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Residential wood burning health

Stefanie Kasurinen, Pasi I Jalava, Mikko S Happo, Olli Sippula, Oskari Uski, Hanna Koponen, Jürgen Orasche, Ralf Zimmermann, Jorma Jokiniemi, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen
According to the World Health Organization particulate emissions from the combustion of solid fuels caused more than 110,000 premature deaths worldwide in 2010. Log wood combustion is the most prevalent form of residential biomass heating in developed countries, but it is unknown how the type of wood logs used in furnaces influences the chemical composition of the particulate emissions and their toxicological potential. We burned logs of birch, beech and spruce, which are used commonly as firewood in Central and Northern Europe in a modern masonry heater, and compared them to the particulate emissions from an automated pellet boiler fired with softwood pellets...
September 28, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Guofeng Shen, Yuanchen Chen, Wei Du, Nan Lin, Xilong Wang, Hefa Cheng, Junfeng Liu, Chunyu Xue, Guangqing Liu, Eddy Y Zeng, Baoshan Xing, Shu Tao
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derivatives like nitrated and oxygenated PAHs are of growing concerns because of considerably higher toxicity and important roles during atmospheric chemical reactions. Residential solid fuel combustion is likely to be one large primary source of these pollutants in developing countries. In this study, inhalation exposure to nitrated and oxygenated PAH derivatives was evaluated among rural residents using carried samplers. The exposure levels of individual nitrated PAHs ranged from 4...
September 2016: Environmental Pollution
Esra Mutlu, Sarah H Warren, Peggy P Matthews, Charly King, Leon Walsh, Andrew D Kligerman, Judith E Schmid, Daniel Janek, Ingeborg M Kooter, William P Linak, M Ian Gilmour, David M DeMarini
CONTEXT: Soy biodiesel is the predominant biodiesel fuel used in the USA, but only a few, frequently conflicting studies have examined the potential health effects of its emissions. OBJECTIVE: We combusted petroleum diesel (B0) and fuels with increasing percentages of soy methyl esters (B20, B50 and B100) and determined the mutagenicity-emission factors expressed as revertants/megajoule of thermal energy consumed (rev/MJ(th)). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We combusted each fuel in replicate in a small (4...
2015: Inhalation Toxicology
Karla Pozo, Victor H Estellano, Tom Harner, Luis Diaz-Robles, Francisco Cereceda-Balic, Pablo Etcharren, Katerine Pozo, Victor Vidal, Fabián Guerrero, Alberto Vergara-Fernández
This study addresses human health concerns in the city of Temuco that are attributed to wood smoke and related pollutants associated with wood burning activities that are prevalent in Temuco. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in air across urban and rural sites over three seasons in Temuco using polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PUF-PAS). Concentrations of ΣPAHs (15 congeners) in air ranged from BDL to ∼70 ng m(-3) and were highest during the winter season, which is attributed to emissions from residential heating by wood combustion...
September 2015: Chemosphere
Guofeng Shen, Yuanchen Chen, Chunyu Xue, Nan Lin, Ye Huang, Huizhong Shen, Yilong Wang, Tongchao Li, Yanyan Zhang, Shu Su, Yibo Huangfu, Weihao Zhang, Xiaofu Chen, Guangqing Liu, Wenxin Liu, Xilong Wang, Ming-Hung Wong, Shu Tao
Residential solid fuel combustion is a major source of many pollutants, resulting in significant impacts on air quality and human health. Improved stoves, especially some modern gasifier biomass models, are being deployed to alleviate household and ambient air pollution. Pollutant emissions from coal burning in improved metal stoves (n = 11) and wood combustion in modern gasifier stoves (n = 8) were measured in field in Hubei, China. The emissions of CO, TSP, OC, EC, and PAHs from coal burning in the improved iron stoves were generally lower than previously reported results for coal in traditional stoves...
June 2, 2015: Environmental Science & Technology
Poh-Sin Yap, Cynthia Garcia
OBJECTIVES: We examined the impact of Rule 4901, aimed at reducing residential wood burning, on particulate matter levels and hospitalizations in the San Joaquin Valley Air Basin (SJVAB). METHODS: Using general linear mixed models and generalized estimating equation models, we compared levels of particulate matter and of hospital admissions (age groups = 45-64 and ≥ 65 years) in the SJVAB for cardiovascular disease (CVD), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during the burn seasons before (2000-2003) and after (2003-2006) implementation...
April 2015: American Journal of Public Health
Marcello Campagna, Gabriele Marcias, Natalia Angius, Daniele Fabbri, Marcello Noli, Sergio Pili, Ilaria Pilia, Giuseppe Avataneo, Pierluigi Cocco
OBJECTIVES: Objective of our pilot study was to explore the airborne ultrafine particle count in residential areas nearby industrial and military settings with reference to urban and rural areas. METHOD: We monitored airborne ultrafine (ranging 7nm - 10 microm) particles in residential areas nearby a large oil refinery, a military shooting range, in the largest urban area in the region and in a rural area. We conducted eight samplings (6 h each) using a Electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI plus - Dekati, Tampere, FInland)...
June 2014: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Roland Masse, Claude Boudène
Biomass is an important renewable resource of primary energy. Wood burning is expected to expand in future as a cheap means of residential heating, especially in wood-producing rural areas. The health consequences of wood smoke are taken in account far less actively in Europe than in North America, where stringent limitations have been introduced, such as those of the EPA Burnwise project. Recently, wildfires were estimated to release 2 petagrams of carbon into the atmosphere worldwide, contributing to more than 300 000 deaths annually...
January 2013: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
Toshihiro Kuwayama, Chris R Ruehl, Michael J Kleeman
Toxicology studies indicate that inhalation of ultrafine particles (Dp < 0.1 μm) causes adverse health effects, presumably due to their large surface area-to-volume ratio that can drive heterogeneous reactions. Epidemiological associations between ultrafine particles and health effects, however, have been difficult to identify due to the lack of appropriate long-term monitoring and exposure data. The majority of the existing ultrafine particle epidemiology studies are based on exposure to particle number, although an independent analysis suggests that ultrafine particle mass (PM0...
December 17, 2013: Environmental Science & Technology
M McNamara, J Thornburg, E Semmens, T Ward, C Noonan
Emissions from indoor biomass burning are a major public health concern in developing areas of the world. Less is known about indoor air quality, particularly airborne endotoxin, in homes burning biomass fuel in residential wood stoves in higher income countries. A filter-based sampler was used to evaluate wintertime indoor coarse particulate matter (PM₁₀₋₂.₅) and airborne endotoxin (EU/m³, EU/mg) concentrations in 50 homes using wood stoves as their primary source of heat in western Montana. We investigated number of residents, number of pets, dampness (humidity), and frequency of wood stove usage as potential predictors of indoor airborne endotoxin concentrations...
December 2013: Indoor Air
Curtis W Noonan, Tony J Ward, William Navidi, Lianne Sheppard, Megan Bergauff, Chris Palmer
Many rural mountain valley communities experience elevated ambient levels of fine particulate matter (PM*) in the winter, because of contributions from residential wood-burning appliances and sustained temperature inversion periods during the cold season. A wood stove change-out program was implemented in a community heavily affected by wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of this intervention program on ambient and indoor PM2...
December 2011: Research Report (Res Rep Health Eff Inst)
Marcelo Mena-Carrasco, Estefania Oliva, Pablo Saide, Scott N Spak, Cristóbal de la Maza, Mauricio Osses, Sebastián Tolvett, J Elliott Campbell, Tsao Es Chi-Chung Tsao, Luisa T Molina
Chilean law requires the assessment of air pollution control strategies for their costs and benefits. Here we employ an online weather and chemical transport model, WRF-Chem, and a gridded population density map, LANDSCAN, to estimate changes in fine particle pollution exposure, health benefits, and economic valuation for two emission reduction strategies based on increasing the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in Santiago, Chile. The first scenario, switching to a CNG public transportation system, would reduce urban PM2...
July 1, 2012: Science of the Total Environment
Daniela Haluza, August Kaiser, Hanns Moshammer, Claudia Flandorfer, Michael Kundi, Manfred Neuberger
The dependency on carbon-based fossil energy and growing awareness of climate change issues has induced ambitious policy initiatives to promote renewable energy sources for indoor heating. Combustion of regionally available material such as wood is considered a carbon-neutral alternative for oil and gas, but unregulated revival of wood stoves may cause detrimental health effects. For the prognosis of the health impact of air pollution due to the use of wood stoves, Upper Austria served for a case study. On the basis of recent measurements of particulate matter <10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and nitrous gases (NO(x)), we compared the air pollution attributable to present energy mix (termed scenario 1) with two alternatives: For scenario 2, we assumed replacement of light fuel oil by either fossil gas or biomass, and for scenario 3, replacement of light fuel oil by biomass only...
July 2012: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Ingunn Skogstad Riddervold, Jakob Hjort Bønløkke, Anna-Carin Olin, Therese Koops Grønborg, Vivi Schlünssen, Kristin Skogstrand, David Hougaard, Andreas Massling, Torben Sigsgaard
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that particulate air pollution derived from wood stoves causes acute inflammation in the respiratory system, increases the incidence of asthma and other allergic diseases, and increases respiratory morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate acute respiratory effects from short-term wood smoke exposure in humans. Twenty non-smoking atopic volunteers with normal lung function and without bronchial responsiveness were monitored during three different experimental exposure sessions, aiming at particle concentrations of about 200 μg/m(3), 400 μg/m(3), and clean air as control exposure...
2012: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
T Kaivosoja, A Virén, J Tissari, J Ruuskanen, J Tarhanen, O Sippula, J Jokiniemi
Catalytic converters can be used to decrease carbon monoxide, organic compounds and soot from small-scale wood-fired appliances. The reduction is based on the oxidation of gaseous and particulate pollutants promoted by catalytic transition metal surfaces. However, many transition metals have also strong catalytic effect on PCDD/F formation. In this study birch logs were burned in a wood-fired stove (18 kW) with and without a catalytic converter with palladium and platinum as catalysts. PCDD/F, chlorophenol and PAH concentrations were analyzed from three phases of combustion (ignition, pyrolysis and burnout) and from the whole combustion cycle...
July 2012: Chemosphere
K Mengersen, L Morawska, H Wang, N Murphy, F Tayphasavanh, K Darasavong, N S Holmes
UNLABELLED: This article presents the results of a study on the association between measured air pollutants and the respiratory health of resident women and children in Lao PDR, one of the least developed countries in Southeast Asia. The study, commissioned by the World Health Organisation, included PM(10), CO and NO(2) measurements made inside 181 dwellings in nine districts within two provinces in Lao PDR over a 5-month period (12/05-04/06), and respiratory health information (via questionnaires and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) measurements) for all residents in the same dwellings...
February 2011: Indoor Air
Md Aynul Bari, Günter Baumbach, Bertram Kuch, Günter Scheffknecht
An important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential areas, particularly in the winter season, is the burning process when wood is used for domestic heating. The target of this study was to investigate the particle-phase PAH composition of ambient samples in order to assess the influence of wood combustion on air quality in residential areas. PM(10) samples (particulate matter <10 mum) were collected during two winter seasons at two rural residential areas near Stuttgart in Germany...
June 2010: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Jaron C Hansen, Woods R Woolwine, Brittney L Bates, Jared M Clark, Roman Y Kuprov, Puspak Mukherjee, Jacolin A Murray, Michael A Simmons, Mark F Waite, Norman L Eatough, Delbert J Eatough, Russell Long, Brett D Grover
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is promoting the development and application of sampling methods for the semicontinuous determination of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microm) mass and chemical composition. Data obtained with these methods will significantly improve the understanding of the primary sources, chemical conversion processes, and meteorological atmospheric processes that lead to observed PM2.5 concentrations and will aid in the understanding of the etiology of PM2...
March 2010: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Curtis W Noonan, John R Balmes
Epidemiological studies of biomass smoke health effects have been conducted in a variety of settings and with a variety of study designs. The Health Effects Workgroup discussed several approaches for the investigation of health effects in communities exposed to wood smoke from nearby wildland fires, intentional agricultural burning, or residential biomass burning devices such as woodstoves or cookstoves. This presentation briefly reviews observational and intervention studies that have been conducted within these exposure settings...
February 2010: Inhalation Toxicology
Pernilla Gustafson, Conny Ostman, Gerd Sällsten
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of domestic wood burning on indoor levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Indoor and outdoor concentrations of 27 PAHs were measured during wintertime in homes with (n= 13) or without (n 0) wood-burning appliances and at an ambient site in a Swedish residential area where wood burning for space heating is common. Twenty-four hour indoor levels of anthracene, benzo(ghi)fluoranthene, cyclopenta(cd)pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, chrysene/triphenylene, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, benzo(ghi)perylene, and coronene were significantly (about 3- to 5-fold) higher in homes with, compared with homes without, wood-burning appliances...
July 15, 2008: Environmental Science & Technology
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