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Wei-Li Song, Zhili Zhou, Lichen Wang, Xiao-Dong Cheng, Mingji Chen, Rujie He, Hao-Sen Chen, Yazheng Yang, Daining Fang
Ultra-broadband electromagnetic absorption materials and structures are increasingly attractive for their critical role in competing to the advanced broadband electromagnetic detective systems. Mechanically soft and weak wax-based materials composites are known to be insufficient to serve for practical electromagnetic absorption applications. To break through such barriers, here we developed an innovative strategy to enable the wax-based composites as robust and repairable meta-structures by employing a 3D printed polymeric patterned shell...
November 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nancy L Baenziger
Cancer somehow lends itself to military analogies, perhaps because of its status as a threat to life itself. We've declared war on cancer over several decades, viewing cancer as a cell going rogue, dividing uncontrollably, and ultimately breaking through local boundaries to spread. Less well known, but critically relevant to the health care impact of questioning authority, is the war within the breast cancer management community, among those studying molecular and cellular targets in breast cancer biology and those managing the human targets that represent cancer's toll...
November 1, 2017: Creative Nursing
Yujia Liang, Yong Xie, Dongxue Chen, Chuanfei Guo, Shuai Hou, Tao Wen, Fengyou Yang, Ke Deng, Xiaochun Wu, Ivan I Smalyukh, Qian Liu
Nanoparticle self-assembly promises scalable fabrication of composite materials with unique properties, but symmetry control of assembled structures remains a challenge. By introducing a governing force in the assembly process, we develop a strategy to control assembly symmetry. As a demonstration, we realize the tetragonal superlattice of octagonal gold nanorods, breaking through the only hexagonal symmetry of the superlattice so far. Surprisingly, such sparse tetragonal superstructure exhibits much higher thermostability than its close-packed hexagonal counterpart...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
Dahai Han, Yanjie Gu, Min Zhang
An optimized scheme of pulse symmetrical position-orthogonal space-time block codes (PSP-OSTBC) is proposed and applied with m-pulse positions modulation (m-PPM) without the use of a complex decoding algorithm in an optical multi-input multi-output (MIMO) ultraviolet (UV) communication system. The proposed scheme breaks through the limitation of the traditional Alamouti code and is suitable for high-order m-PPM in a UV scattering channel, verified by both simulation experiments and field tests with specific parameters...
August 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Chiara Vittoria Colombo, Luca Menin, Michela Clerici
Generation of 3' single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) tails at the ends of a double-strand break (DSB) is essential to repair the break through accurate homology-mediated repair pathways. Several methods have been developed to measure ssDNA accumulation at a DSB in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we describe one of these assays, which is based on the inability of restriction enzymes to cleave ssDNA. Digestion of genomic DNA prepared at different time points after DSB generation leads to the formation of ssDNA fragments whose length increases as the 5' strand degradation proceeds beyond restriction sites...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jingui Ma, Jing Wang, Bingjie Zhou, Peng Yuan, Guoqiang Xie, Kainan Xiong, Yanqing Zheng, Heyuan Zhu, Liejia Qian
Quasi-parametric chirped pulse amplification (QPCPA) is a new scheme that enables the amplification of chirped signal pulses without back conversion by depleting the idler pulses. In this paper, we present a numerical study on the bandwidth, efficiency, and robustness of QPCPA. Self-locked phase among the interacting waves is found to be the underlying mechanism for the suppression of back conversion, which allows signal efficiency approaching to the quantum limit even under the phase-mismatch condition, and thus greatly increases the phase-mismatch tolerance of QPCPA...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
Stephan Drewes, Petra Straková, Jan F Drexler, Jens Jacob, Rainer G Ulrich
Rodents are distributed throughout the world and interact with humans in many ways. They provide vital ecosystem services, some species are useful models in biomedical research and some are held as pet animals. However, many rodent species can have adverse effects such as damage to crops and stored produce, and they are of health concern because of the transmission of pathogens to humans and livestock. The first rodent viruses were discovered by isolation approaches and resulted in break-through knowledge in immunology, molecular and cell biology, and cancer research...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
Matthew J Paul, Maria Oszvald, Claudia Jesus, Charukesi Rajulu, Cara A Griffiths, Christine Raines
Food security is a pressing global issue. New approaches are required to break through a yield ceiling that has developed in recent years for the major crops. As important as increasing yield potential is the protection of yield from abiotic stresses in an increasingly variable and unpredictable climate. Current strategies to improve yield include conventional breeding, marker-assisted breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTLs), mutagenesis, creation of hybrids, genetic modification (GM), emerging genome-editing technologies, and chemical approaches...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Margrit Shildrick, Andrew Carnie, Alexa Wright, Patricia McKeever, Emily Huan-Ching Jan, Enza De Luca, Ingrid Bachmann, Susan Abbey, Dana Dal Bo, Jennifer Poole, Tammer El-Sheikh, Heather Ross
The paper engages with a variety of data around a supposedly single biomedical event, that of heart transplantation. In conventional discourse, organ transplantation constitutes an unproblematised form of spare part surgery in which failing biological components are replaced by more efficient and enduring ones, but once that simple picture is complicated by employing a radically interdisciplinary approach, any biomedical certainty is profoundly disrupted. Our aim, as a cross-sectorial partnership, has been to explore the complexities of heart transplantation by explicitly entangling research from the arts, biosciences and humanities without privileging any one discourse...
September 28, 2017: Medical Humanities
Zhuohui Wei, Chang Shu, Changsheng Zhang, Jingying Huang, Hongmin Cai
The field of single-cell sequencing is fleetly expanding, and many techniques have been developed in the past decade. With this technology, biologists can study not only the heterogeneity between two adjacent cells in the same tissue or organ, but also the evolutionary relationships and degenerative processes in a single cell. Calling variants is the main purpose in analyzing single cell sequencing (SCS) data. Currently, some popular methods used for bulk-cell-sequencing data analysis are tailored directly to be applied in dealing with SCS data...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Sheng-Wen Huang, Yi-Hui Huang, Huey-Pin Tsai, Pin-Hwa Kuo, Shih-Min Wang, Ching-Chuan Liu, Jen-Ren Wang
RNA viruses accumulate mutations to rapidly adapt to environmental changes. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes various clinical manifestations with occasional severe neurological complications. However, the mechanism by which EV-A71 evolves within the human body is unclear. Utilizing deep sequencing and haplotype analyses of viruses from various tissues of an autopsy patient, we sought to define the evolutionary pathway by which enterovirus A71 evolves fitness for invading the central nervous system in humans...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
Pengfei Li, Ruihua Zhang, Junhao Chen, Dapeng Sun, Jingjing Lan, Shaoli Lin, Shasha Song, Zhijing Xie, Shijin Jiang
Duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel goose parvovirus-related virus (NGPV) in China. Until now, it remains uncertain whether the Cherry Valley ducks and mule ducks with SBDS are co-infected with classical goose parvovirus (GPV) and NGPV. In this study, a duplex semi-nested PCR assay with high specificity and sensitivity was developed for detection of the two viruses. Using the duplex PCR assay, NGPV was tested positive in all the 15 duck flocks with SBDS, whereas classical GPV was not detected in all the 133 sick and dead ducks collected from East China...
November 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
Lien N Hoang, Blake C Gilks
The recent implementation of next generation sequencing and multigene platforms has expanded the spectrum of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, beyond the traditional genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. A large number of other moderate penetrance genes have now been uncovered, which also play critical roles in repairing double stranded DNA breaks through the homologous recombination pathway. This review discusses the landmark discoveries of BRCA1 and BRCA2, the homologous repair pathway and new genes discovered in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, as well as their clinicopathologic significance and implications for genetic testing...
September 13, 2017: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
J A Guicheteau, A Tripathi, E D Emmons, S D Christesen, Augustus W Fountain
Over the past 40 years fundamental and application research into Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) has been explored by academia, industry, and government laboratories. To date however, SERS has achieved little commercial success as an analytical technique. Researchers are tackling a variety of paths to help break through the commercial barrier by addressing the reproducibility in both the SERS substrates and SERS signals as well as continuing to explore the underlying mechanisms. To this end, investigators use a variety of methodologies, typically studying strongly binding analytes such as aromatic thiols and azarenes, and report SERS enhancement factor calculations...
September 15, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Klea Faniko, Naomi Ellemers, Belle Derks, Fabio Lorenzi-Cioldi
Two correlational studies conducted in Switzerland ( N = 222) and Albania ( N = 156) explained the opposition of female managers to gender quotas by examining the origins and consequences of the "Queen Bee (QB)-phenomenon," whereby women who have been successful in male-dominated organizations do not support the advancement of junior women. Results disconfirm previous accounts of the QB-phenomenon as indicating competitiveness among women. Instead, the tendency of women managers to consider themselves as different from other women, and their opposition to gender quotas, emerged when junior women were addressed but not when they considered their direct competitors, other women managers...
May 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Steven Penfield
Reproduction is a critical time in plant life history. Therefore, genes affecting seed dormancy and germination are among those under strongest selection in natural plant populations. Germination terminates seed dispersal and thus influences the location and timing of plant growth. After seed shedding, germination can be prevented by a property known as seed dormancy. In practise, seeds are rarely either dormant or non-dormant, but seeds whose dormancy-inducing pathways are activated to higher levels will germinate in an ever-narrower range of environments...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Katia Danza, Simona De Summa, Rosamaria Pinto, Brunella Pilato, Orazio Palumbo, Massimo Carella, Ondina Popescu, Maria Digennaro, Rosanna Lacalamita, Stefania Tommasi
The term 'BRCAness' was introduced to identify sporadic malignant tumors sharing characteristics similar to those germline BRCA-related. Among all mechanisms attributable to BRCA1 expression silencing, a major role has been assigned to microRNAs. MicroRNAs role in familial and sporadic breast cancer has been explored but few data are available about microRNAs involvement in homologous recombination repair control in these breast cancer subgroups. Our aim was to seek microRNAs associated to pathways underlying DNA repair dysfunction in breast cancer according to a family history of the disease...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
Teresa Crowe
Most mental health practitioners provide services to hearing clients and might be unprepared when a deaf individual requests services. The purpose of this article is to explore commonly held stereotypes and myths about deaf people and to provide guidance to clinicians who encounter deaf clients in their practices. Myths and stereotypes can affect the way clinicians perceive their clients' needs. This can lead to miscommunication, misunderstanding, and misinformation, which can harm the therapeutic relationship, thus making effective therapy unattainable...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation
Sara Fuentes, Andrés Gómez-Fraile, Isabel Carrillo-Arroyo, Cristina Tordable-Ojeda, Daniel Cabezalí-Barbancho
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcomes of endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) performed on infants, and to discuss the possible role of this approach in selected cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on the patients who underwent endoscopic injection of a bulking substance for VUR in our institution, and a comparison was made with patients treated during infancy and those treated later in life. RESULTS: A total of 463 ureteral units were included (296 children), of whom 47 were patients less than 1 year of age (infants, INF group); the remaining 416 were included in a second group (children, CHL)...
August 14, 2017: Urology
Whitney Peters, Marlene P Freeman, Semmie Kim, Lee S Cohen, Hadine Joffe
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Two-thirds of women with depressive disorders report reemergence of depression premenstrually, or premenstrual exacerbation (PME), despite effective treatment of the underlying mood disorder during the remainder of the cycle. There is a paucity of studies that rigorously assess treatments targeting PME. Open-label data suggest that augmentation of antidepressants with the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol (DRSP/EE) improves depressive symptoms that break through treatment premenstrually...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
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