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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917207/exposure-to-ambient-air-pollution-and-the-incidence-of-dementia-a-population-based-cohort-study
#1
Hong Chen, Jeffrey C Kwong, Ray Copes, Perry Hystad, Aaron van Donkelaar, Karen Tu, Jeffrey R Brook, Mark S Goldberg, Randall V Martin, Brian J Murray, Andrew S Wilton, Alexander Kopp, Richard T Burnett
INTRODUCTION: Emerging studies have implicated air pollution in the neurodegenerative processes. Less is known about the influence of air pollution, especially at the relatively low levels, on developing dementia. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada, where the concentrations of pollutants are among the lowest in the world, to assess whether air pollution exposure is associated with incident dementia. METHODS: The study population comprised all Ontario residents who, on 1 April 2001, were 55-85years old, Canadian-born, and free of physician-diagnosed dementia (~2...
September 13, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917167/virtual-water-trade-patterns-in-relation-to-environmental-and-socioeconomic-factors-a-case-study-for-tunisia
#2
Hatem Chouchane, Maarten S Krol, Arjen Y Hoekstra
Growing water demands put increasing pressure on local water resources, especially in water-short countries. Virtual water trade can play a key role in filling the gap between local demand and supply of water-intensive commodities. This study aims to analyse the dynamics in virtual water trade of Tunisia in relation to environmental and socio-economic factors such as GDP, irrigated land, precipitation, population and water scarcity. The water footprint of crop production is estimated using AquaCrop for six crops over the period 1981-2010...
September 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915873/a-prospective-cohort-study-on-ambient-air-pollution-and-respiratory-morbidities-including-childhood-asthma-in-adolescents-from-the-western-cape-province-study-protocol
#3
Toyib Olaniyan, Mohamed Jeebhay, Martin Röösli, Rajen Naidoo, Roslynn Baatjies, Nino Künzil, Ming Tsai, Mark Davey, Kees de Hoogh, Dilys Berman, Bhawoodien Parker, Joy Leaner, Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie
BACKGROUND: There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings...
September 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904815/predictors-help-seeking-behaviour-and-treatment-coverage-for-depression-in-adults-in-sehore-district-india
#4
Rahul Shidhaye, Tanica Lyngdoh, Vaibhav Murhar, Sandesh Samudre, Thomas Krafft
BACKGROUND: National Mental Health Survey found that in India, the point prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 2.7% and the treatment gap was 85.2%, whereas in Madhya Pradesh the point prevalence of MDD was 1.4% and the treatment gap was 80%. AIMS: To describe the baseline prevalence of depression among adults, association of various demographic and socioeconomic variables with depression and estimation of contact coverage for the same. METHOD: Population-based cross-sectional survey of 3220 adults in Sehore district of Madhya Pradesh, India...
September 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902911/serum-calcium-alkaline-phosphotase-and-hemoglobin-as-risk-factors-for-bone-metastases-in-bladder-cancer
#5
Ping Huang, Min Lan, Ai-Fen Peng, Qing-Fu Yu, Wen-Zhao Chen, Zhi-Li Liu, Jia-Ming Liu, Shan-Hu Huang
Early detection of bone metastases is helpful for the treatment of bladder cancer (BC). In this study, we investigated the potential risk factors for bone metastasis in newly diagnosed patients with BC. A total of 902 patients diagnosed with BC between January 2000 and August 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Of these patient, 50 (5.5%) were identified with bone metastasis. The serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and calcium were significantly higher in patients with bone metastases than those without bone metastases (P = 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893323/out-of-pocket-expenditure-for-seeking-health-care-for-sick-children-younger-than-5%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-bangladesh-findings-from-cross-sectional-surveys-2009-and-2012
#6
Tazeen Tahsina, Nazia Binte Ali, D M Emdadul Hoque, Tanvir M Huda, Shumona Sharmin Salam, Mohammad Mehedi Hasan, Md Altaf Hossain, Ziaul Matin, Lianne Kuppen, Sarah P Garnett, Shams El Arifeen
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh has committed to universal health coverage, and options to decrease household out-of-pocket expenditure (OPE) are being explored. Understanding the determinants of OPE is an essential step. This study aimed to estimate and identify determinants of OPE in seeking health care for sick under-five children. METHODS: Cross-sectional data was collected by structured questionnaire in 2009 (n = 7362) and 2012 (n = 6896) from mothers of the under-five children...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889279/impact-of-land-use-on-the-mobility-of-hg-species-in-different-compartments-of-a-tropical-watershed-in-brazil
#7
Clara Ayume Ito de Lima, Marcelo Gomes de Almeida, Inacio Abreu Pestana, Wanderley R Bastos, Maria Cristina Nery do Nascimento Recktenvald, Cristina Maria Magalhães de Souza, Paulo Pedrosa
This study evaluated the levels of total Hg and CH3Hg(+) from a comprehensive perspective, considering the retention, leaching, and deposition of these contaminants in the main compartments (soil, plant litter, and sediment) of three landscapes (Atlantic Forest, pasture, and agricultural area) in a watershed in northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Variables analyzed were total Hg, CH3Hg(+), organic carbon, total nitrogen, grain size, and surface area. In soil samples, total Hg levels were the highest in agricultural soil followed by forest soil and pasture (97...
September 9, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886417/is-long-term-particulate-matter-and-nitrogen-dioxide-air-pollution-associated-with-incident-monoclonal-gammopathy-of-undetermined-significance-mgus-an-analysis-of-the-heinz-nixdorf-recall-study
#8
Ester Orban, Marina Arendt, Frauke Hennig, Sarah Lucht, Lewin Eisele, Hermann Jakobs, Jan Dürig, Barbara Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Susanne Moebus
BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution activates the innate immune system and influences the adaptive immune system in experimental settings. We investigated the association of residential long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and NO2 air pollution with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) as a marker of adaptive immune system activation. METHODS: We used data from the baseline (2000-2003), 5-year (2006-2008) and 10-year (2011-2015) follow-up examinations of the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall cohort study of 4814 participants (45-75years)...
September 5, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886416/long-term-exposure-to-particulate-matter-no2-and-the-oxidative-potential-of-particulates-and-diabetes-prevalence-in-a-large-national-health-survey
#9
Maciej Strak, Nicole Janssen, Rob Beelen, Oliver Schmitz, Ilonca Vaartjes, Derek Karssenberg, Carolien van den Brink, Michiel L Bots, Martin Dijst, Bert Brunekreef, Gerard Hoek
BACKGROUND: The evidence from observational epidemiological studies of a link between long-term air pollution exposure and diabetes prevalence and incidence is currently mixed. Some studies found the strongest associations of diabetes with fine particles, other studies with nitrogen dioxide and some studies found no associations. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate associations between long-term exposure to multiple air pollutants and diabetes prevalence in a large national survey in the Netherlands...
September 5, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881307/using-spatial-stream-network-models-and-long-term-data-to-understand-and-predict-dynamics-of-faecal-contamination-in-a-mixed-land-use-catchment
#10
Aaron James Neill, Doerthe Tetzlaff, Norval James Colin Strachan, Rupert Lloyd Hough, Lisa Marie Avery, Helen Watson, Chris Soulsby
An 11year dataset of concentrations of E. coli at 10 spatially-distributed sites in a mixed land-use catchment in NE Scotland (52km(2)) revealed that concentrations were not clearly associated with flow or season. The lack of a clear flow-concentration relationship may have been due to greater water fluxes from less-contaminated headwaters during high flows diluting downstream concentrations, the importance of persistent point sources of E. coli both anthropogenic and agricultural, and possibly the temporal resolution of the dataset...
September 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877225/effect-of-water-based-recovery-on-blood-lactate-removal-after-high-intensity-exercise
#11
Francesco Lucertini, Marco Gervasi, Giancarlo D'Amen, Davide Sisti, Marco Bruno Luigi Rocchi, Vilberto Stocchi, Piero Benelli
This study assessed the effectiveness of water immersion to the shoulders in enhancing blood lactate removal during active and passive recovery after short-duration high-intensity exercise. Seventeen cyclists underwent active water- and land-based recoveries and passive water and land-based recoveries. The recovery conditions lasted 31 minutes each and started after the identification of each cyclist's blood lactate accumulation peak, induced by a 30-second all-out sprint on a cycle ergometer. Active recoveries were performed on a cycle ergometer at 70% of the oxygen consumption corresponding to the lactate threshold (the control for the intensity was oxygen consumption), while passive recoveries were performed with subjects at rest and seated on the cycle ergometer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877204/examining-lag-effects-between-industrial-land-development-and-regional-economic-changes-the-netherlands-experience
#12
Eda Ustaoglu, Carlo Lavalle
In most empirical applications, forecasting models for the analysis of industrial land focus on the relationship between current values of economic parameters and industrial land use. This paper aims to test this assumption by focusing on the dynamic relationship between current and lagged values of the 'economic fundamentals' and industrial land development. Not much effort has yet been attributed to develop land forecasting models to predict the demand for industrial land except those applying static regressions or other statistical measures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877196/predicting-active-layer-soil-thickness-using-topographic-variables-at-a-small-watershed-scale
#13
Aidi Li, Xing Tan, Wei Wu, Hongbin Liu, Jie Zhu
Knowledge about the spatial distribution of active-layer (AL) soil thickness is indispensable for ecological modeling, precision agriculture, and land resource management. However, it is difficult to obtain the details on AL soil thickness by using conventional soil survey method. In this research, the objective is to investigate the possibility and accuracy of mapping the spatial distribution of AL soil thickness through random forest (RF) model by using terrain variables at a small watershed scale. A total of 1113 soil samples collected from the slope fields were randomly divided into calibration (770 soil samples) and validation (343 soil samples) sets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875725/il-1%C3%AE-haplotype-influences-the-effect-of-nox-exposure-on-gestational-age-in-the-south-african-mace-birth-cohort
#14
P Nansook, R N Naidoo, P Ramkaran, A Phulukdaree, S Muttoo, K Asharam, A A Chuturgoon
OBJECTIVE: Cytokines, molecules within the immune system that affect either a pro- or anti-inflammatory response, have previously been shown to influence birth outcomes. The maternal cytokine gene-environment interactions are thought to alter their expression, potentially influencing susceptibility to adverse birth outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the maternal interleukin-1β (IL-1β) haplotype and expression variation with oxides of nitrogen (NOx) levels, and thereafter investigate the IL-1β haplotype-specific effects of NOx exposure levels, IL-1β mRNA expression and other variables on gestational age...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873665/land-use-regression-modelling-estimating-nitrogen-oxides-exposure-in-industrial-south-durban-south-africa
#15
Sheena Muttoo, Lisa Ramsay, Bert Brunekreef, Rob Beelen, Kees Meliefste, Rajen N Naidoo
BACKGROUND: The South Durban (SD) area of Durban, South Africa, has a history of air pollution issues due to the juxtaposition of low-income communities with industrial areas. This study used measurements of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) to develop a land use regression (LUR) model to explain the spatial variation of air pollution concentrations in this area. METHODS: Ambient NOx was measured over two two-week sampling periods at 32 sites using Ogawa badges. Following the ESCAPE approach, an annual adjusted average was calculated for these results and regressed against pre-selected geographic predictor variables in a multivariate regression model...
August 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866425/impact-of-commuting-exposure-to-traffic-related-air-pollution-on-cognitive-development-in-children-walking-to-school
#16
Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Ioar Rivas, Mònica López-Vicente, Elisabet Suades-González, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Marta Cirach, Montserrat de Castro, Mikel Esnaola, Xavier Basagaña, Payam Dadvand, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer
A few studies have found associations between the exposure to traffic-related air pollution at school and/or home and cognitive development. The impact on cognitive development of the exposure to air pollutants during commuting has not been explored. We aimed to assess the role of the exposure to traffic-related air pollutants during walking commute to school on cognitive development of children. We performed a longitudinal study of children (n = 1,234, aged 7-10 y) from 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) who commuted by foot to school...
August 31, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866402/human-health-risks-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-the-urban-soils-of-nanjing-china
#17
Chunhui Wang, Shenglu Zhou, Jing Song, Shaohua Wu
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major group of toxic pollutants in urban areas. We calculated the critical concentrations of PAHs in the urban soils of Nanjing, China based on a human health risk assessment. In the study area, the risk was divided into four levels and toxic equivalent values of benzo[a]pyrene (BaPeq) corresponded to <70ngg(-1), 70-700ngg(-1), 700-7000ngg(-1), and >7000ngg(-1). By this standard, most urban areas in Nanjing fall under level II (potentially low risk), while older urban districts, commercial centers, and transportation centers exceed the critical concentration (level III) at present...
August 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866382/robustness-of-intra-urban-land-use-regression-models-for-ultrafine-particles-and-black-carbon-based-on-mobile-monitoring
#18
Jules Kerckhoffs, Gerard Hoek, Jelle Vlaanderen, Erik van Nunen, Kyle Messier, Bert Brunekreef, John Gulliver, Roel Vermeulen
Land-use regression (LUR) models for ultrafine particles (UFP) and Black Carbon (BC) in urban areas have been developed using short-term stationary monitoring or mobile platforms in order to capture the high variability of these pollutants. However, little is known about the comparability of predictions of mobile and short-term stationary models and especially the validity of these models for assessing residential exposures and the robustness of model predictions developed in different campaigns. We used an electric car to collect mobile measurements (n = 5236 unique road segments) and short-term stationary measurements (3 × 30min, n = 240) of UFP and BC in three Dutch cities (Amsterdam, Utrecht, Maastricht) in 2014-2015...
August 31, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864128/residential-green-space-quantity-and-quality-and-child-well-being-a-longitudinal-study
#19
Xiaoqi Feng, Thomas Astell-Burt
INTRODUCTION: There are few studies on the potential benefits of green space quantity and quality for child well-being. The authors hypothesized that more and better quality residential green space would be favorable for well-being and that these associations could be subject to effect modification across childhood. METHOD: Multilevel linear regression adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic confounders was used to track change in well-being (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Total Difficulties Score and "internalizing" and "externalizing" subscales) across five separate occasions among a cohort of 4,968 Australian children aged 4-5 years beginning in 2004...
August 28, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863871/neighborhood-built-environment-and-socio-economic-status-in-relation-to-multiple-health-outcomes-in-adolescents
#20
Javier Molina-García, Ana Queralt, Marc A Adams, Terry L Conway, James F Sallis
The study aim was to examine associations of neighborhood built environment and neighborhood socio-economic status (SES) with multiple physical activity (PA) behaviors, sedentary time, and obesity indicators among adolescents. Cross-sectional study of 325 adolescents aged 14-18years recruited from schools in Valencia, Spain. Participants' home neighborhoods were classified according to walkability and SES levels. Walkability was defined as an index of three built environment characteristics (i.e., residential density, land use mix, and street connectivity) based on geographic information system data...
August 31, 2017: Preventive Medicine
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