation of eroded material. Colluvial soils are recognised as important soil units because they are a vast sink of soil organic carbon. Terrain derivatives became an important tool in digital soil mapping and are among the most popular auxiliary data used for quantitative spatial prediction...
2016: PloS One
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