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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329682/feline-coronavirus-insights-into-viral-pathogenesis-based-on-the-spike-protein-structure-and-function
#1
Javier A Jaimes, Gary R Whittaker
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an etiological agent that causes a benign enteric illness and the fatal systemic disease feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). The FCoV spike (S) protein is considered the viral regulator for binding and entry to the cell. This protein is also involved in FCoV tropism and virulence, as well as in the switch from enteric disease to FIP. This regulation is carried out by spike's major functions: receptor binding and virus-cell membrane fusion. In this review, we address important aspects in FCoV genetics, replication and pathogenesis, focusing on the role of S...
January 9, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328380/role-of-the-pi3k%C3%A2-akt%C3%A2-mtor-pathway-in-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-replication
#2
Kunlun Xiang, Bin Wang
The replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) may be modulated by a variety of cell signaling pathways, including the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K)‑RAC‑α serine/threonine‑protein kinase (AKT)‑serine/threonine‑protein kinase mTOR (mTOR) pathway. The aim of the present study was to determine the regulatory effects of this pathway on the infection and replication of HBV. The results indicated that the HBV entry process may activate the AKT pathway, as demonstrated by AKT phosphorylation in HBV natural infection...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327234/antiviral-effect-of-lithium-chloride-on-replication-of-avian-leukosis-virus-subgroup-j-in-cell-culture
#3
Kun Qian, Xiaowei Cheng, Danyang Zhang, Hongxia Shao, Yongxiu Yao, Venugopal Nair, Aijian Qin
Lithium chloride (LiCl) has been reported to possess antiviral activity against several viruses. In the current study, we assessed the antiviral activity effect of LiCl on ALV-J infection in CEF cells by using real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, IFA and p27 ELISA analysis. Our results showed that both viral RNA copy number and protein level decreased significantly in a dose and time dependent manner. Time-course analysis revealed that the antiviral effect was more pronounced when CEFs were treated at the post infection stage rather than at early absorption or pre-absorption stages...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327233/dcaf1-is-involved-in-hcv-replication-through-regulation-of-mir-122
#4
Yanling Yan, Conghui Li, Binlian Sun, Rongge Yang
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a worldwide threaten to human health with a high ratio of chronic infections. Recently, we found that Vpr-mediated regulation of HCV replication depends on the host protein DDB1-Cul4 associate factor 1 (DCAF1), implying that DCAF1 might be involved in the replication of HCV. In this study, we demonstrated that DCAF1 knockdown reduced HCV replication both in the infectious (JFH1) and replicon (Con1) systems. Further investigation showed a negative regulation of HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation by DCAF1...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324904/prohibitin-plays-a-critical-role-in-enterovirus-71-neuropathogenesis
#5
Issac Horng Khit Too, Isabelle Bonne, Eng Lee Tan, Justin Jang Hann Chu, Sylvie Alonso
A close relative of poliovirus, enterovirus 71 (EV71) is regarded as an important neurotropic virus of serious public health concern. EV71 causes Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and has been associated with neurological complications in young children. Our limited understanding of the mechanisms involved in its neuropathogenesis has hampered the development of effective therapeutic options. Here, using a two-dimensional proteomics approach combined with mass spectrometry, we have identified a unique panel of host proteins that were differentially and dynamically modulated during EV71 infection of motor-neuron NSC-34 cells, which are found at the neuromuscular junctions where EV71 is believed to enter the central nervous system...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323278/structural-biology-of-zika-virus-and-other-flaviviruses
#6
REVIEW
S Saif Hasan, Madhumati Sevvana, Richard J Kuhn, Michael G Rossmann
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an enveloped, icosahedral flavivirus that has structural and functional similarities to other human flavivirus pathogens such as dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV) and Japanese encephalitis (JEV) viruses. ZIKV infections have been linked to fetal microcephaly and the paralytic Guillain-Barré syndrome. This review provides a comparative structural analysis of the assembly, maturation and host-cell entry of ZIKV with other flaviviruses, especially DENV. We also discuss the mechanisms of neutralization by antibodies...
January 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322302/the-superiority-of-sucrose-cushion-centrifugation-to-ultrafiltration-and-pegylation-in-generating-high-titer-lentivirus-particles-and-transducing-stem-cells-with-enhanced-efficiency
#7
Mahdi Eskandarian Boroujeni, Mossa Gardaneh
Viral gene delivery is hailed as a great milestone in gene-based therapeutic approaches. The human immunodeficiency virus-derived lentiviral vectors (LVs) are advantageous in infecting both dividing and non-dividing cells leading to continuous expression of transgenes. A variety of protocols are available for concentration of LVs. We primarily generated our internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-based LVs. Virus titration and transduction efficiency were compared between various strategies that included sucrose cushion centrifugation (SCC), protein column ultrafiltration and polyethylene glycol precipitation...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321334/mechanism-of-hiv-1-resistance-to-an-electronically-constrained-%C3%AE-helical-peptide-membrane-fusion-inhibitor
#8
Xiyuan Wu, Zixuan Liu, Xiaohui Ding, Danwei Yu, Huamian Wei, Bo Qin, Yuanmei Zhu, Huihui Chong, Sheng Cui, Yuxian He
SC29EK is an electronically constrained α-helical peptide HIV-1 fusion inhibitor highly effective against both wild-type and enfuvirtide (T20)-resistant viruses. In this study, we focused on investigating the mechanism of HIV-1 resistance to SC29EK by two approaches. First, SC29EK-escaping HIV-1 variants were selected and characterized. Three mutant viruses, which possessed two (E43K/E49A) or three (Q39R/N43K/N126K, N43K/E49A/N126K) amino acid substitutions in the N- and C-terminal repeat regions of gp41 were identified as conferring high resistance to SC29EK and cross-resistance to the first-generation (T20, C34) and newly-designed (sifuvirtide, MT-SC29EK, 2P23) fusion inhibitors...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321332/erk-is-a-critical-regulator-of-jc-polyomavirus-infection
#9
Jeanne K DuShane, Michael P Wilczek, Colleen L Mayberry, Melissa S Maginnis
The human JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) infects the majority of the population worldwide and presents as an asymptomatic, persistent infection in the kidney. In individuals who are immunocompromised, JCPyV can become reactivated and cause a lytic infection in the central nervous system resulting in the fatal, demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Infection is initiated by interactions between the capsid protein viral protein 1 (VP1) and the α2,6-linked sialic acid on LSTc, while JCPyV internalization is facilitated by 5-hydroxytryptamine 2 receptors (5-HT2Rs)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321330/glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored-anti-hiv-env-single-chain-variable-fragments-interfere-with-hiv-1-env-processing-and-viral-infectivity
#10
Anisha Misra, Emile Gleeson, Weiming Wang, Chaobaihui Ye, Paul Zhou, Jason T Kimata
In previous studies, we demonstrated that single-chain variable fragments (scFv) from anti-HIV Env monoclonal antibodies act as entry inhibitors when tethered to the surface of target cells by a glycosyl-phosphitidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Interestingly, even if a virus escapes inhibition at entry, its replication is ultimately controlled. We hypothesized that in addition to functioning as entry inhibitors, anti-HIV GPI-scFvs may also interact with Env in an infected cell, thereby interfering with infectivity of newly produced virions...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321327/human-papillomavirus-16-infection-induces-vap-dependent-endosomal-tubulation
#11
Abida Siddiqa, Paola Massimi, David Pim, Justyna Broniarczyk, Lawrence Banks
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection involves complex interactions with the endocytic transport machinery, which ultimately facilitates the entry of the incoming viral genomes into the trans-Golgi network and their subsequent nuclear entry during mitosis. The endosomal pathway is a highly dynamic intracellular transport system, which consists of vesicular compartments and tubular extensions, although it is currently unclear whether incoming viruses specifically alter the endocytic machinery. In this study, using MICAL-L1 as a marker for tubulating endosomes, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a profound alteration in global levels of endocytic tubulation...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321326/the-amino-terminus-of-hsv-1-glycoprotein-k-gk-is-required-for-gb-binding-to-akt-release-of-intracellular-calcium-and-fusion-of-the-viral-envelope-with-plasma-membranes
#12
Farhana Musarrat, Nithya Jambunathan, Paul J F Rider, V N Chouljenko, K G Kousoulas
Previously, we have shown that the amino terminus of glycoprotein K (gK) binds to the amino terminus of gB and that deletion of the amino terminal 38 amino acids of gK prevents virus infection of mouse trigeminal ganglia after ocular infection and virus entry into neuronal axons. Recently, it has been shown that gB binds to Akt during virus entry and induces Akt phosphorylation and intracellular calcium release. Proximity ligation and two-way immunoprecipitation assays using monoclonal antibodies against gB and Akt-1 (phospho S473) confirmed that HSV-1(McKrae) gB interacted with Akt-1 (phospo S473) during virus entry into human neuroblastoma (SK-N-SH) cells and induced release of intracellular calcium...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321304/determinants-in-the-igv-domain-of-human-havcr1-tim-1-are-required-to-enhance-hepatitis-c-virus-entry
#13
Alla Kachko, Maria Isabel Costafreda, Iryna Zubkova, Jerome Jacques, Kazuyo Takeda, Frances Wells, Gerardo Kaplan, Marian E Major
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis in humans. Several host molecules participate in HCV cell entry but this process remains unclear. The complete unraveling of the HCV entry process is important to further understand viral pathogenesis and develop therapeutics. The human hepatitis A virus (HAV) cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1), CD365, also known as TIM-1, functions as a phospholipid receptor involved in cell entry of several enveloped viruses. Here, we studied the role of HAVCR1 in HCV infection...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321303/infection-and-replication-of-influenza-virus-at-the-ocular-surface
#14
Hannah M Creager, Amrita Kumar, Hui Zeng, Taronna R Maines, Terrence M Tumpey, Jessica A Belser
Though influenza viruses typically cause respiratory tract disease, some viruses, particularly those with an H7 hemagglutinin, have been isolated from the eyes of conjunctivitis cases. Previous work has shown that isolates of multiple subtypes from both ocular and respiratory infections are capable of replication in human ex vivo ocular tissues and corneal or conjunctival cell monolayers, leaving the determinants of ocular tropism unclear. Here, we evaluated the effect of several variables on tropism for ocular cells cultured in vitro and examined the potential effect of the tear film on viral infectivity...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315273/aeginetia-indica-decoction-inhibits-hepatitis-c-virus-life-cycle
#15
Cheng-Wei Lin, Chieh-Wen Lo, Chia-Ni Tsai, Ting-Chun Pan, Pin-Yin Chen, Ming-Jiun Yu
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still a global epidemic despite the introduction of several highly effective direct-acting antivirals that are tagged with sky-high prices. The present study aimed to identify an herbal decoction that ameliorates HCV infection. Among six herbal decoctions tested, the Aeginetia indica decoction had the most profound effect on the HCV reporter activity in infected Huh7.5.1 liver cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The Aeginetia indica decoction exerted multiple inhibitory effects on the HCV life cycle...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306566/bispecific-chimeric-antigen-receptors-targeting-the-cd4-binding-site-and-high-mannose-glycans-of-gp120-optimized-for-anti-human-immunodeficiency-virus-potency-and-breadth-with-minimal-immunogenicity
#16
Mustafa H Ghanem, Sara Bolivar-Wagers, Barna Dey, Agnes Hajduczki, Diego A Vargas-Inchaustegui, David T Danielson, Virgilio Bundoc, Li Liu, Edward A Berger
BACKGROUND AIMS: Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) offer great potential toward a functional cure of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To achieve the necessary long-term virus suppression, we believe that CARs must be designed for optimal potency and anti-HIV specificity, and also for minimal probability of virus escape and CAR immunogenicity. CARs containing antibody-based motifs are problematic in the latter regard due to epitope mutation and anti-idiotypic immune responses against the variable regions...
January 3, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306444/probing-multivalent-protein-carbohydrate-interactions-by-quantum-dot-f%C3%A3-rster-resonance-energy-transfer
#17
Yuan Guo, W Bruce Turnbull, Dejian Zhou
Cell surface carbohydrate-binding proteins (also known as lectins) recognize surface carbohydrates of viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens to regulate host immune responses; however, such interactions are also often exploited by pathogens to enhance infection. Multivalent binding is typically involved to compensate for the intrinsically weak nature of protein-carbohydrate interactions. The spatial orientation of carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) in multimeric lectins plays a central role in governing their binding affinity and specificity...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304471/the-zika-virus-envelope-protein-glycan-loop-regulates-virion-antigenicity
#18
Leslie Goo, Christina R DeMaso, Rebecca S Pelc, Julie E Ledgerwood, Barney S Graham, Richard J Kuhn, Theodore C Pierson
Because antibodies are an important component of flavivirus immunity, understanding the antigenic structure of flaviviruses is critical. Compared to dengue virus (DENV), the loop containing the single N-linked glycosylation site on Zika virus (ZIKV) envelope (E) proteins extends further towards the DII fusion loop (DII-FL) on neighboring E proteins within E dimers on mature viruses. Although ZIKV is poorly neutralized by DII-FL antibodies, we demonstrated significantly increased neutralization sensitivity of ZIKV particles incorporating the DENV glycan loop...
January 2, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304016/transcriptome-analysis-of-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus-gill-in-response-to-lymphocystis-disease-virus-lcdv-infection-novel-insights-into-fish-defense-mechanisms
#19
Ronghua Wu, Xiuzhen Sheng, Xiaoqian Tang, Jing Xing, Wenbin Zhan
Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) infection may induce a variety of host gene expression changes associated with disease development; however, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying host-virus interactions is limited. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was employed to investigate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the gill of the flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) at one week post LCDV infection. Transcriptome sequencing of the gill with and without LCDV infection was performed using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301346/blood-coagulation-factor-x-exerts-differential-effects-on-adenovirus-entry-into-human-lymphocytes
#20
James S Findlay, Graham P Cook, G Eric Blair
It has been proposed that blood coagulation factors, principally factor X (FX), enhance the uptake of human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) into cultured epithelial cells by bridging the viral hexon capsid protein and cell-surface heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs). We studied the effects of FX on Ad transduction of lymphoid cell lines (NK92MI, a natural killer cell line; Daudi, a B-cell line and Jurkat, a T-cell line) as well as primary peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and HeLa epithelial cells using either replication-deficient Ad5, or a derivative in which the Ad5 fiber was replaced with that of another Ad type, Ad35, termed Ad5F35...
January 3, 2018: Viruses
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