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Land use regression

Weize Song, Haifeng Jia, Zhilin Li, Deliang Tang
Urban air pollutant distribution is a concern in environmental and health studies. Particularly, the spatial distribution of NO2 and PM2.5 , which represent photochemical smog and haze pollution in urban areas, is of concern. This paper presents a study quantifying the seasonal differences between urban NO2 and PM2.5 distributions in Foshan, China. A geographical semi-variogram analysis was conducted to delineate the spatial variation in daily NO2 and PM2.5 concentrations. The data were collected from 38 sites in the government-operated monitoring network...
March 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Molly P Jarman, Elliott R Haut, Frank C Curriero, Renan C Castillo
BACKGROUND: Many rural, low income, and historically underrepresented minority communities lack access to trauma center services, including surgical care and injury prevention efforts. Along with features of the built and social environment at injury incident locations, geographic barriers to trauma center services may contribute to injury disparities. This study sought to classify injury event locations based on features of the built and social environment at the injury scene, and to examine patterns in individual patient demographics, injury characteristics, and mortality by location class...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Salma Oktaria, Norma Sofisa Hurif, Wardiansyah Naim, Hok Bing Thio, Tamar E C Nijsten, Jan Hendrik Richardus
BACKGROUND: Poverty has long been considered a risk factor for leprosy and is related to nutritional deficiencies. In this study, we aim to investigate the association between poverty-related diet and nutrition with leprosy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In rural leprosy-endemic areas in Indonesia, we conducted a household-based case-control study using two controls for each case patient (100 recently diagnosed leprosy patients and 200 controls), matched for age and gender...
March 13, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Koushun Kamada, Ryousuke Tachibanagi, Hideki Nakagawa
Toads on the ground control landing behavior by a simple strategy in which they extend their elbows at roughly the same time after take-off and continue extending them at the same velocity until they land. However, this simple strategy does not work well in much more complicated arboreal habitat. We analyzed properties of jumping and timing of forelimb extension of the tree frog, Hyla japonica, to demonstrate how the arboreal species land safely. The results showed that distance, duration, and velocity of jump were not affected by explicit optic flow information, whereas the all three parameters decreased significantly in the blindfolded animals...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Mònica Guxens, Małgorzata J Lubczyńska, Ryan L Muetzel, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Gerard Hoek, Aad van der Lugt, Frank C Verhulst, Tonya White, Bert Brunekreef, Henning Tiemeier, Hanan El Marroun
BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure during fetal life has been related to impaired child neurodevelopment, but it is unclear if brain structural alterations underlie this association. The authors assessed whether air pollution exposure during fetal life alters brain morphology and whether these alterations mediate the association between air pollution exposure during fetal life and cognitive function in school-age children. METHODS: We used data from a population-based birth cohort set up in Rotterdam, The Netherlands (2002-2006)...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Heiliane de Brito Fontana, Caroline Ruschel, Elisa Dell'Antonio, Alessandro Haupenthal, Gustavo Soares Pereira, Helio Roesler
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of cadence, immersion level as well as body density on the vertical component (Fymax ) of ground reaction force (GRF) during stationary running (SR). METHODS: In a controlled, laboratory study, thirty-two subjects ran at a wide range of cadences (85-210 steps/min) in water, immersed to the hip and to the chest, and on dry land. Fymax. was verified by a waterproof force measurement system and predicted based on a statistical model including cadence, immersion ratio and body density...
March 9, 2018: Human Movement Science
Marcelo Land, Paula Maia, Maria de Fátima March, Alvaro Ferreira, Clemax Sant Anna
This study evaluated admissions with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with pleural effusion (PE) in a pediatric university hospital and the impact of the increased average municipal human development index (M-HDI) in the local incidence of the disease in the last decade. METHODS: This is a retrospective longitudinal study of patients (0 to 13 years old) with CAP. The M-DHI of the place of residence of patients was obtained. We calculate the crude odds ratios (OR) of variables related to risk of developing PE...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Yutong Cai, Susan Hodgson, Marta Blangiardo, John Gulliver, David Morley, Daniela Fecht, Danielle Vienneau, Kees de Hoogh, Tim Key, Kristian Hveem, Paul Elliott, Anna L Hansell
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution on incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in three large cohorts: HUNT, EPIC-Oxford and UK Biobank. METHODS: In pooled complete-case sample of the three cohorts from Norway and the United Kingdom (N = 355,732), 21,081 incident all CVD cases including 5259 ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 2871 cerebrovascular cases were ascertained between baseline (1993-2010) and end of follow-up (2008-2013) through medical record linkage...
March 5, 2018: Environment International
Sam Clifford, Mandana Mazaheri, Farhad Salimi, Wafaa Nabil Ezz, Bijan Yeganeh, Samantha Low-Choy, Katy Walker, Kerrie Mengersen, Guy B Marks, Lidia Morawska
It is known that ultrafine particles (UFP, particles smaller than 0.1 μm) can penetrate deep into the lungs and potentially have adverse health effects. However, epidemiological data on the health effects of UFP is limited. Therefore, our objective was to test the hypothesis that exposure to UFPs is associated with respiratory health status and systemic inflammation among children aged 8 to 11 years. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 655 children (43.3% male) attending 25 primary (elementary) schools in the Brisbane Metropolitan Area, Australia...
March 4, 2018: Environment International
Georgia Miskell, Jennifer Salmond, David Edward Williams
We provide a simple, remote, continuous calibration technique suitable for application in a hierarchical network featuring a few well-maintained, high-quality instruments ("proxies") and a larger number of low-cost devices. The ideas are grounded in a clear definition of the purpose of a low-cost network, defined here as providing reliable information on air quality at small spatiotemporal scales. The technique assumes linearity of the sensor signal. It derives running slope and offset estimates by matching mean and standard deviations of the sensor data to values derived from proxies over the same time...
March 6, 2018: ACS Sensors
Fakhreddin Hajiloo, Saeid Hamzeh, Mahsa Gheysari
The PM2.5 as one of the main pollutants in Tehran city has a devastating effect on human health. Knowing the key parameters associated with PM2.5 concentration is essential to take effective actions to reduce the concentration of these particles. This study assesses the relationship between meteorological (humidity, pressure, temperature, precipitation, and wind speed) and environmental parameters (normalize difference vegetation index and land surface temperature of MODIS satellite data) on PM2.5 concentration in Tehran city...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ting-Wu Chuang, Ka-Chon Ng, Thi Luong Nguyen, Luis Fernando Chaves
The metropolitan region of Tainan City in southern Taiwan experienced a dengue outbreak in 2015. This manuscript describes basic epidemiological features of this outbreak and uses spatial and temporal analysis tools to understand the spread of dengue during the outbreak. The analysis found that, independently of gender, dengue incidence rate increased with age, and proportionally affected more males below the age of 40 years but females above the age of 40 years. A spatial scan statistic was applied to detect clusters of disease transmission...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Y J Zhang, D H Zhou, Z P Bai, F X Xue
Objective: To quantitatively analyze the current status and development trends regarding the land use regression (LUR) models on ambient air pollution studies. Methods: Relevant literature from the PubMed database before June 30, 2017 was analyzed, using the Bibliographic Items Co-occurrence Matrix Builder (BICOMB 2.0). Keywords co-occurrence networks, cluster mapping and timeline mapping were generated, using the CiteSpace 5.1.R5 software. Relevant literature identified in three Chinese databases was also reviewed...
February 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Benjamin Amoah, Emanuele Giorgi, Daniel J Heyes, Stef van Burren, Peter John Diggle
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition among children under 5 years of age continues to be a public health challenge in many low- and middle-income countries and can lead to growth stunting. Infectious diseases may also affect child growth, however their actual impact on the latter can be difficult to quantify. In this paper, we analyse data from 20 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 13 African countries to investigate the relationship between malaria and stunting. Our objective is to make inference on the association between malaria incidence during the first year of life and height-for-age Z-scores (HAZs)...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Gali Cohen, Ilan Levy, Yuval, Jeremy D Kark, Noam Levin, Guy Witberg, Zaza Iakobishvili, Tamir Bental, David M Broday, David M Steinberg, Ran Kornowski, Yariv Gerber
Background Exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is considered to have a carcinogenic effect. The authors previously reported a nonsignificant association between TRAP and cancer risk in a relatively small cohort of myocardial infarction survivors. This study assessed whether TRAP exposure is associated with subsequent cancer in a large cohort of coronary patients. Methods & results Consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions in a major medical centre in central Israel from 2004 to 2014 were followed for cancer through 2015...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Songchao Chen, Manuel P Martin, Nicolas P A Saby, Christian Walter, Denis A Angers, Dominique Arrouays
Although soils have a high potential to offset CO2 emissions through its conversion into soil organic carbon (SOC) with long turnover time, it is widely accepted that there is an upper limit of soil stable C storage, which is referred to SOC saturation. In this study we estimate SOC saturation in French topsoil (0-30cm) and subsoil (30-50cm), using the Hassink equation and calculate the additional SOC sequestration potential (SOCsp ) by the difference between SOC saturation and fine fraction C on an unbiased sampling set of sites covering whole mainland France...
February 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Bin Wang, Cathy Waters, Susan Orgill, Jonathan Gray, Annette Cowie, Anthony Clark, De Li Liu
Efficient and effective modelling methods to assess soil organic carbon (SOC) stock are central in understanding the global carbon cycle and informing related land management decisions. However, mapping SOC stocks in semi-arid rangelands is challenging due to the lack of data and poor spatial coverage. The use of remote sensing data to provide an indirect measurement of SOC to inform digital soil mapping has the potential to provide more reliable and cost-effective estimates of SOC compared with field-based, direct measurement...
February 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hyeyeong Choe, James H Thorne, Patrick R Huber, Dongkun Lee, James F Quinn
Protected areas (PAs) are often considered the most important biodiversity conservation areas in national plans, but PAs often do not represent national-scale biodiversity. We evaluate the current conservation status of plant biodiversity within current existing PAs, and identify potential additional PAs for South Korea. We modeled species ranges for 2,297 plant species using Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines and compared the level of mean range representation in South Korea's existing PAs, which comprise 5...
2018: PloS One
Laura Minet, Rick Liu, Marie-France Valois, Junshi Xu, Scott Weichenthal, Marianne Hatzopoulou
Land-use regression (LUR) models of air pollutants are frequently developed based on short-term stationary or mobile monitoring approaches, which raises the question of whether these two data collection protocols lead to similar exposure surfaces. In this study, we measured Ultrafine Particles (UFP) and Black Carbon (BC) concentrations in Toronto during summer 2016, using two short-term data collection approaches: mobile, involving 3,023 road segments sampled on bicycles, and stationary, involving 92 sidewalk locations...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Scott D Landes, Andrew S London
OBJECTIVE: Informed by a social determinants of health framework, we investigate the relationship between self-reported ADHD diagnosis status and adult health, and whether observed associations are attenuated by biomedical and socioeconomic factors. METHOD: Using 2007 National Health Interview Survey data ( N = 19,104), we present multivariate logistic regression analyses of associations between self-reported ADHD diagnosis status and five adult health outcomes...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
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