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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207184/an-im-penetrable-shield-how-the-tumor-microenvironment-protects-cancer-stem-cells
#1
Theresa Relation, Massimo Dominici, Edwin M Horwitz
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined by their unlimited self-renewal ability and their capacity to initiate and maintain malignancy, traits that are not found in most cells that comprise the tumor. Although current cancer treatments successfully reduce tumor burden, the tumor will likely recur unless CSCs are effectively eradicated. This challenge is made greater by the protective impact of the tumor microenvironment (TME), consisting of infiltrating immune cells, endothelial cells, extracellular matrix, and signaling molecules...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195227/non-blind-acoustic-invisibility-by-dual-layers-of-homogeneous-single-negative-media
#2
He Gao, Yi-Fan Zhu, Xu-Dong Fan, Bin Liang, Jing Yang, Jian-Chun Cheng
Non-blind invisibility cloaks allowing the concealed object to sense the outside world have great application potentials such as in high-precision sensing or underwater camouflage. However the existing designs based on coordinate transformation techniques need complicated spatially-varying negative index or intricate multi-layered configurations, substantially increasing the difficulty in practical realization. Here we report on the non-blind acoustic invisibility for a circular object in free space with simple distribution of cloak parameters...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192927/improving-the-resolution-of-3d-printed-molds-for-microfluidics-by-iterative-casting-shrinkage-cycles
#3
Miao Sun, Yanbo Xie, Jihong Zhu, Jun Li, Jan C T Eijkel
Breaking through technical barriers and cost reduction are critical issues for the development of microfluidic devices, and both rely greatly on the innovation of fabrication techniques and use of new materials. The application of 3D printing definitely accelerated the prototyping of microfluidic chips by its versatility and functionality. However, the resolution of existing 3D printing techniques is still far below that of lithography, which makes it difficult to work on the scale of single cells and near impossible for single molecule work...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191487/preparation-of-protein-containing-extracts-from-microbiota-rich-intestinal-contents
#4
Patricia Dillenburg-Pilla, Carlos R Zárate-Bladés, Phyllis B Silver, Reiko Horai, Rachel R Caspi
The contribution of microbiota in regulating multiple physiological and pathological host responses has been studied intensively in recent years. Evidence suggests that commensal microbiota can directly modulate different populations of cells of the immune system (e.g., Ivanov et al., 2008; Atarashi et al., 2011). Recently, we showed that protein extracts from gut commensal microbiota can activate retina-specific T cells, allowing these autoreactive T cells to then break through the blood-retinal barrier and trigger autoimmune uveitis in the recipient (Horai et al...
September 20, 2016: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159920/tgfbeta-and-mirna-regulation-in-familial-and-sporadic-breast-cancer
#5
Katia Danza, Simona De Summa, Rosamaria Pinto, Brunella Pilato, Orazio Palumbo, Massimo Carella, Ondina Popescu, Maria Digennaro, Rosanna Lacalamita, Stefania Tommasi
The term 'BRCAness' was introduced to identify sporadic malignant tumors sharing characteristics similar to those germline BRCA-related. Among all mechanisms attributable to BRCA1 expression silencing, a major role has been assigned to microRNAs. MicroRNAs role in familial and sporadic breast cancer has been explored but few data are available about microRNAs involvement in homologous recombination repair control in these breast cancer subgroups. Our aim was to seek microRNAs associated to pathways underlying DNA repair dysfunction in breast cancer according to a family history of the disease...
January 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150833/kinetically-controlled-synthesis-of-nanoporous-au-and-its-enhanced-electrocatalytic-activity-for-glucose-based-biofuel-cells
#6
Man Xu, Yongming Sui, Guanjun Xiao, Xinyi Yang, Yingjin Wei, Bo Zou
Nanoporous gold (NPG) structures, which possess abundant high-index facets, kinks, and steps, have been demonstrated as effective catalysts for the glucose electrooxidation in biofuel cells. Herein, we designed surface-clean NPG structures with high-index facets by a trisodium citrate (Na3Cit) self-initiated reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) in a water-ice bath followed by a kinetically controlled self-assembly manner. This strategy breaks through the traditional trisodium citrate thermal-reducing chloroauric acid approach where solutions are required to heat to a certain temperature for the reaction to initiate...
February 2, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145210/the-nhs-could-learn-from-inspiring-leaders-like-barack-obama
#7
Yvonne Coghill
I remember November 2008 like it was yesterday. I was the lead for the NHS Leadership Academy's national Breaking Through programme for black and minority ethnic staff, and recall being at our annual conference bursting with pride at the news that Barack Obama had been elected president of the United States.
February 1, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145122/breaking-through-the-solid-liquid-processability-barrier-thermal-conductivity-and-rheology-in-hybrid-graphene-graphite-polymer-composites
#8
Maxim Varenik, Roey Nadiv, Idan Levy, Gleb Vasilyev, Oren Regev
Thermal conductivity (TC) enhancement of an insulating polymer matrix at low filler concentration is possible through the loading of a high aspect ratio, thermally conductive single filler. Unfortunately, the dispersion of high-aspect-ratio particles greatly influences the rheological behavior of the polymer host at relatively low volume fractions, which makes further polymer processing or mixing difficult. A possible remedy is using two (hybrid) fillers, differing in their aspect ratios: (1) a plate-like filler, which sharply increases both viscosity and TC, and (2) an isotropic filler, which gradually increases these properties...
February 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139712/sounds-can-boost-the-awareness-of-visual-events-through-attention-without-cross-modal-integration
#9
Márta Szabina Pápai, Salvador Soto-Faraco
Cross-modal interactions can lead to enhancement of visual perception, even for visual events below awareness. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Can purely bottom-up cross-modal integration break through the threshold of awareness? We used a binocular rivalry paradigm to measure perceptual switches after brief flashes or sounds which, sometimes, co-occurred. When flashes at the suppressed eye coincided with sounds, perceptual switches occurred the earliest. Yet, contrary to the hypothesis of cross-modal integration, this facilitation never surpassed the assumption of probability summation of independent sensory signals...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137900/rare-presentation-of-brodie-s-abscess-in-the-acromion-process-and-the-value-of-the-penumbra-sign
#10
Jelle Gorter, Kyrill Rykov, Pieter Ott, Jos J A M van Raay
A 17-year-old male patient presented with a swelling on his right shoulder 1 week after a fall. MRI revealed a superficial fluid collection of the acromion and trapezius muscle, with slight enhancement of the wall. The swelling burst open spontaneously after failed conservative therapy and was treated with surgical drainage and antibiotics. Tissue cultures showed a Staphylococcus aureus 1 year later, he presented with local red discolouration and a recurrent painful swelling that fluctuated at palpation...
January 30, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132860/mantle-cell-lymphoma-with-a-novel-t-11-12-q13-p11-2-a-proposed-alternative-mechanism-of-ccnd1-upregulation
#11
Joshua R Menke, George Vasmatzis, Stephen Murphy, Lin Yang, David M Menke, Han W Tun, Rebecca L King, Stephanie A Smoley, Rhett P Ketterling, William R Sukov
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is typically characterized by t(11;14) which places the IGH@ enhancer elements upstream of CCND1. This fusion results in upregulation of CCND1 and consequently its protein product cyclin D1. Recent studies have shown that in MCL, mutations or translocations occurring within the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the CCND1 gene can result in a truncated mRNA transcript that is more stable and associated with more aggressive disease. We identified a case of MCL showing cyclin D1 overexpression by immunohistochemistry and a t(11;12)(q13;p11...
January 26, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121789/posttraumatic-growth-breaking-through-to-recovery
#12
Joyce Mikal-Flynn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107782/ultralow-parasitic-energy-for-postcombustion-co2-capture-realized-in-a-nickel-isonicotinate-metal-organic-framework-with-excellent-moisture-stability
#13
Shyamapada Nandi, Sean Collins, Debanjan Chakraborty, Debasis Banerjee, Praveen K Thallapally, Tom K Woo, Ramanathan Vaidhyanathan
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted significant attention as solid sorbents in gas separation processes for low-energy postcombustion CO2 capture. The parasitic energy (PE) has been put forward as a holistic parameter that measures how energy efficient (and therefore cost-effective) the CO2 capture process will be using the material. In this work, we present a nickel isonicotinate based ultramicroporous MOF, 1 [Ni-(4PyC)2·DMF], that has the lowest PE for postcombustion CO2 capture reported to date...
January 27, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106198/ten-gram-scale-sic-sio2-nanowires-high-yield-synthesis-towards-industrialization-in-situ-growth-mechanism-and-their-peculiar-photoluminescence-and-electromagnetic-wave-absorption-properties
#14
Z J Li, H Y Yu, G Y Song, J Zhao, H Zhang, M Zhang, A L Meng, Q D Li
SiC@SiO2 nanowires, as a functional nanocomposite, have attracted widespread attention due to their fascinating performance and broad application prospect. However, the low-cost, high yield preparation of large-scale SiC@SiO2 nanowires is still a bottleneck, which hinders their industrial application. Herein, a carbothermal reduction strategy has been developed to synthesize SiC@SiO2 nanowires, which breaks through the handicap of the traditional growth pattern that uses the aid of a substrate. Systematic characterization results illustrate that the yield of the as-obtained products greatly depends on the heating rate, and ten-gram scale SiC@SiO2 nanowires (∼27...
February 1, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059713/time-resolved-x-ray-absorption-spectroscopy-with-a-water-window-high-harmonic-source
#15
Yoann Pertot, Cédric Schmidt, Mary Matthews, Adrien Chauvet, Martin Huppert, Vit Svoboda, Aaron von Conta, Andres Tehlar, Denitsa Baykusheva, Jean-Pierre Wolf, Hans Jakob Wörner
Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (TR-XAS) has so far practically been limited to large-scale facilities, to sub-picosecond temporal resolution and to the condensed phase. Here, we report the realization of TR-XAS with a temporal resolution in the low femtosecond range by developing a table-top high-harmonic source reaching up to 350 eV, thus partially covering the spectral region of 280 to 530 eV, where water is transmissive. We use this source to follow previously unexamined light-induced chemical reactions in the lowest electronic states of isolated CF4(+) and SF6(+) molecules in the gas phase...
January 5, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059234/multiexposure-imaging-and-parameter-optimization-for-intensified-star-trackers
#16
Wenbo Yu, Jie Jiang, Guangjun Zhang
Due to the introduction of the intensified image detector, the dynamic performance of the intensified star tracker is effectively improved. However, its attitude update rate is still seriously restricted by the transmission and processing of pixel data. In order to break through the above limitation, a multiexposure imaging approach for intensified star trackers is proposed in this paper. One star image formed by this approach actually records N different groups of star positions, and then N corresponding groups of attitude information can be acquired...
December 20, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005335/tumor-specific-multiple-stimuli-activated-dendrimeric-nanoassemblies-with-metabolic-blockade-surmount-chemotherapy-resistance
#17
Yachao Li, Xianghui Xu, Xiao Zhang, Yunkun Li, Zhijun Zhang, Zhongwei Gu
Chemotherapy resistance remains a serious impediment to successful antitumor therapy around the world. However, existing chemotherapeutic approaches are difficult to cope with the notorious multidrug resistance in clinical treatment. Herein, we developed tumor-specific multiple stimuli-activated dendrimeric nanoassemblies with a metabolic blockade to completely combat both physiological barriers and cellular factors of multidrug resistance. With a sophisticated molecular and supramolecular engineering, this type of tumor-specific multiple stimuli-activated nanoassembly based on dendrimeric prodrugs can hierarchically break through the sequential physiological barriers of drug resistance, including stealthy dendritic PEGylated corona to optimize blood transportation, robust nanostructures for efficient tumor passive targeting and accumulation, enzyme-activated tumor microenvironment targeted to deepen tumor penetration and facilitate cellular uptake, cytoplasmic redox-sensitive disintegration for sufficient release of encapsulated agents, and lysosome acid-triggered nucleus delivery of antitumor drugs...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003078/ligand-trap-for-the-activin-type-iia-receptor-the-long-sought-drug-to-overcome-the-calcification-paradox-in-ckd
#18
Anja Verhulst, Pieter Evenepoel, Patrick C D'Haese
The chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder syndrome illustrates the association between a disturbed physiological bone turnover/mineralization and pathologic vascular mineralization; the so-called calcification paradox. This implies that treatments aimed at curing bone disorders might have serious implications for cardiovascular health and vice versa. Hence, there is an urgent need for treatments that are able to break through this cross-talk. Hereto, compounds such as those interfering with activin type IIA receptor signaling and acting upstream of the Wnt-β-catenin pathway are of particular interest...
January 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999939/heat-survival-and-phenotype-microarray-profiling-of-salmonella-typhimurium-mutants
#19
Turki M Dawoud, Anita Khatiwara, Si Hong Park, Morgan L Davis, Christopher A Baker, Steven C Ricke, Young Min Kwon
Contamination of food products by pathogenic microorganisms continues to be a major public health and food industry concern. Non-typhoidal Salmonella species have led to numerous outbreaks associated with various foods. A wide variety of methods have been applied and introduced for treatment of fresh foods to eliminate pathogenic as well as spoilage microorganisms. Salmonella can become exposed to elevated temperatures while associated with hosts such as poultry. In addition, heat treatment is also applied at various stages of processing to retain the shelf life of food products...
February 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943678/cytotoxicity-of-tirapazamine-3-amino-1-2-4-benzotriazine-1-4-dioxide-induced-dna-damage-in-chicken-dt40-cells
#20
Takahito Moriwaki, Saki Okamoto, Hiroyuki Sasanuma, Hideko Nagasawa, Shunichi Takeda, Shin-Ichiro Masunaga, Keizo Tano
Tirapazamine (TPZ) is an anticancer drug with highly selective cytotoxicity toward hypoxic cells. TPZ is converted to a radical intermediate under hypoxic conditions, and this intermediate interacts with intracellular macromolecules, including DNA. TPZ has been reported to indirectly induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) through the formation of various intermediate DNA lesions under hypoxic conditions. Although the topoisomerase II-DNA complex has been identified as one of these intermediates, other lesions have not yet been defined...
February 20, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
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