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P B Persson
My tailor suggests I should dress for the body I have, not for the body I want. Conversely, Acta Physiologica's lean and muscular build calls for streamlining her appearance. Over the latest years, Acta Physiologica has been ranked highly among the physiology journals.(1,2) Our readers have increasingly downloaded our articles, and many more manuscripts have been submitted year-by-year.(3-5) Reflecting these changes, more persons read Acta Physiologica out of general interest, and not only to stay on top of their fields...
October 11, 2016: Acta Physiologica
Annie T G Chiu, Lixing Zhu, Gary T K Mok, Gordon K C Leung, C B Chow, Brian H Y Chung
Costello syndrome is a type of RASopathy mapped to HRAS gene in chromosome 11, characterized by prenatal overgrowth, postnatal failure to thrive, classic facial gestalt and multisystem involvement including cardiomyopathy and intellectual disability. We present a 7 months old child with severe failure to thrive whose "subtle" facial dysmorphism at the time eluded clinical recognition of the syndrome. It was only with optimization of his nutritional status that dysmorphic features became more apparent, which affirmed the molecular diagnosis of Costello syndrome from exome sequencing...
October 2, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Alexis D J Makin, Damien Wright, Giulia Rampone, Letizia Palumbo, Martin Guest, Rhiannon Sheehan, Helen Cleaver, Marco Bertamini
A traditional line of work starting with the Gestalt school has shown that patterns vary in strength and salience; a difference in "Perceptual goodness." The Holographic weight of evidence model quantifies goodness of visual regularities. The key formula states that W = E/N, where E is number of holographic identities in a pattern and N is number of elements. We tested whether W predicts the amplitude of the neural response to regularity in an extrastriate symmetry-sensitive network. We recorded an Event Related Potential (ERP) generated by symmetry called the Sustained Posterior Negativity (SPN)...
October 4, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Valter Prpic, Riccardo Luccio
The solitaire illusion is an illusion of numerosity proposed by Frith and Frith. In the original version, an apparent number of elements was determined by the spatial arrangement of two kinds of elements (black and white marbles). In our study, an auditory version of the solitaire illusion was demonstrated. Participants were asked to judge if they perceived more drum or piano sounds. When half of the piano tones were perceived as lower in pitch than a drum sound and the other half higher, piano tones appeared to be arranged in small units, leading to numerosity underestimation...
October 3, 2016: Perception
Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Hendry Robert Sawe, Cathryn Haeffele, Juma A Mfinanga, Victor G Mwafongo, Teri A Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Bedside inferior vena cava (IVC) ultrasound has been proposed as a non-invasive measure of volume status. We compared ultrasound measurements of the caval index (CI) and physician gestalt to predict blood pressure response in patients requiring intravenous fluid resuscitation. METHODS: This was a prospective study of adult emergency department patients requiring fluid resuscitation. A structured data sheet was used to record serial vital signs and the treating clinician's impression of patient volume status and cause of hypotension...
2016: PloS One
Kelly R Klein, Frederick M Burkle, Raymond Swienton, Richard V King, Thomas Lehman, Carol S North
INTRODUCTION: After all large-scale disasters multiple papers are published describing the shortcomings of the triage methods utilized. This paper uses medical provider input to help describe attributes and patient characteristics that impact triage decisions. METHODS: A survey distributed electronically to medical providers with and without disaster experience. Questions asked included what disaster experiences they had, and to rank six attributes in order of importance regarding triage...
2016: PLoS Currents
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Bacteremia affects 200,000 patients per year, with the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Blood cultures are considered the most sensitive method for detecting bacteremia and are commonly obtained in patients with fever, chills, leukocytosis, focal infections, and sepsis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to provide emergency physicians with a review of the literature concerning blood cultures in the emergency department. DISCUSSION: The utility of blood cultures has been a focus of controversy, prompting research evaluating effects on patient management...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Francesco Marini, Carlo A Marzi
The visual system leverages organizational regularities of perceptual elements to create meaningful representations of the world. One clear example of such function, which has been formalized in the Gestalt psychology principles, is the perceptual grouping of simple visual elements (e.g., lines and arcs) into unitary objects (e.g., forms and shapes). The present study sought to characterize automatic attentional capture and related cognitive processing of Gestalt-like visual stimuli at the psychophysiological level by using event-related potentials (ERPs)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Teresa M Chan, Brent Thoma, Keeth Krishnan, Michelle Lin, Christopher R Carpenter, Matt Astin, Kulamakan Kulasegaram
INTRODUCTION: Online education resources (OERs), like blogs and podcasts, increasingly augment or replace traditional medical education resources such as textbooks and lectures. Trainees' ability to evaluate these resources is poor, and few quality assessment aids have been developed to assist them. This study aimed to derive a quality evaluation instrument for this purpose. METHODS: We used a three-phase methodology. In Phase 1, a previously derived list of 151 OER quality indicators was reduced to 13 items using data from published consensus-building studies (of medical educators, expert podcasters, and expert bloggers) and subsequent evaluation by our team...
September 2016: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
David C Sloas, Ran Zhuo, Hongbo Xue, Anna R Chambers, Eric Kolaczyk, Daniel B Polley, Kamal Sen
Although sensory cortex is thought to be important for the perception of complex objects, its specific role in representing complex stimuli remains unknown. Complex objects are rich in information along multiple stimulus dimensions. The position of cortex in the sensory hierarchy suggests that cortical neurons may integrate across these dimensions to form a more gestalt representation of auditory objects. Yet, studies of cortical neurons typically explore single or few dimensions due to the difficulty of determining optimal stimuli in a high dimensional stimulus space...
July 2016: ENeuro
Magda L Dumitru
Christiansen & Chater (C&C) make two related and somewhat contradictory claims, namely that the ever abstract language representations built during Chunk-and-Pass processing allow for ever greater interference from extra-linguistic information, and that it is nevertheless the language system that re-codes incoming information into abstract representations. I analyse these claims and discuss evidence suggesting that Gestalt-like representations hijack Chunk-and-Pass processing.
January 2016: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Malte Persike, Günter Meinhardt
Contour integration refers to the ability of the visual system to bind disjoint local elements into coherent global shapes. In cluttered images containing randomly oriented elements a contour becomes salient when its elements are coaligned with a smooth global trajectory, as described by the Gestalt law of good continuation. Abrupt changes of curvature strongly diminish contour salience. Here we show that by inserting local corner elements at points of angular discontinuity, a jagged contour becomes as salient as a straight one...
October 2016: Vision Research
Lars Adde, Niranjan Thomas, Hima B John, Samuel Oommen, Randi Tynes Vågen, Toril Fjørtoft, Alexander Refsum Jensenius, Ragnhild Støen
BACKGROUND: Most studies on Prechtl's method of assessing General Movements (GMA) in young infants originate in Europe. AIM: To determine if motor behavior at an age of 3 months post term is associated with motor development at 12 months post age in VLBW infants in India. METHODS: 243 VLBW infants (135 boys, 108 girls; median gestational age 31wks, range 26-39wks) were video-recorded at a median age of 11wks post term (range 9-16wks). Certified and experienced observers assessed the videos by the "Assessment of Motor Repertoire - 2-5 Months"...
November 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Richard J Jagacinski, Emanuele Rizzi, Tae Hoon Kim, Steven A Lavender, Lassiter F Speller, Stuart T Klapp
Skilled drummers performed a 4:3:2 polyrhythm with 2 hands and 1 foot. For each pair of limbs patterns of temporal covariation were used to infer relatively independent parallel streams versus integrated timing relationships. Parallel timing was more prevalent between hand and foot than between the 2 hands, and parallel timing generally increased with tapping rate. Different combinations of integrated and parallel timing were found among the 3 limbs. A second experiment used a wider range of tapping rates and explored 3:2 tapping with 2 hands, 2 feet, or hand and foot...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Jeffrey A Kline, Dawn Neumann, Cassandra L Hall, Jacob Capito
BACKGROUND: Many clinicians use a global visual interpretation of patient appearance to decide if a patient looks sick or not. For patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE), we tested the relationship between visual appearance of a happy patient facial affect and probability of PE+ on CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). METHODS: Eligible patients were selected by usual care to undergo CTPA, the criterion standard for PE+ or PE-. Prior to CTPA result, trained study personnel obtained physician pretest probability using the gestalt method (visual analogue scale, 0%-100%), the Wells score (0-12) and physicians' impression of whether the patient smiled during the initial examination (smile+)...
August 2, 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Henri Margot, David Geneviève, Vincent Gatinois, Benoit Arveiler, Sébastien Moutton, Isabelle Touitou, Didier Lacombe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Baingio Pinna, Daniele Porcheddu, Katia Deiana
In this work, perceptual organization has been studied with the same spirit and phenomenological methods used by Gestalt psychologists. This was accomplished through new conditions that cannot be explained in terms of the classical principles of grouping. Perceptual grouping represents the way through which our visual system builds integrated elements on the basis of the maximal homogeneity among the components of the stimulus pattern. Our results demonstrated the inconsistency of organization by grouping, and more importantly, the inconsistency of the principle of similarity...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Zachary M Grinspan, Yonina C Eldar, Daniel Gopher, Amihai Gottlieb, Rotem Lammfromm, Halinder S Mangat, Nimrod Peleg, Steven Pon, Igal Rozenberg, Nicholas D Schiff, David E Stark, Peter Yan, Hillel Pratt, Barry E Kosofsky
BACKGROUND: Physicians caring for children with serious acute neurologic disease must process overwhelming amounts of physiological and medical information. Strategies to optimize real time display of this information are understudied. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to engage clinical and engineering experts to develop guiding principles for creating a pediatric neurology intensive care unit (neuroPICU) monitor that integrates and displays data from multiple sources in an intuitive and informative manner...
2016: Applied Clinical Informatics
Lynn L Silver
A major obstacle confronting the discovery and development of new antibacterial agents to combat resistant Gram-negative (GN) organisms is the lack of a rational process for endowing compounds with properties that allow (or promote) entry into the bacterial cytoplasm. The major permeability difference between GN and Gram-positive (GP) bacteria is the GN outer membrane (OM) which is a permeability barrier itself and potentiates efflux pumps that expel compounds. Based on the fact that OM-permeable and efflux-deleted GNs are sensitive to many anti-GP drugs, recent efforts to approach the GN entry problem have focused on ways of avoiding efflux and transiting or compromising the OM, with the tacit assumption that this could allow entry of compounds into the GN cytoplasm...
June 23, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
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