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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221101/identification-of-a-novel-epitope-in-the-c-terminus-of-hcv-e2-protein-that-induces-potent-and-cross-reactive-neutralizing-antibodies
#1
Soma Das, Ranajoy Mullick, Anuj Kumar, Himani Tandon, Mihika Bose, K Gouthamchandra, Madhavi Chandra, Bagepally Ravishankar, M N Khaja, Narayanaswamy Srinivasan, Saumitra Das, Shaila Melkote Subbarao, Anjali Anoop Karande
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic viral hepatitis, but an effective vaccine is still not available to prevent infection. Use of neutralizing antibodies could be a potential therapeutic option. In this study, presence of anti-HCV antibodies in HCV-infected patients' was assessed from 50 patients and examined for the presence of neutralizing antibodies using the 'hepatitis C virus like particles'. Antibodies from two samples exhibited significant inhibitory activity suggesting that these may neutralize viral infection...
February 3, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218309/suramin-interacts-with-the-positively-charged-region-surrounding-the-5-fold-axis-of-the-ev-a71-capsid-and-inhibits-multiple-enterovirus-a
#2
Peijun Ren, Yimei Zheng, Wenqi Wang, Liping Hong, Françis Delpeyroux, Fernando Arenzana-Seisdedos, Ralf Altmeyer
Suramin was previously shown to bind to the EV-A71 capsid through its naphthalenetrisulfonic acid groups, thereby reducing virus-cell binding and inhibiting viral replication. Here, we identify VP1-145 as the critical amino acid that accounts for the differential sensitivity of EVA-71 viruses to suramin. A single Q or G to E substitution at VP1-145 results in an approximately 30-fold shift of IC50 or IC90 values reproducing the inhibition profile observed with field isolates expressing either the 145Q or E mutation...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215617/genetic-engineering-alveolar-macrophages-for-host-resistance-to-prrsv
#3
REVIEW
Randall S Prather, Kristin M Whitworth, Susan K Schommer, Kevin D Wells
Standard strategies for control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have not been effective, as vaccines have not reduced the prevalence of disease and many producers depopulate after an outbreak. Another method of control would be to prevent the virus from infecting the pig. The virus was thought to infect alveolar macrophages by interaction with a variety of cell surface molecules. One popular model had PRRSV first interacting with heparin sulfate followed by binding to sialoadhesin and then being internalized into an endosome...
February 10, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213271/woodchuck-sodium-taurocholate-cotransporting-polypeptide-supports-low-level-hepatitis-b-and-d-virus-entry
#4
Liran Fu, Hongjie Hu, Yang Liu, Zhiyi Jing, Wenhui Li
Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) is the functional receptor for human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and its satellite hepatitis D virus (HDV). Species barriers to HBV/HDV infection are mainly determined at entry level by variations in the sequences of particular NTCP orthologs. In this study, we sought to determine whether the NTCP ortholog in woodchuck (Marmota monax), woodchuck NTCP (wNTCP) supports viral infection. We found that wNTCP is capable of supporting HBV/HDV infection in HepG2 cells, but to much lower extent than human NTCP (hNTCP), which is about 90% reduction of hNTCP...
February 14, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209172/evaluation-of-the-contribution-of-the-transmembrane-region-to-the-ectodomain-conformation-of-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein
#5
Hanh T Nguyen, Navid Madani, Haitao Ding, Emerald Elder, Amy Princiotto, Christopher Gu, Patrice Darby, James Alin, Alon Herschhorn, John C Kappes, Youdong Mao, Joseph G Sodroski
BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env), a Type 1 transmembrane protein, assembles into a trimeric spike complex that mediates virus entry into host cells. The high potential energy of the metastable, unliganded Env trimer is maintained by multiple non-covalent contacts among the gp120 exterior and gp41 transmembrane Env subunits. Structural studies suggest that the gp41 transmembrane region forms a left-handed coiled coil that contributes to the Env trimer interprotomer contacts...
February 16, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207819/the-ins-and-outs-of-eukaryotic-viruses-knowledge-base-and-ontology-of-a-viral-infection
#6
Chantal Hulo, Patrick Masson, Edouard de Castro, Andrea H Auchincloss, Rebecca Foulger, Sylvain Poux, Jane Lomax, Lydie Bougueleret, Ioannis Xenarios, Philippe Le Mercier
Viruses are genetically diverse, infect a wide range of tissues and host cells and follow unique processes for replicating themselves. All these processes were investigated and indexed in ViralZone knowledge base. To facilitate standardizing data, a simple ontology of viral life-cycle terms was developed to provide a common vocabulary for annotating data sets. New terminology was developed to address unique viral replication cycle processes, and existing terminology was modified and adapted. The virus life-cycle is classically described by schematic pictures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207490/how-hiv-1-entry-mechanism-and-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-guide-structure-based-vaccine-design
#7
Marie Pancera, Anita Changela, Peter D Kwong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An HIV-1 vaccine that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) remains to be developed. Here, we review how knowledge of bNAbs and HIV-1 entry mechanism is guiding the structure-based design of vaccine immunogens and immunization regimens. RECENT FINDINGS: Isolation of bNAbs from HIV-1-infected donors has led to an unprecedented understanding of the sites of vulnerability that these antibodies target on the HIV-1 envelope (Env) as well as of the immunological pathways that these antibody lineages follow to develop broad and potent neutralization...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203251/sulfated-glycans-and-related-digestive-enzymes-in-the-zika-virus-infectivity-potential-mechanisms-of-virus-host-interaction-and-perspectives-in-drug-discovery
#8
REVIEW
Vitor H Pomin
As broadly reported, there is an ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in countries of Latin America. Recent findings have demonstrated that ZIKV causes severe defects on the neural development in fetuses in utero and newborns. Very little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the ZIKV infectivity. Potential therapeutic agents are also under investigation. In this report, the possible mechanisms of action played by glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) displayed at the surface proteoglycans of host cells, and likely in charge of interactions with surface proteins of the ZIKV, are highlighted...
2017: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198435/cultured-corneas-show-dendritic-spread-and-restrict-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-that-is-not-observed-with-cultured-corneal-cells
#9
Neel Thakkar, Dinesh Jaishankar, Alex Agelidis, Tejabhiram Yadavalli, Kyle Mangano, Shrey Patel, Sati Zeynep Tekin, Deepak Shukla
Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) causes life-long morbidities in humans. While fever blisters are more common, occasionally the cornea is infected resulting in vision loss. A very intriguing aspect of HSV-1 corneal infection is that the virus spread is normally restricted to only a small fraction of cells on the corneal surface that connect with each other in a dendritic fashion. Here, to develop a comprehensive understanding of the susceptibility of human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells to HSV-1 infection, we infected HCE cells at three different dosages of HSV-1 and measured the outcomes in terms of viral entry, gene and protein expression, viral replication and cytokine induction...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196962/spatial-and-temporal-analysis-of-alphavirus-replication-and-assembly-in-mammalian-and-mosquito-cells
#10
Joyce Jose, Aaron B Taylor, Richard J Kuhn
Sindbis virus (SINV [genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae]) is an enveloped, mosquito-borne virus. Alphaviruses cause cytolytic infections in mammalian cells while establishing noncytopathic, persistent infections in mosquito cells. Mosquito vector adaptation of alphaviruses is a major factor in the transmission of epidemic strains of alphaviruses. Though extensive studies have been performed on infected mammalian cells, the morphological and structural elements of alphavirus replication and assembly remain poorly understood in mosquito cells...
February 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196955/identification-of-human-junctional-adhesion-molecule-1-as-a-functional-receptor-for-the-hom-1-calicivirus-on-human-cells
#11
Stanislav V Sosnovtsev, Carlos Sandoval-Jaime, Gabriel I Parra, Christine M Tin, Ronald W Jones, Jo Soden, Donna Barnes, Jim Freeth, Alvin W Smith, Kim Y Green
The Hom-1 vesivirus was reported in 1998 following the inadvertent transmission of the animal calicivirus San Miguel sea lion virus to a human host in a laboratory. We characterized the Hom-1 strain and investigated the mechanism by which human cells could be infected. An expression library of 3,559 human plasma membrane proteins was screened for reactivity with Hom-1 virus-like particles, and a single interacting protein, human junctional adhesion molecule 1 (hJAM1), was identified. Transient expression of hJAM1 conferred susceptibility to Hom-1 infection on nonpermissive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells...
February 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195359/sodium-taurocholate-cotransporting-polypeptide-is-the-limiting-host-factor-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-macaque-and-pig-hepatocytes
#12
Florian A Lempp, Ellen Wiedtke, Bingqian Qu, Pierre Roques, Isabelle Chemin, Florian W R Vondran, Roger Le Grand, Dirk Grimm, Stephan Urban
: Infections with the human Hepatitis B (HBV) and Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) depend on species-specific host factors like the receptor human sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide hNTCP. Complementation of mouse hepatocytes with hNTCP confers susceptibility to HDV but not HBV indicating the requirement of additional HBV-specific factors. As an essential premise towards the establishment for an HBV-susceptible animal model, we investigated the role of hNTCP as a limiting factor of hepatocytes in commonly used laboratory animals...
February 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194372/mir-34b-5p-suppresses-melanoma-differentiation-associated-gene-5-mda5-signaling-pathway-to-promote-avian-leukosis-virus-subgroup-j-alv-j-infected-cells-proliferaction-and-alv-j-replication
#13
Zhenhui Li, Qingbin Luo, Haiping Xu, Ming Zheng, Bahareldin Ali Abdalla, Min Feng, Bolin Cai, Xiaocui Zhang, Qinghua Nie, Xiquan Zhang
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus that has a similar replication cycle to multiple viruses and therefore can be used as a model system for viral entry into host cells. However, there are few reports on the genes or microRNAs (miRNAs) that are responsible for the replication of ALV-J. Our previous miRNA and RNA sequencing data showed that the expression of miR-34b-5p was significantly upregulated in ALV-J-infected chicken spleens compared to non-infected chicken spleens, but melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) had the opposite expression pattern...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194311/tracking-the-virus-like-particles-of-macrobrachium-rosenbergii-nodavirus-in-insect-cells
#14
Ummi Fairuz Hanapi, Chean Yeah Yong, Zee Hong Goh, Noorjahan Banu Alitheen, Swee Keong Yeap, Wen Siang Tan
Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNv) poses a major threat to the prawn industry. Currently, no effective vaccine and treatment are available to prevent the spread of MrNv. Its infection mechanism and localisation in a host cell are also not well characterised. The MrNv capsid protein (MrNvc) produced in Escherichia coli self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) resembling the native virus. Thus, fluorescein labelled MrNvc VLPs were employed as a model to study the virus entry and localisation in Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9 cells...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193876/vulnerability-of-primitive-human-placental-trophoblast-to-zika-virus
#15
Megan A Sheridan, Dinar Yunusov, Velmurugan Balaraman, Andrei P Alexenko, Shinichiro Yabe, Sergio Verjovski-Almeida, Danny J Schust, Alexander W Franz, Yoel Sadovsky, Toshihiko Ezashi, R Michael Roberts
Infection of pregnant women by Asian lineage strains of Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to brain abnormalities in their infants, yet it is uncertain when during pregnancy the human conceptus is most vulnerable to the virus. We have examined two models to study susceptibility of human placental trophoblast to ZIKV: cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast derived from placental villi at term and colonies of trophoblast differentiated from embryonic stem cells (ESC). The latter appear to be analogous to the primitive placenta formed during implantation...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193659/oligonucleotide-lipid-conjugates-forming-g-quadruplex-structures-are-potent-and-pangenotypic-hepatitis-c-virus-entry-inhibitors-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo
#16
George Koutsoudakis, Alexia Paris de León, Carolina Herrera, Marcus Dorner, Gemma Pérez-Vilaró, Sébastien Lyonnais, Santiago Grijalvo, Ramon Eritja, Andreas Meyerhans, Gilles Mirambeau, Juana Díez
An HCV epidemic affecting HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) is expanding worldwide. Albeit the improved cure rates obtained with the new direct-acting antiviral drug (DAA) combinations, the high rate of reinfection within this population calls urgently for novel preventive interventions. Here we show in cell culture and ex vivo experiments with human colorectal tissue that lipoquads, G-quadruplex DNA structures fused to cholesterol, are efficient HCV pangenotypic entry and cell-to-cell transmission inhibitors...
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192531/multi-layered-control-of-galectin-8-mediated-autophagy-during-adenovirus-cell-entry-through-a-conserved-ppxy-motif-in-the-viral-capsid
#17
Charlotte Montespan, Shauna A Marvin, Sisley Austin, Andrew M Burrage, Benoit Roger, Fabienne Rayne, Muriel Faure, Edward M Campell, Carola Schneider, Rudolph Reimer, Kay Grünewald, Christopher M Wiethoff, Harald Wodrich
Cells employ active measures to restrict infection by pathogens, even prior to responses from the innate and humoral immune defenses. In this context selective autophagy is activated upon pathogen induced membrane rupture to sequester and deliver membrane fragments and their pathogen contents for lysosomal degradation. Adenoviruses, which breach the endosome upon entry, escape this fate by penetrating into the cytosol prior to autophagosome sequestration of the ruptured endosome. We show that virus induced membrane damage is recognized through Galectin-8 and sequesters the autophagy receptors NDP52 and p62...
February 13, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187149/inhibition-of-influenza-a-virus-infection-by-ginsenosides
#18
Wei Dong, Amber Farooqui, Alberto J Leon, David J Kelvin
Influenza viruses cause mild to severe respiratory infections in humans. Due to efficient means of transmission, the viruses infect human population on a large scale. Apart from vaccines, antiviral drugs are used to control infection; neuraminidase inhibitors are thought to be the first choice of treatment, particularly for severe cases. Rapidly evolving and emerging influenza viruses with increased frequency of viral resistance to these drugs stress the need to explore novel antiviral compounds. In this study, we investigated antiviral activity of ginseng extract and ginsenosides, the ginseng-derived triterpene and saponin compounds, against 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus in vitro and in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179528/identification-of-novel-functions-for-hepatitis-c-virus-envelope-glycoprotein-e1-in-virus-entry-and-assembly
#19
Juliano Haddad, Yves Rouillé, Xavier Hanoulle, Véronique Descamps, Monzer Hamze, Fouad Dabboussi, Thomas F Baumert, Gilles Duverlie, Muriel Lavie, Jean Dubuisson
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein complex is composed of E1 and E2 subunits. E2 is the receptor-binding protein as well as the major target of neutralizing antibodies, whereas the functions of E1 remain poorly defined. Here, we took advantage of the recently published structure of the N-terminal region of E1 ectodomain to interrogate the functions of this glycoprotein by mutating residues within this 79 amino acid region in the context of an infectious clone. The phenotypes of the mutants were characterized to determine the effects of the mutations on virus entry, replication and assembly...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179526/a-sequence-independent-unstructured-ires-is-responsible-for-internal-expression-of-the-coat-protein-of-turnip-crinkle-virus
#20
Jared May, Philip Johnson, Huma Saleem, Anne E Simon
To maximize the coding potential of viral genomes, internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) can be used to bypass the traditional requirement of a 5' cap and some/all of the associated translation initiation factors. Although viral IRES typically contain higher order RNA structure, an unstructured sequence of about 84-nt immediately upstream of the Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) coat protein (CP) ORF has been found to promote internal expression of the CP from the genomic (g)RNA both in vitro and in vivo Absence of extensive RNA structure was predicted using RNA folding algorithms and confirmed by SHAPE structure probing...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
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