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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429768/reassembling-embryos-in-vitro-from-component-stem-cells
#1
Caroline Kubaczka, George Q Daley
Researchers at the University of Cambridge, UK have succeeded in reconstructing mouse embryos by combining pluripotent embryonic and multipotent trophoblast stem cells in a 3D scaffold; the study from the laboratory of Professor Zernicka-Goetz, recently published in Science, provides a break-through tool to probe early mammalian development outside the uterus. Achieving a similar feat with human cells might necessitate reconsideration of the 14-day rule as a limitation of such research.
April 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423385/guidelines-for-the-management-of-diabetic-macular-edema-by-the-european-society-of-retina-specialists-euretina
#2
Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth, Jose Garcia-Arumi, Francesco Bandello, Karina Berg, Usha Chakravarthy, Bianca S Gerendas, Jost Jonas, Michael Larsen, Ramin Tadayoni, Anat Loewenstein
Diabetic retinal disease is envisioned to become the plague of the coming decades with a steep increase of worldwide diabetes incidence followed by a substantial rise in retinal disease. Improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic care have to cope with this dilemma in a clinically and socioeconomically efficient manner. Laser treatment has found a less destructive competitor in pharmacological treatments. As a consequence of recent rigorous clinical trials, laser photocoagulation is no longer recommended for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME), and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy has emerged as first-line therapy...
April 20, 2017: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402720/insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-related-protein-1-inhibit-retinal-neovascularization-in-the-mouse-model-of-oxygen-induced-retinopathy
#3
Ping Zhang, Hong Wang, Hui Cao, Xun Xu, Tao Sun
PURPOSE: To explore the inhibitory effect of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 (IGFBP-rP1) on retinal angiogenesis and its underlying molecular mechanisms in the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were classified into three groups as control group, OIR nonintervention group, and OIR intervention group. Postnatal day 12 (P12) mice in OIR intervention group were received recombinant mouse IGFBP-rP1 (50, 100, and 200 ng/mL) intravitreal injection...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382834/psychedelic-research-in-australia-breaking-through-the-stigma
#4
Prashanth Puspanathan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372419/precisely-synchronous-and-cascadable-multi-channel-arbitrary-waveform-generator
#5
Ke Liu, Shulin Tian, Guangkun Guo, Yindong Xiao
The output bandwidth and the capability to generate multiple analog outputs with accurately adjustable relative phase are important specifications of arbitrary waveform generator (AWG). To increase the output bandwidth, AWG with a multi-memory paralleled direct digital synthesizer structure (DDS) was proposed to break through operating speed limitations of memory and field programmable gate array. But this structure does complicate synchronization of the analog outputs. This paper proposes a structure for synchronization of the outputs of multi-channel high speed AWG that generates arbitrary waveforms using a multi-memory paralleled DDS...
March 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370971/top-down-approach-is-possible-strategy-for-predicting-break-through-futis-and-renal-scars-in-infants
#6
Shina Kawai, Takahiro Kanai, Taiju Hyuga, Shigeru Nakamura, Jun Aoyagi, Takane Ito, Takashi Saito, Jun Odaka, Rieko Furukawa, Toshinori Aihara, Hideo Nakai
BACKGROUND: Several reports have mainly examined whether acute-phase technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy can detect vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and recommend acute-phase DMSA scintigraphy for initial imaging in children with febrile urinary tract infections (fUTIs). Recently, it has been emphasized the importance of identifying patients who have risks of recurrent fUTIs (r-fUTIs). To clarify the effectiveness of DMSA scintigraphy for predicting r-fUTIs in infants, we investigated the relationship between the defects on DMSA scintigraphy and r- fUTIs...
March 31, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346823/design-and-monitoring-of-multi-arm-multi-stage-clinical-trials
#7
Pranab Ghosh, Lingyun Liu, P Senchaudhuri, Ping Gao, Cyrus Mehta
Two-arm group sequential designs have been widely used for over 40 years, especially for studies with mortality endpoints. The natural generalization of such designs to trials with multiple treatment arms and a common control (MAMS designs) has, however, been implemented rarely. While the statistical methodology for this extension is clear, the main limitation has been an efficient way to perform the computations. Past efforts were hampered by algorithms that were computationally explosive. With the increasing interest in adaptive designs, platform designs, and other innovative designs that involve multiple comparisons over multiple stages, the importance of MAMS designs is growing rapidly...
March 27, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316197/-inhibitory-effect-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-related-protein-1-on-retinal-angiogenesis-via-erk-signaling-pathway
#8
P Zhang, H Wang, H Cao, X Xu, T Sun
Objective: To explore the inhibitory effect of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 (IGFBP-rP1), a novel anti-angiogenic factor, on retinal angiogenesis and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods: Experimental study. C57BL/6J mice were classified into three groups: control group (n=24), oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) non-intervention group (n=24) and OIR intervention group (n=72). The OIR mouse model was established using improved Smith's methods (n= 96). Twelve-day-old mice in the OIR intervention group were randomly assigned into three groups receiving intravitreal injection of recombinant mouse IGFBP-rP1 (50 μg/L, 100 μg/L and 200 μg/L, respectively)...
March 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306260/computational-study-on-the-mechanisms-of-multiple-complexation-of-co-and-isonitrile-ligands-to-boron
#9
Xuejiao J Gao, Xingfa Gao
The recent experimental realization of compound Tripp-B(CO)2 (denoted as 2a), where Tripp is 2,6-di(2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl)-phenyl), breaks through conventional knowledge that only transition metals can bind more than one CO to form multicarbonyl adducts. Compound 2a is stable in air but liberates CO under light. The B-CO bonds of 2a are considered to be similar to donor-acceptor bonds of transition metal complexes. To address the formation mechanism and chemical bonding of this novel type of boron compounds, we present a density functional theory study on the formation and photolysis of 2a and similar compounds...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268508/extraction-of-medically-interpretable-features-for-classification-of-malignancy-in-breast-thermography
#10
Himanshu Madhu, Siva Teja Kakileti, Krithika Venkataramani, Susmija Jabbireddy
Thermography, with high-resolution cameras, is being re-investigated as a possible breast cancer screening imaging modality, as it does not have the harmful radiation effects of mammography. This paper focuses on automatic extraction of medically interpretable non-vascular thermal features. We design these features to differentiate malignancy from different non-malignancy conditions, including hormone sensitive tissues and certain benign conditions, which have an increased thermal response. These features increase the specificity for breast cancer screening, which had been a long known problem in thermographic screening, while retaining high sensitivity...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252656/quantum-spin-hall-insulators-in-centrosymmetric-thin-films-composed-from-topologically-trivial-bitei-trilayers
#11
I A Nechaev, S V Eremeev, E E Krasovskii, P M Echenique, E V Chulkov
The quantum spin Hall insulators predicted ten years ago and now experimentally observed are instrumental for a break- through in nanoelectronics due to non-dissipative spin-polarized electron transport through their edges. For this transport to persist at normal conditions, the insulators should possess a sufficiently large band gap in a stable topological phase. Here, we theoretically show that quantum spin Hall insulators can be realized in ultra-thin films constructed from a trivial band insulator with strong spin-orbit coupling...
March 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251767/fluorooxoborates-beryllium-free-deep-ultraviolet-nonlinear-optical-materials-without-layered-growth
#12
Bingbing Zhang, Guoqiang Shi, Zhihua Yang, Fangfang Zhang, Shilie Pan
Deep-ultraviolet nonlinear optical (DUV NLO) crystals are the key materials to extend the output range of solid-state lasers to below 200 nm. The only practical material KBe2 BO3 F2 suffers high toxicity through beryllium and strong layered growth. Herein, we propose a beryllium-free material design and synthesis strategy for DUV NLO materials. Introducing the (BO3 F)(4-) , (BO2 F2 )(3-) , and (BOF3 )(2-) groups in borates could break through the fixed 3D B-O network that would produce a larger birefringence without layering and simultaneously keep a short cutoff edge down to DUV...
March 2, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250319/the-current-state-and-future-development-of-epigenetic-toxicology
#13
Katsuhide Igarashi, Maky Ideta-Otsuka, Minoru Narita
 Epigenetics has drawn much attention as a mechanism of transcriptional regulation involving modifications to genomic DNA and histone, without changes to nucleotide sequences. Epigenetics is related to various biological phenomena. We defined one of these phenomena as "epigenetic toxicity", in which chemicals affect epigenetic regulation and result in undesirable effects on living organisms. We then detailed the importance of epigenetics and the need for intensive research. Epigenetics is a mechanism that might explain the long-lasting effects of chemicals in an organism, and the formation of a predisposition to various diseases...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248562/breaking-through-to-the-other-side-a-resident-explores-the-benefits-of-time-limited-psychodynamic-therapy-for-patients-with-schizophrenia
#14
Zoë Thomas
This article recounts the case of a patient with schizophrenia engaged in time-limited psychodynamic psychotherapy with a psychiatry resident-the first case history of its type to the author's knowledge. This patient suffered from chronically debilitating schizophrenia with persistent positive and negative symptoms at the time of treatment, despite usual psychiatric management. He benefited significantly from 18 weekly sessions of weekly dynamic therapy, achieving symptom reduction, increased social involvement, and improved functioning-gains that were sustained at 9-month follow-up...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242625/zmym3-regulates-brca1-localization-at-damaged-chromatin-to-promote-dna-repair
#15
Justin W C Leung, Nodar Makharashvili, Poonam Agarwal, Li-Ya Chiu, Renaud Pourpre, Michael B Cammarata, Joe R Cannon, Alana Sherker, Daniel Durocher, Jennifer S Brodbelt, Tanya T Paull, Kyle M Miller
Chromatin connects DNA damage response factors to sites of damaged DNA to promote the signaling and repair of DNA lesions. The histone H2A variants H2AX, H2AZ, and macroH2A represent key chromatin constituents that facilitate DNA repair. Through proteomic screening of these variants, we identified ZMYM3 (zinc finger, myeloproliferative, and mental retardation-type 3) as a chromatin-interacting protein that promotes DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR). ZMYM3 is recruited to DNA double-strand breaks through bivalent interactions with both histone and DNA components of the nucleosome...
February 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226682/extraction-of-medically-interpretable-features-for-classification-of-malignancy-in-breast-thermography
#16
Himanshu Madhu, Siva Teja Kakileti, Krithika Venkataramani, Susmija Jabbireddy, Himanshu Madhu, Siva Teja Kakileti, Krithika Venkataramani, Susmija Jabbireddy, Susmija Jabbireddy, Krithika Venkataramani, Siva Teja Kakileti, Himanshu Madhu
Thermography, with high-resolution cameras, is being re-investigated as a possible breast cancer screening imaging modality, as it does not have the harmful radiation effects of mammography. This paper focuses on automatic extraction of medically interpretable non-vascular thermal features. We design these features to differentiate malignancy from different non-malignancy conditions, including hormone sensitive tissues and certain benign conditions, which have an increased thermal response. These features increase the specificity for breast cancer screening, which had been a long known problem in thermographic screening, while retaining high sensitivity...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207184/concise-review-an-im-penetrable-shield-how-the-tumor-microenvironment-protects-cancer-stem-cells
#17
REVIEW
Theresa Relation, Massimo Dominici, Edwin M Horwitz
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined by their unlimited self-renewal ability and their capacity to initiate and maintain malignancy, traits that are not found in most cells that comprise the tumor. Although current cancer treatments successfully reduce tumor burden, the tumor will likely recur unless CSCs are effectively eradicated. This challenge is made greater by the protective impact of the tumor microenvironment (TME), consisting of infiltrating immune cells, endothelial cells, extracellular matrix, and signaling molecules...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195227/non-blind-acoustic-invisibility-by-dual-layers-of-homogeneous-single-negative-media
#18
He Gao, Yi-Fan Zhu, Xu-Dong Fan, Bin Liang, Jing Yang, Jian-Chun Cheng
Non-blind invisibility cloaks allowing the concealed object to sense the outside world have great application potentials such as in high-precision sensing or underwater camouflage. However the existing designs based on coordinate transformation techniques need complicated spatially-varying negative index or intricate multi-layered configurations, substantially increasing the difficulty in practical realization. Here we report on the non-blind acoustic invisibility for a circular object in free space with simple distribution of cloak parameters...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192927/improving-the-resolution-of-3d-printed-molds-for-microfluidics-by-iterative-casting-shrinkage-cycles
#19
Miao Sun, Yanbo Xie, Jihong Zhu, Jun Li, Jan C T Eijkel
Breaking through technical barriers and cost reduction are critical issues for the development of microfluidic devices, and both rely greatly on the innovation of fabrication techniques and use of new materials. The application of 3D printing definitely accelerated the prototyping of microfluidic chips by its versatility and functionality. However, the resolution of existing 3D printing techniques is still far below that of lithography, which makes it difficult to work on the scale of single cells and near impossible for single molecule work...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191487/preparation-of-protein-containing-extracts-from-microbiota-rich-intestinal-contents
#20
Patricia Dillenburg-Pilla, Carlos R Zárate-Bladés, Phyllis B Silver, Reiko Horai, Rachel R Caspi
The contribution of microbiota in regulating multiple physiological and pathological host responses has been studied intensively in recent years. Evidence suggests that commensal microbiota can directly modulate different populations of cells of the immune system (e.g., Ivanov et al., 2008; Atarashi et al., 2011). Recently, we showed that protein extracts from gut commensal microbiota can activate retina-specific T cells, allowing these autoreactive T cells to then break through the blood-retinal barrier and trigger autoimmune uveitis in the recipient (Horai et al...
September 20, 2016: Bio-protocol
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