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Land use regression

Touraj Nasrabadi, Hermann Ruegner, Marc Schwientek, Jeremy Bennett, Shahin Fazel Valipour, Peter Grathwohl
Suspended particles in rivers can act as carriers of potentially bioavailable metal species and are thus an emerging area of interest in river system monitoring. The delineation of bulk metals concentrations in river water into dissolved and particulate components is also important for risk assessment. Linear relationships between bulk metal concentrations in water (CW,tot) and total suspended solids (TSS) in water can be used to easily evaluate dissolved (CW, intercept) and particle-bound metal fluxes (CSUS, slope) in streams (CW,tot = CW + CSUS TSS)...
2018: PloS One
Myrna M T de Rooij, Dick J J Heederik, Erik J H M van Nunen, Isabella J van Schothorst, Catharina B M Maassen, Gerard Hoek, Inge M Wouters
BACKGROUND: Results from studies on residential health effects of livestock farming are inconsistent, potentially due to simple exposure proxies used (e.g., livestock density). Accuracy of these proxies compared with measured exposure concentrations is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess spatial variation of endotoxin in PM10 (particulate matter ≤10μm) at residential level in a livestock-dense area, compare simple livestock exposure proxies to measured endotoxin concentrations, and evaluate whether land-use regression (LUR) can be used to explain spatial variation of endotoxin...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Chuan Ding, Peng Chen, Junfeng Jiao
Although a growing body of literature focuses on the relationship between the built environment and pedestrian crashes, limited evidence is provided about the relative importance of many built environment attributes by accounting for their mutual interaction effects and their non-linear effects on automobile-involved pedestrian crashes. This study adopts the approach of Multiple Additive Poisson Regression Trees (MAPRT) to fill such gaps using pedestrian collision data collected from Seattle, Washington. Traffic analysis zones are chosen as the analytical unit...
January 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Li Bai, Hong Chen, Marianne Hatzopoulou, Michael Jerrett, Jeffrey C Kwong, Richard T Burnett, Aaron van Donkelaar, Ray Copes, Randall V Martin, Keith van Ryswyk, Hong Lu, Alexander Kopp, Scott Weichenthal
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported that long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution may increase the incidence of hypertension and diabetes. However, little is known about the associations of ultrafine particles (≤0.1 micrometers in diameter) with these two conditions. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study to investigate the associations between exposures to ultrafine particles and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the incidence of diabetes and hypertension...
January 9, 2018: Epidemiology
Mari Leppänen, Kati Pasanen, Tron Krosshaug, Pekka Kannus, Tommi Vasankari, Urho M Kujala, Roald Bahr, Jarmo Perttunen, Jari Parkkari
Background: Stiff landings with less knee flexion and high vertical ground-reaction forces have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The literature on the association between other sagittal plane measures and the risk of ACL injuries with a prospective study design is lacking. Purpose: To investigate the relationship between selected sagittal plane hip, knee, and ankle biomechanics and the risk of ACL injury in young female team-sport athletes...
December 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Ji-Young Lee, Dirga Kumar Lamichhane, Myeongjee Lee, Shinhee Ye, Jung-Hyun Kwon, Myung-Sook Park, Hwan-Cheol Kim, Jong-Han Leem, Yun-Chul Hong, Yangho Kim, Mina Ha, Eunhee Ha
Few birth cohort studies have examined the role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) in the development of infantile atopic dermatitis (AD), but none have investigated the role of preventive factors such as green spaces. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <10 μm (PM10) during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of development of AD in 6-month-old children and also to examine how this association changes with residential green space...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Theresa H M Kim, Jennifer A Connolly, Michael Rotondi, Hala Tamim
BACKGROUND: Positive-interaction parenting early in childhood is encouraged due to its association with behavioural development later in life. The objective of this study was to examine if the level of positive-interaction parenting style differs among teen, optimal age, and advanced age mothers in Canada, and to identify the characteristics associated with positive-interaction parenting style separately for each age group. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth...
January 8, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Yahiko Takeuchi
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine the positional relationship between the center of mass (COM) and the center of pressure (COP) at the time of step landing, and to examine their relationship with the joint moments exerted by the supporting limb, with regard to factors of the successful backward step response. METHODS: The study population comprised 8 community-dwelling elderly people that were observed to take successive multi steps after the landing of a backward stepping...
2018: PloS One
Wenjing Bo, Xiaoke Wang, Qianqian Zhang, Yi Xiao, Zhiyun Ouyang
To design and implement policy to manage water quality, it is important to investigate land use and possible sources of pollution. In this study, using Pearson regression analysis, redundancy analysis and multiple regression analysis, we assess the influence of land use and point sources on water quality in the river system in Shunde district in 2000 and 2010. The results show that water quality was related positively with water surface but negatively with impervious and urban greening area. Additionally, water quality was related negatively to point source emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium-nitrogen (NH₄-N)...
December 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yuan-Yuan Wang, Qin Li, Yuming Guo, Hong Zhou, Xiaobin Wang, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yiping Zhang, Donghai Yan, Ya Zhang, Hongguang Zhang, Shanshan Li, Gongbo Chen, Jun Zhao, Yuan He, Ying Yang, Jihong Xu, Yan Wang, Zuoqi Peng, Hai-Jun Wang, Xu Ma
Importance: Airborne particulate matter pollution has been associated with preterm birth (PTB) in some studies. However, most of these studies assessed only populations living near monitoring stations, and the association of airborne particulate matter having a median diameter of 1 μm or less (PM1) with PTB has not been studied. Objective: To evaluate whether PM1 concentrations are associated with the risk of PTB. Design, Setting, and Participants: This national cohort study used National Free Preconception Health Examination Project data collected in 324 of 344 prefecture-level cities from 30 provinces of mainland China...
January 2, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Shannon Lea Watkins, Ed Gerrish
There is ample evidence that urban trees benefit the physical, mental, and social health of urban residents. The environmental justice hypothesis posits that environmental amenities are inequitably low in poor and minority communities, and predicts these communities experience fewer urban environmental benefits. Some previous research has found that urban forest cover is inequitably distributed by race, though other studies have found no relationship or negative inequity. These conflicting results and the single-city nature of the current literature suggest a need for a research synthesis...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Mohammad Amin Ghatee, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Fatemeh Kooreshnia, Zahra Kanannejad, Zafar Parisaie, Mehdi Karamian, Abdolali Moshfe
INTRODUCTION: Occurrence of leishmaniasis is affected by various biological and environmental factors. Kohgiluye and Boyerahmad (K-B) province is an emerging focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Southwest Iran. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: To elucidate some angles of occurrence of CL in this province, climatic and environmental factors and close proximity to livestock were studied by univariate and two multivariate logistic regression models. The dwelling addresses of 275 CL patients were obtained from Health Centers records for a 5 years period...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Emily C Dunn, Clare E Humberstone, K Fiona Iredale, David T Martin, Anthony J Blazevich
Humans commonly ascertain physical dominance through non-lethal fighting by participating in combat sports. However, the behaviours that achieve fight dominance are not fully understood. Amateur boxing competition, which is judged using the subjective "Ten Point Must-System", provides insight into fight dominance behaviours. Notational analysis was performed on 26 elite male competitors in a national boxing championship. Behavioural (guard-drop time; movement style [stepping/bouncing time]; clinch-time; interaction-time) and technical (total punches; punches landed [%Hit]; air punches [%Air]; defence) measures were recorded...
2017: PloS One
Marappan Jayanthi, Selvasekar Thirumurthy, Muthusamy Samynathan, Muthusamy Duraisamy, Moturi Muralidhar, Jangam Ashokkumar, Koyadan Kizhakkedath Vijayan
Climate change impact on the environment makes the coastal areas vulnerable and demands the evaluation of such susceptibility. Historical changes in the shoreline positions and inundation based on projected sea-level scenarios of 0.5 and 1 m were assessed for Nagapattinam District, a low-lying coastal area in the southeast coast of India, using high-resolution Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data; multi-dated Landsat satellite images of 1978, 1991, 2003, and 2015; and census data of 2011. Image processing, geographical information system, and digital shoreline analysis system methods were used in the study...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Christian Madsen, Siri Eldevik Håberg, Geir Aamodt, Hein Stigum, Per Magnus, Stephanie J London, Wenche Nystad, Per Nafstad
Objectives Air pollution exposure may contribute to the development of preeclampsia and hypertension during pregnancy. However, the evidence for such a relation is still limited. We investigated the associations between exposure for moderate to low levels of air pollution during pregnancy and preeclampsia and gestational hypertension in selected urban and county areas of Norway. Methods This study used a sub-group of 17,533 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Air pollution levels at residential addresses were estimated using land use regression models and back-extrapolated to the period of each pregnancy...
December 28, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Sebastián Martinuzzi, Olga M Ramos-González, Tischa A Muñoz-Erickson, Dexter H Locke, Ariel E Lugo, Volker C Radeloff
Fine-scale information about urban vegetation and social-ecological relationships is crucial to inform both urban planning and ecological research, and high spatial resolution imagery is a valuable tool for assessing urban areas. However, urban ecology and remote sensing have largely focused on cities in temperate zones. Our goal was to characterize urban vegetation cover with sub-meter resolution aerial imagery, and identify social-ecological relationships of urban vegetation patterns in a tropical city, the San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico...
December 28, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Christian Madsen, Siri Eldevik Haberg, Maria C Magnus, Geir Aamodt, Hein Stigum, Stephanie J London, Wenche Nystad, Per Nafstad
OBJECTIVES: It is unclear whether maternal air pollution exposure during pregnancy induces changes in the developing respiratory system of a child and whether it has consequences for respiratory health in early childhood. We investigated associations between exposure to moderate levels of air pollution during pregnancy and early childhood lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) and wheezing. METHODS: This study used a subgroup of 17 533 participants in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study...
December 26, 2017: BMJ Open
Qian Di, Lingzhen Dai, Yun Wang, Antonella Zanobetti, Christine Choirat, Joel D Schwartz, Francesca Dominici
Importance: The US Environmental Protection Agency is required to reexamine its National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) every 5 years, but evidence of mortality risk is lacking at air pollution levels below the current daily NAAQS in unmonitored areas and for sensitive subgroups. Objective: To estimate the association between short-term exposures to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, and at levels below the current daily NAAQS, and mortality in the continental United States...
December 26, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Adenantera Dwicaksono, Ian Brissette, Guthrie S Birkhead, Christine T Bozlak, Erika G Martin
OBJECTIVES: One third of school-aged children in New York State (NYS) are overweight or obese, with large geographic disparities across local regions. We used NYS student obesity surveillance data to assess whether these geographical variations are attributable to the built environment. METHOD: We combined NYS Student Weight Status Category Reporting System 2010-2012 data with other government publicly available data. Ordinary least squares regression models identified key determinants of school district-level student obesity rates for elementary and middle/high schools...
December 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Jing Yang, Yi Yang, Rui-Shan Chen, Xiang-Zhou Meng, Jie Xu, Abdul Qadeer, Min Liu
To explore the influence of rapid urbanization development on the accumulation of 16 priority PAHs in urban environment, thirty-three surface sediments from city lakes in different urbanized areas of Shanghai were collected to evaluate the occurrence characteristic and source apportionment of PAHs. The concentrations of Σ16PAHs in lake surface sediments ranged from 55.7 to 4928 ng g-1 with a mean value of 1131 ng g-1 (standard deviation, 1228 ng g-1), of which 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs were the dominant components...
December 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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