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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914931/valosin-containing-protein-vcp-p97-plays-a-role-in-the-replication-of-west-nile-virus
#1
Wallaya Phongphaew, Shintaro Kobayashi, Michihito Sasaki, Michael Carr, William W Hall, Yasuko Orba, Hirofumi Sawa
Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is classified as a member of the type II AAA(+) ATPase protein family. VCP functions in several cellular processes, including protein degradation, membrane fusion, vesicular trafficking and disassembly of stress granules. Moreover, VCP is considered to play a role in the replication of several viruses, albeit through different mechanisms. In the present study, we have investigated the role of VCP in West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Endogenous VCP expression was inhibited using either VCP inhibitors or by siRNA knockdown...
November 30, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914930/biological-fitness-and-natural-selection-of-amantadine-resistant-variants-of-avian-influenza-h5n1-viruses
#2
El-Sayed M Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits, Thomas C Mettenleiter
Outbreaks caused by the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (A/H5N1) devastated the poultry industry in several countries and posed a significant pandemic threat. In addition to culling of infected poultry and vaccination, amantadine has been applied in poultry in some countries to control the spread of the virus. The prevalence of the amantadine resistance marker at position 31 (Ser31Asn) of the M2 protein increased over time. However, little is known about the biological fitness and selection of H5N1 amantadine resistant strains over their sensitive counterparts...
November 30, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912091/genetic-ablation-of-axl-does-not-protect-human-neural-progenitor-cells-and-cerebral-organoids-from-zika-virus-infection
#3
Michael F Wells, Max R Salick, Ole Wiskow, Daniel J Ho, Kathleen A Worringer, Robert J Ihry, Sravya Kommineni, Bilada Bilican, Joseph R Klim, Ellen J Hill, Liam T Kane, Chaoyang Ye, Ajamete Kaykas, Kevin Eggan
Zika virus (ZIKV) can cross the placental barrier, resulting in infection of the fetal brain and neurological defects including microcephaly. The cellular tropism of ZIKV and the identity of attachment factors used by the virus to gain access to key cell types involved in pathogenesis are under intense investigation. Initial studies suggested that ZIKV preferentially targets neural progenitor cells (NPCs), providing an explanation for the developmental phenotypes observed in some pregnancies. The AXL protein has been nominated as a key attachment factor for ZIKV in several cell types including NPCs...
December 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911847/zika-virus-cell-tropism-in-the-developing-human-brain-and-inhibition-by-azithromycin
#4
Hanna Retallack, Elizabeth Di Lullo, Carolina Arias, Kristeene A Knopp, Matthew T Laurie, Carmen Sandoval-Espinosa, Walter R Mancia Leon, Robert Krencik, Erik M Ullian, Julien Spatazza, Alex A Pollen, Caleigh Mandel-Brehm, Tomasz J Nowakowski, Arnold R Kriegstein, Joseph L DeRisi
The rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its association with abnormal brain development constitute a global health emergency. Congenital ZIKV infection produces a range of mild to severe pathologies, including microcephaly. To understand the pathophysiology of ZIKV infection, we used models of the developing brain that faithfully recapitulate the tissue architecture in early to midgestation. We identify the brain cell populations that are most susceptible to ZIKV infection in primary human tissue, provide evidence for a mechanism of viral entry, and show that a commonly used antibiotic protects cultured brain cells by reducing viral proliferation...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906032/infection-of-rhesus-macaques-with-a-pool-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-with-the-envelope-genes-from-acute-hiv-1-infections
#5
Kendall C Krebs, Meijuan Tian, Mohammed Asmal, Binhua Ling, Kenneth Nelson, Kenneth Henry, Richard Gibson, Yuejin Li, Weining Han, Robin J Shattock, Ronald S Veazey, Norman Letvin, Eric J Arts, Yong Gao
BACKGROUND: New simian-human immunodeficiency chimeric viruses with an HIV-1 env (SHIVenv) are critical for studies on HIV pathogenesis, vaccine development, and microbicide testing. Macaques are typically exposed to single CCR5-using SHIVenv which in most instances does not reflect the conditions during acute/early HIV infection (AHI) in humans. Instead of individual and serial testing new SHIV constructs, a pool of SHIVenv_B derived from 16 acute HIV-1 infections were constructed using a novel yeast-based SHIV cloning approach and then used to infect macaques...
November 25, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905985/tlr7-8-agonist-induces-a-post-entry-samhd1-independent-block-to-hiv-1-infection-of-monocytes
#6
Henning Hofmann, Bénédicte Vanwalscappel, Nicolin Bloch, Nathaniel R Landau
BACKGROUND: Monocytes, the primary myeloid cell-type in peripheral blood, are resistant to HIV-1 infection as a result of the lentiviral restriction factor SAMHD1. Toll-like receptors recognize microbial pathogen components, inducing the expression of antiviral host proteins and proinflammatory cytokines. TLR agonists that mimic microbial ligands have been found to have activity against HIV-1 in macrophages. The induction of restriction factors in monocytes by TLR agonist activation has not been well studied...
December 1, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905841/cell-delivered-entry-inhibitors-for-hiv-1-ccr5-downregulation-and-blocking-virus-membrane-fusion-in-defending-the-host-cell-population
#7
Geoff Symonds, Jeffrey S Bartlett, Hans-Peter Kiem, Marlene Tsie, Louis Breton
HIV-1 infection requires the presence of the CD4 receptor on the target cell surface and a coreceptor, predominantly CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5). It has been shown that individuals who are homozygous for a defective CCR5 gene are protected from HIV-1 infection. A novel self-inactivating lentiviral vector LVsh5/C46 (Cal-1) has been engineered to block HIV-1 infection with two viral entry inhibitors, conferring resistance to HIV-1 infection from both CCR5 and CXCR4 tropic strains. Cal-1 encodes a short hairpin RNA (sh5) to downregulate CCR5 and C46, an HIV-1 fusion inhibitor...
December 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903801/inhibition-of-an-aquatic-rhabdovirus-demonstrates-promise-of-a-broad-spectrum-antiviral-for-use-in-aquaculture
#8
Bethany F Balmer, Rachel L Powers, Ting-Hu Zhang, Jihye Lee, Frederic Vigant, Benhur Lee, Michael E Jung, Maureen K Purcell, Kevin Snekvik, Hector C Aguilar
: Many enveloped viruses cause devastating disease in aquaculture, resulting in significant economic impact. LJ001 is a broad-spectrum antiviral compound that inhibits enveloped viral infections by specifically targeting phospholipids in the lipid bilayer via production of singlet oxygen ((1)O2). This stabilizes positive curvature and decreases membrane fluidity, which inhibits viral-cell membrane fusion during viral entry. Based on previous mammalian studies and the requirement of light for activation of LJ001, we hypothesized that LJ001 may be useful as a preventative and/or therapeutic agent for enveloped viral infections in aquaculture...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903799/cxcr6-mediated-sivagmsab-entry-into-sabaeus-african-green-monkey-lymphocytes-implicates-widespread-use-of-non-ccr5-pathways-in-natural-host-infections
#9
Katherine S Wetzel, Yanjie Yi, Sarah T C Elliott, Dino Romero, Beatrice Jacquelin, Beatrice H Hahn, Michaela Muller-Trutwin, Cristian Apetrei, Ivona Pandrea, Ronald G Collman
: African green monkeys (AGM) and sooty mangabeys (SM) are well-studied natural hosts of SIV, which do not progress to AIDS when infected with their species-specific viruses. SIV natural hosts express very low levels of the canonical entry coreceptor CCR5, and recent studies have shown that CCR5 is dispensable for SIV infection of SM in vivo, and blocking CCR5 does not prevent ex vivo infection of PBMC from SM or vervet AGM. In both hosts, CXCR6 is an efficient entry pathway in vitro...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902399/truncation-of-the-enzootic-nasal-tumor-virus-envelope-protein-cytoplasmic-tail-increases-env-mediated-fusion-and-infectivity
#10
Scott R Walsh, Jondavid G de Jong, Jacob P van Vloten, María Carla Rosales Gerpe, Lisa A Santry, Sarah K Wootton
Enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV) and Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) are highly related ovine betaretroviruses that induce nasal and lung tumors in small ruminants, respectively. While the ENTV and JSRV envelope (Env) glycoproteins mediate virus entry using the same cellular receptor, the GPI-linked protein hyaluronoglucosaminidase, ENTV Env pseudovirions mediate entry into cells from a much more restricted range of species than do JSRV Env pseudovirions. Unlike JSRV Env, ENTV Env does not induce cell fusion at pH 5...
November 11, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902378/neuronal-retrograde-transport-of-borna-disease-virus-occurs-in-signaling-endosomes
#11
Caroline M Charlier, Solène Debaisieux, Charlotte Foret, Anne Thouard, Giampetro Schiavo, Daniel Gonzalez-Dunia, Cécile Evelyne Malnou
Long-range axonal retrograde transport is a key mechanism for the cellular dissemination of neuro-invasive viruses, such as Borna Disease Virus (BDV), for which entry and egress sites are usually distant from the nucleus, where viral replication takes place. Although BDV is known to disseminate very efficiently in neurons, both in vivo and in primary cultures, the modalities of its axonal transport are still poorly characterized. In this work, we combined different methodological approaches, such as confocal microscopy and biochemical purification of endosomes, to study BDV retrograde transport...
November 8, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902345/advances-in-canine-distemper-virus-cdv-pathogenesis-research-a-wildlife-perspective
#12
Angelika Katrin Loots, Emily Mitchell, Desiré Lee Dalton, Antoinette Kotzé, Estelle H Venter
Canine distemper virus (CDV) has emerged as a significant disease of wildlife, is highly contagious and readily transmitted between susceptible hosts. Initially described as an infectious disease of domestic dogs, it is now recognised as a global multi-host pathogen, infecting and causing mass mortalities in a wide range of carnivore species. The last decade has seen the effect of numerous CDV outbreaks in various wildlife populations. Prevention of CDV requires a clear understanding of the potential hosts in danger of infection as well as the dynamic pathways CDV uses to gain entry to its host cells and its ability to initiate viral shedding and disease transmission...
November 28, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902320/in-silico-analysis-of-surface-structure-variation-of-pcv2-capsid-resulted-from-loops-mutation-of-its-capsid-protein-cap
#13
Naidong Wang, Yang Zhan, Aibing Wang, Lijie Zhang, Reza Khayat, Yi Yang
Outbreaks of porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2 (PCV2) associated diseases (PCVADs) have caused substantial economic losses worldwide in the last 20 y. The PCV capsid protein (Cap) is the sole structural protein and main antigenic determinant of this virus. In this study, not only were phylogenetic trees constructed, but variation of surface structure of the PCV capsid were analyzed in the course of evolution. Unique surface patterns of the icosahedral 5-fold axes of the PCV2 capsid were identified and characterized, all of which were absent in PCV type 1 (PCV1)...
October 18, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899653/control-of-the-negative-ires-trans-acting-factor-khsrp-by-ubiquitination
#14
Yu-An Kung, Chuan-Tien Hung, Kun-Yi Chien, Shin-Ru Shih
Cells and viruses can utilize internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) to drive translation when cap-dependent translation is inhibited by stress or viral factors. IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs) are known to participate in such cap-independent translation, but there are gaps in the understanding as to how ITAFs, particularly negative ITAFs, regulate IRES-driven translation. This study found that Lys109, Lys121 and Lys122 represent critical ubiquitination sites for far upstream element-binding protein 2 (KHSRP, also known as KH-type splicing regulatory protein or FBP2), a negative ITAF...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892528/sphingomyelin-generated-by-sphingomyelin-synthase-1-is-involved-in-attachment-and-infection-with-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#15
Makoto Taniguchi, Takafumi Tasaki, Hideaki Ninomiya, Yoshibumi Ueda, Koh-Ichi Kuremoto, Susumu Mitsutake, Yasuyuki Igarashi, Toshiro Okazaki, Tsutomu Takegami
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne RNA virus which infects target cells via the envelope protein JEV-E. However, its cellular targets are largely unknown. To investigate the role of sphingomyelin (SM) in JEV infection, we utilized SM-deficient immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (tMEF) established from SM synthase 1 (SMS1)/SMS2 double knockout mice. SMS deficiency significantly reduced both intracellular and extracellular JEV levels at 48 h after infection. Furthermore, after 15 min treatment with JEV, the early steps of JEV infection such as attachment and cell entry were also diminished in SMS-deficient tMEFs...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892500/four-translation-initiation-pathways-employed-by-the-leaderless-mrna-in-eukaryotes
#16
Kseniya A Akulich, Dmitry E Andreev, Ilya M Terenin, Victoria V Smirnova, Aleksandra S Anisimova, Desislava S Makeeva, Valentina I Arkhipova, Elena A Stolboushkina, Maria B Garber, Maria M Prokofjeva, Pavel V Spirin, Vladimir S Prassolov, Ivan N Shatsky, Sergey E Dmitriev
mRNAs lacking 5' untranslated regions (leaderless mRNAs) are molecular relics of an ancient translation initiation pathway. Nevertheless, they still represent a significant portion of transcriptome in some taxons, including a number of eukaryotic species. In bacteria and archaea, the leaderless mRNAs can bind non-dissociated 70 S ribosomes and initiate translation without protein initiation factors involved. Here we use the Fleeting mRNA Transfection technique (FLERT) to show that translation of a leaderless reporter mRNA is resistant to conditions when eIF2 and eIF4F, two key eukaryotic translation initiation factors, are inactivated in mammalian cells...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890789/cyclosporin-derivatives-inhibit-hepatitis-b-virus-entry-without-interfering-the-ntcp-transporter
#17
Satomi Shimura, Koichi Watashi, Kento Fukano, Michael Peel, Ann Sluder, Fumihiro Kawai, Masashi Iwamoto, Senko Tsukuda, Junko S Takeuchi, Takeshi Miyake, Masaya Sugiyama, Yuki Ogasawara, Sam-Yong Park, Yasuhito Tanaka, Hiroyuki Kusuhara, Masashi Mizokami, Camille Sureau, Takaji Wakita
BACKGROUND&AIMS: Most of the specific inhibitors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) entry, including myrcludex-B and cyclosporin A (CsA), target an HBV entry receptor, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP). As all these agents have capacities to impair the NTCP transporter activity for bile acid uptake and thus may cause significant adverse effects, we aim to identify small molecules that inhibit HBV entry but least affecting the NTCP transporter function. METHODS: We focused on derivatives of CsA, which originally inhibited both HBV entry and NTCP-mediated bile acid uptake, to analyze the possibility to distinguish these two activities...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888111/neutralizing-human-recombinant-antibodies-against-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-glycoproteins-b-from-a-phage-displayed-scfv-antibody-library
#18
Vahid Bagheri, Foroogh Nejatollahi, Seyed Alireza Esmaeili, Amir Abbas Momtazi, Mohamad Motamedifar, Amirhossein Sahebkar
The HSV-1 envelope glycoprotein B (gB) plays a critical role in virus entry into host cells. Neutralizing antibodies can therefore potentially prevent virus entry into target cells and cell-to-cell spread of infection. Our present study focused on the selection of neutralizing single-chain Fv (scFv) antibodies of a phage-displayed nonimmune human scFv antibody library against gB of HSV-1. To enrich specific scFvs, two phage antibodies were isolated against amino acid residues 31-43 derived from the N-terminal part of gB using panning technique...
November 22, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885811/17-%C3%AE-estradiol-inhibits-hepatitis-c-virus-mainly-by-interference-with-the-release-phase-of-its-life-cycle
#19
Andrea Magri, Matteo N Barbaglia, Chiara Z Foglia, Elisa Boccato, Michela E Burlone, Sarah Cole, Paola Giarda, Elena Grossini, Arvind H Patel, Rosalba Minisini, Mario Pirisi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oestrogen and oestrogen-mediated signalling protect from hepatitis C virus through incompletely understood mechanisms. We aimed to ascertain which phase(s) of hepatitis C virus life cycle is/are affected by oestrogens. METHODS: Huh7 cells infected with the JFH1 virus (genotype 2a) were exposed to dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, progesterone and 17β-estradiol (tested with/without its receptor antagonist fulvestrant). Dose-response curves were established to calculate half maximal inhibitory concentration values...
November 7, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885488/claudins-in-viral-infection-from-entry-to-spread
#20
REVIEW
Che C Colpitts, Thomas F Baumert
Tight junctions are critically important for many physiological functions, including the maintenance of cell polarity, regulation of paracellular permeability, and involvement in signal transduction pathways to regulate integral cellular processes. Furthermore, tight junctions enable epithelial cells to form physical barriers, which act as an innate immune mechanism that can impede viral infection. Viruses, in turn, have evolved mechanisms to exploit tight junction proteins to gain access to cells or spread through tissues in an infected host...
November 24, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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