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Land use regression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145583/association-between-the-severity-of-diabetic-retinopathy-and-falls-in-an-asian-population-with-diabetes-the-singapore-epidemiology-of-eye-diseases-study
#1
Preeti Gupta, Amudha Aravindhan, Alfred T L Gan, Ryan E K Man, Eva K Fenwick, Paul Mitchell, Nicholas Tan, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Tien Yin Wong, Ching-Yu Cheng, Ecosse L Lamoureux
Importance: The presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) may contribute to the risk of falling in persons with diabetes, but evidence is currently equivocal. Objective: To investigate the associations of diabetes and DR severity with the likelihood of falls in a multiethnic Asian population. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional post hoc analysis of the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study, a population-based study of participants from 3 ethnic groups (3280 Malay, 3400 Indian, and 3353 Chinese individuals) conducted from 2004 to 2011...
November 16, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145405/drivers-of-house-invasion-by-sylvatic-chagas-disease-vectors-in-the-amazon-cerrado-transition-a-multi-year-state-wide-assessment-of-municipality-aggregated-surveillance-data
#2
Raíssa N Brito, David E Gorla, Liléia Diotaiuti, Anália C F Gomes, Rita C M Souza, Fernando Abad-Franch
BACKGROUND: Insecticide spraying efficiently controls house infestation by triatomine bugs, the vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi. The strategy, however, is ineffective against sylvatic triatomines, which can transmit Chagas disease by invading (without colonizing) man-made structures. Despite growing awareness of the relevance of these transmission dynamics, the drivers of house invasion by sylvatic triatomines remain poorly understood. METHODS/FINDINGS: About 12,000 sylvatic triatomines were caught during routine surveillance in houses of Tocantins state, Brazil, in 2005-2013...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145048/development-of-a-microscale-land-use-regression-model-for-predicting-no2-concentrations-at-a-heavy-trafficked-suburban-area-in-auckland-nz
#3
L F Weissert, J A Salmond, G Miskell, M Alavi-Shoshtari, D E Williams
Land use regression (LUR) analysis has become a key method to explain air pollutant concentrations at unmeasured sites at city or country scales, but little is known about the applicability of LUR at microscales. We present a microscale LUR model developed for a heavy trafficked section of road in Auckland, New Zealand. We also test the within-city transferability of LUR models developed at different spatial scales (local scale and city scale). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was measured during summer at 40 sites and a LUR model was developed based on standard criteria...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144419/air-pollution-and-dispensed-medications-for-asthma-and-possible-effect-modifiers-related-to-mental-health-and-socio-economy-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-of-swedish-children-and-adolescents
#4
Anna Oudin, Lennart Bråbäck, Daniel Oudin Åström, Bertil Forsberg
It has been suggested that children that are exposed to a stressful environment at home have an increased susceptibility for air pollution-related asthma. The aim here was to investigate the association between air pollution exposure and asthma, and effect modification by mental health and by socio-economic status (as markers of a stressful environment). All individuals under 18 years of age in four Swedish counties during 2007 to 2010 (1.2 million people) were included. The outcome was defined as dispensing at least two asthma medications during follow up...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141802/examining-the-contributions-of-environmental-quality-to-pediatric-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Amy M Lavery, Amy T Waldman, T Charles Casper, Shelly Roalstad, Meghan Candee, John Rose, Anita Belman, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Greg Aaen, Jan-Mendelt Tillema, Moses Rodriguez, Jayne Ness, Yolanda Harris, Jennifer Graves, Lauren Krupp, Leslie Benson, Mark Gorman, Manikum Moodley, Mary Rensel, Manu Goyal, Soe Mar, Tanuja Chitnis, Teri Schreiner, Tim Lotze, Benjamin Greenberg, Ilana Kahn, Jennifer Rubin, Emmanuelle Waubant
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a presumed autoimmune disease caused by genetic and environmental factors. It is hypothesized that environmental exposures (such as air and water quality) trigger the innate immune response thereby activating a pro-inflammatory cascade. OBJECTIVE: To examine potential environmental factors in pediatric MS using geographic information systems (GIS). METHODS: Pediatric MS cases and healthy controls were identified as part of an ongoing multicenter case-control study...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140739/cftr-genotype-and-maximal-exercise-capacity-in-cystic-fibrosis-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Thomas Radtke, Helge Hebestreit, Sabina Gallati, Jane E Schneiderman, Julia Braun, Daniel Stevens, Erik Hj Hulzebos, Tim Takken, Steven R Boas, Don S Urquhart, Larry C Lands, Sergio Tejero, Aleksandar Sovtic, Tiffany Dwyer, Milos Petrovic, Ryan A Harris, Chantal Karila, Daniela Savi, Jakob Usemann, Meir Mei-Zahav, Elpis Hatziagorou, Felix Ratjen, Susi Kriemler
RATIONALE: Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is expressed in human skeletal muscle cells. Variations of CFTR dysfunction among patients with CF may present an important determinant of aerobic exercise capacity in CF. Previous studies on the relationship between CFTR genotype and aerobic exercise capacity are scarce and contradictory. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to explore factors influencing aerobic exercise capacity, expressed as peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) with a specific focus on CFTR genotype in children and adults with CF...
November 15, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137670/modelling-and-mapping-tick-dynamics-using-volunteered-observations
#7
Irene Garcia-Martí, Raúl Zurita-Milla, Arnold J H van Vliet, Willem Takken
BACKGROUND: Tick populations and tick-borne infections have steadily increased since the mid-1990s posing an ever-increasing risk to public health. Yet, modelling tick dynamics remains challenging because of the lack of data and knowledge on this complex phenomenon. Here we present an approach to model and map tick dynamics using volunteered data. This approach is illustrated with 9 years of data collected by a group of trained volunteers who sampled active questing ticks (AQT) on a monthly basis and for 15 locations in the Netherlands...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136595/modeling-the-temporal-dynamics-of-intertidal-benthic-infauna-biomass-with-environmental-factors-impact-assessment-of-land-reclamation
#8
Ye Yang, Ting Fong May Chui, Ping Ping Shen, Yang Yang, Ji Dong Gu
Anthropogenic activities such as land reclamation are threatening tidal marshes worldwide. This study's hypothesis is that land reclamation in a semi-enclosed bay alters the seasonal dynamics of intertidal benthic infauna, which is a key component in the tidal marsh ecosystem. Mai Po Tidal Marsh, Deep Bay, Pearl River Estuary, China was used as a case study to evaluate the hypothesis. Ecological models that simulate benthic biomass dynamics with governing environmental factors were developed, and various scenario experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of reclamations...
November 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123188/spatio-temporal-trends-in-crop-damage-inform-recent-climate-mediated-expansion-of-a-large-boreal-herbivore-into-an-agro-ecosystem
#9
Michel P Laforge, Nicole L Michel, Ryan K Brook
Large-scale climatic fluctuations have caused species range shifts. Moose (Alces alces) have expanded their range southward into agricultural areas previously not considered moose habitat. We found that moose expansion into agro-ecosystems is mediated by broad-scale climatic factors and access to high-quality forage (i.e., crops). We used crop damage records to quantify moose presence across the Canadian Prairies. We regressed latitude of crop damage against North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and crop area to test the hypotheses that NAO-mediated wetland recharge and occurrence of more nutritious crop types would result in more frequent occurrences of crop damage by moose at southerly latitudes...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113048/the-application-of-em38-determination-of-soil-parameters-selection-of-soil-sampling-points-and-use-in-agriculture-and-archaeology
#10
REVIEW
Kurt Heil, Urs Schmidhalter
Fast and accurate assessment of within-field variation is essential for detecting field-wide heterogeneity and contributing to improvements in the management of agricultural lands. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of field scale characterization by electromagnetic induction, firstly with a focus on the applications of EM38 to salinity, soil texture, water content and soil water turnover, soil types and boundaries, nutrients and N-turnover and soil sampling designs. Furthermore, results concerning special applications in agriculture, horticulture and archaeology are included...
November 4, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106952/green-space-definition-affects-associations-of-green-space-with-overweight-and-physical-activity
#11
Jochem O Klompmaker, Gerard Hoek, Lizan D Bloemsma, Ulrike Gehring, Maciej Strak, Alet H Wijga, Carolien van den Brink, Bert Brunekreef, Erik Lebret, Nicole A H Janssen
INTRODUCTION: In epidemiological studies, exposure to green space is inconsistently associated with being overweight and physical activity, possibly because studies differ widely in their definition of green space exposure, inclusion of important confounders, study population and data analysis. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether the association of green space with being overweight and physical activity depended upon definition of greenspace. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from a Dutch national health survey of 387,195 adults...
October 26, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103643/synthesis-of-nutrient-and-sediment-export-patterns-in-the-chesapeake-bay-watershed-complex-and-non-stationary-concentration-discharge-relationships
#12
Qian Zhang
Derived from river monitoring data, concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships are useful indicators of riverine export dynamics. A top-down synthesis of C-Q patterns was conducted for suspended sediment (SS), total phosphorus (TP), and total nitrogen (TN) for nine major tributaries (15 monitoring sites) to Chesapeake Bay, which represent diverse characteristics in terms of land use, physiography, and hydrological settings. Model coefficients from the recently-developed Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) method were used to make informative interpretation of C-Q relationships...
November 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098491/pastoralists-vulnerability-to-trypanosomiasis-in-maasai-steppe
#13
Happiness J Nnko, Paul S Gwakisa, Anibariki Ngonyoka, Meshack Saigilu, Moses Ole-Neselle, William Kisoka, Calvin Sindato, Anna Estes
Trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of both livestock and humans. Although pastoral communities of the Maasai Steppe have been able to adapt to trypanosomiasis in the past, their traditional strategies are now constrained by changes in climate and land regimes that affect their ability to move with their herds and continually shape the communities' vulnerability to trypanosomiasis. Despite these constraints, information on communities' vulnerability and adaptive capacity to trypanosomiasis is limited...
November 2, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097231/poor-anaerobic-power-capability-and-static-balance-predicted-prospective-musculoskeletal-injuries-among-soldiers-of-the-101st-airborne-air-assault-division
#14
Takashi Nagai, Mita Lovalekar, Meleesa F Wohleber, Katherine A Perlsweig, Michael D Wirt, Kim Beals
Musculoskeletal injuries have negatively impacted tactical readiness. The identification of prospective and modifiable risk factors of preventable musculoskeletal injuries can guide specific injury prevention strategies for Soldiers and health care providers. OBJECTIVES: To analyze physiological and neuromuscular characteristics as predictors of preventable musculoskeletal injuries. DESIGN: Prospective-cohort study. METHODS: A total of 491 Soldiers were enrolled and participated in the baseline laboratory testing, including body composition, aerobic capacity, anaerobic power/capacity, muscular strength, flexibility, static balance, and landing biomechanics...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096959/modelling-the-fine-scale-spatiotemporal-pattern-of-urban-heat-island-effect-using-land-use-regression-approach-in-a-megacity
#15
Yuan Shi, Lutz Katzschner, Edward Ng
Urban heat island (UHI) effect significantly raises the health burden and building energy consumption in the high-density urban environment of Hong Kong. A better understanding of the spatiotemporal pattern of UHI is essential to health risk assessments and energy consumption management but challenging in a high-density environment due to the sparsely distributed meteorological stations and the highly diverse urban features. In this study, we modelled the spatiotemporal pattern of UHI effect using the land use regression (LUR) approach in geographic information system with meteorological records of the recent 4years (2013-2016), sounding data and geographic predictors in Hong Kong...
October 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078141/traffic-related-air-pollution-and-childhood-obesity-in-an-italian-birth-cohort
#16
Sara Fioravanti, Giulia Cesaroni, Chiara Badaloni, Paola Michelozzi, Francesco Forastiere, Daniela Porta
BACKGROUND: Air pollution is associated with several adverse health outcomes in children, such as respiratory illnesses and cognitive development impairment. There are suggestions of an effect of traffic-related air pollution on the occurrence of childhood obesity, but the results are not consistent. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to analyse whether air pollution and vehicular traffic exposure, during the first two years of life, influence obesity- related measures among 4 and 8-year-old children from a prospective birth cohort in Rome...
October 24, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070444/linking-crop-structure-throughfall-soil-surface-conditions-runoff-and-soil-detachment-10-land-uses-analyzed-in-northern-laos
#17
Guillaume Lacombe, Christian Valentin, Phabvilay Sounyafong, Anneke de Rouw, Bounsamai Soulileuth, Norbert Silvera, Alain Pierret, Oloth Sengtaheuanghoung, Olivier Ribolzi
In Montane Southeast Asia, deforestation and unsuitable combinations of crops and agricultural practices degrade soils at an unprecedented rate. Typically, smallholder farmers gain income from "available" land by replacing fallow or secondary forest by perennial crops. We aimed to understand how these practices increase or reduce soil erosion. Ten land uses were monitored in Northern Laos during the 2015 monsoon, using local farmers' fields. Experiments included plots of the conventional system (food crops and fallow), and land uses corresponding to new market opportunities (e...
October 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068393/fatal-pediatric-motor-vehicle-crashes-on-u-s-native-american-indian-lands-compared-to-adjacent-non-indian-lands-restraint-use-and-injury-by-driver-vehicle-roadway-and-crash-characteristics
#18
Shin Ah Oh, Chang Liu, Joyce C Pressley
There are large disparities in American Indian pediatric motor vehicle (MV) mortality with reports that several factors may contribute. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 2000-2014 was used to examine restraint use for occupants aged 0-19 years involved in fatal MV crashes on Indian lands (n = 1667) and non-Indian lands in adjacent states (n = 126,080). SAS GLIMMIX logistic regression with random effects was used to generate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Restraint use increased in both areas over the study period with restraint use on Indian lands being just over half that of non-Indian lands for drivers (36...
October 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066781/global-hotspots-and-correlates-of-emerging-zoonotic-diseases
#19
Toph Allen, Kris A Murray, Carlos Zambrana-Torrelio, Stephen S Morse, Carlo Rondinini, Moreno Di Marco, Nathan Breit, Kevin J Olival, Peter Daszak
Zoonoses originating from wildlife represent a significant threat to global health, security and economic growth, and combatting their emergence is a public health priority. However, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying their emergence remains rudimentary. Here we update a global database of emerging infectious disease (EID) events, create a novel measure of reporting effort, and fit boosted regression tree models to analyze the demographic, environmental and biological correlates of their occurrence...
October 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063946/the-effect-of-nitric-oxide-pollution-on-oxidative-stress-in-pregnant-women-living-in-durban-south-africa
#20
Samantha M Anderson, Rajen N Naidoo, Prithiksha Ramkaran, Alisa Phulukdaree, Sheena Muttoo, Kareshma Asharam, Anil A Chuturgoon
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect nitric oxide (NO x ) pollution had on maternal serum 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women living in Durban, South Africa (SA). Women, in their third trimester with singleton pregnancies, were recruited from the heavily industrialised south (n = 225) and less industrialised north (n = 152). Biomarker levels of serum 8-OHdG concentrations were analysed, and the women were genotyped for glutathione-S-transferases pi 1 (GSTP1) and glutathione-S-transferases mu 1 (GSTM1) polymorphisms...
October 24, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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