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Membrane filtration waterborne disease

Chong-Miao Zhang, Li-Mei Xu, Peng-Cheng Xu, Xiaochang C Wang
Domestic wastewater contains various pathogens, which, if not sufficiently eliminated, may enter the receiving water bodies and cause water-transmitted diseases. Among the waterborne pathogens, viruses may occur, survive and/or decay much differently from bacteria in water. In many cases, the diseases caused by viruses are more severe. Therefore, research efforts are mainly directed at the behavior of viruses in water environments, as well as the elimination of viruses from wastewater. In this paper, an overview of the occurrence of viruses in wastewater is presented, together with their categories, methods of detection and potential to cause waterborne diseases...
April 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Yongli Zhang, Qing Wang, Wei Lou, Yuxin Wang, Xuan Zhu
Waterborne pathogens outbreaks are major reasons of diarrhea disease worldwide. Detecting and monitoring emerging waterborne pathogens (EWPs) is important for drinking water microbiological safety. The microbiological safety of household water hollow fiber membrane filter which is the end of drinking water treatment process was studied with heterotrophic plate count (HPC) and real-time PCR method. The effect of the flow rate, idle time and washing fashion were investigated. Among the selected filters from three manufacturers, only the PVDF membrane water filter (Brand B) could achieve a good water purification criteria...
April 2013: Journal of Environmental Biology
Anita Kern, Mihaly Kadar, Katalin Szomor, György Berencsi, Beatrix Kapusinszky, Marta Vargha
Waterborne viruses infect the human population through the consumption of contaminated drinking water and by direct contact with polluted surface water during recreational activity. Although water related viral outbreaks are a major public health concern, virus detection is not a part of the water quality monitoring scheme, mainly due to the absence of routine analysis methods. In the present study, we implemented various approaches for water concentration and virus detection, and tested on Hungarian surface water samples...
December 2013: Journal of Water and Health
Nonhlanhla Ngwenya, Esper J Ncube, James Parsons
Drinking water is the most important single source of human exposure to gastroenteric diseases, mainly as a result of the ingestion of microbial contaminated water. Waterborne microbial agents that pose a health risk to humans include enteropathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Therefore, properly assessing whether these hazardous agents enter drinking water supplies, and if they do, whether they are disinfected adequately, are undoubtedly aspects critical to protecting public health. As new pathogens emerge, monitoring for relevant indicator microorganisms (e...
2013: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Shih-Wei Huang, Bing-Mu Hsu, Yen-Jui Su, Dar-Der Ji, Wei-Chen Lin, Jyh-Larng Chen, Feng-Cheng Shih, Po-Min Kao, Yi-Chou Chiu
PURPOSE: The high incidences of waterborne diseases are frequently associated with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC). DEC may pose a health risk to people who contact surface water for recreation or domestic use. However, there is no published report on the monitoring of DEC in drinking water sources in Taiwan. In this study, the occurrence of DEC genes in raw water for water treatment plants in Taiwan was investigated. METHOD: Raw water samples were taken from water treatment plants adjacent to the Kaoping River in southern Taiwan...
August 2011: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Fredrick J Simmons, David H-W Kuo, Irene Xagoraraki
In the US, human enteric viruses are the main etiologic agents of childhood gastroenteritis, resulting in several hospitalizations and deaths each year. These viruses have been linked to several waterborne diseases, such as acute gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis and respiratory illness. The removal of human enterovirus (EV) and norovirus genogroup II (NoV GGII) was studied in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and compared with the removal of human adenovirus (HAdV). In total, 32 samples were quantified using real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) from four separate locations throughout the treatment process; influent, primary settling effluent, membrane influent (which includes the MLSS) and membrane effluent...
April 2011: Water Research
Bart De Gusseme, Tom Hennebel, Eline Christiaens, Hans Saveyn, Kim Verbeken, Jeffrey P Fitts, Nico Boon, Willy Verstraete
The development of innovative water disinfection strategies is of utmost importance to prevent outbreaks of waterborne diseases related to poor treatment of (drinking) water. Recently, the association of silver nanoparticles with the bacterial cell surface of Lactobacillus fermentum (referred to as biogenic silver or bio-Ag(0)) has been reported to exhibit antiviral properties. The microscale bacterial carrier matrix serves as a scaffold for Ag(0) particles, preventing aggregation during encapsulation. In this study, bio-Ag(0) was immobilized in different microporous PVDF membranes using two different pre-treatments of bio-Ag(0) and the immersion-precipitation method...
February 2011: Water Research
Siya Ram, Poornima Vajpayee, Rishi Shanker
BACKGROUND: The contamination of processed or unprocessed drinking water by fecal coliform bacteria has been reported worldwide. Despite a high incidence of waterborne diseases, entero-hemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an underacknowledged pathogen of concern to public health in India. Although the presence of EHEC is recorded in surface water resources of India, drinking water sources are yet to be investigated. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to analyze potable water samples for the presence of virulence determinants of EHEC and to determine the sensitivity of the virulence determinants to antimicrobials...
April 2008: Environmental Health Perspectives
R M Franco, R Rocha-Eberhardt, R Cantusio Neto
Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis are waterborne parasites that have caused several outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease associated with drinking water. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these protozoa in water in the Southeast of Brazil, an investigation was conducted to verify the presence of cysts and oocysts in superficial raw water of the Atibaia River. The water samples were submitted to membrane filtration (3.0 microm) and elution was processed by (1) scraping and rinsing of membrane (RM method) and (2) acetone-dissolution (ADM method)...
March 2001: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
C L McKibben, R J Pascho
Laboratory studies of the transmission and pathogenesis of Renibacterium salmoninarum may describe more accurately what is occurring in the natural environment if test fish are infected by waterborne R. salmoninarum shed from infected fish. To quantify bacterial shedding by chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha at 13 degrees C in freshwater, groups of fish were injected intraperitoneally with R. salmoninarum at either 1.3 x 10(6) colony forming units (CFU) fish (-1) (high-dose injection group) or 1.5 x 10(3) CFU fish (-1) (low-dose injection group)...
October 11, 1999: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
S M Goyal, C P Gerba
Membrane adsorption-elution techniques have made it possible to concentrate and detect small numbers of viruses in large volumes of water and wastewater, but no such methods are available for quantitative recovery of bacteria. A number of waterborne disease outbreaks of "unknown etiology" in the United States are suspected to have been caused by pathogens present in numbers too small to be detected by currently available methodology. The present study reports on the use of positively charged depth filters for the concentration and detection of bacteria in large volumes of tap water...
November 1980: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
S L Chang
Unless special measures are taken, community water supplies are likely to contain enteric viruses which may lead to sporadic cases, or even epidemics, of such diseases as infectious hepatitis or poliomyelitis. After a general discussion of waterborne viral infections, in which it is pointed out that subclinical infections may considerably outnumber clinical cases, the author proposes a method for the concentration and detection of enteric viruses in water by means of membrane filtration and growth on monkey-kidney-cell or other tissue cultures...
1968: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
H Zinyoji, S Sakai, Y Kudo, T Ito, K Saito
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1969: Nihon Densenbyo Gakkai Zasshi
D Blum, S R Huttly, J I Okoro, C Akujobi, B R Kirkwood, R G Feachem
Monthly bacteriological water testing of traditional water sources (ponds, rivers, unprotected springs and traditional wells) used by five villages in northeastern Imo State, Nigeria, was conducted during the period January 1983 to August 1985. The membrane-filtration technique was used to detect faecal coliforms (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS). Evidence of faecal pollution was seen throughout the year for all water sources. During the study period, the monthly geometric mean counts per 100 ml of water (all sources combined) ranged from 760 to 17877 for FC and from 678 to 17394 for FS...
October 1987: Epidemiology and Infection
J E Ongerth, H H Stibbs
Water samples were collected from four rivers in Washington State and two rivers in California and examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Oocyst-sized particles were concentrated from 20-liter samples of water by membrane filtration, centrifugation, and differential sedimentation. The particle concentrate was then deposited on a 25-mm-diameter membrane filter for oocyst identification by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The identification procedure had a limit of detection of about five oocysts per liter...
April 1987: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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