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Alzheimer's dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719891/serum-interleukin-10-levels-correlate-with-cerebrospinal-fluid-amyloid-beta-deposition-in-alzheimer-disease-patients
#1
Lucio D'Anna, Samir Abu-Rumeileh, Martina Fabris, Cinzia Pistis, Antonio Baldi, Nova Sanvilli, Francesco Curcio, Gian Luigi Gigli, Sebastiano D'Anna, Mariarosaria Valente
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In Alzheimer disease (AD) inflammation becomes evident throughout the course of the disease. However, the association between inflammation, cognitive impairment, and cerebrospinal biomarkers (Aβ42, t-tau, p-tau181, and Aβ42/p-tau181 ratio) is poorly understood. METHODS: A large panel of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor) was analyzed using a multiplex immunoassay in 27 patients with a diagnosis of AD dementia and in 18 control subjects...
July 19, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719625/differences-of-immune-disorders-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-breast-cancer-based-on-transcriptional-regulation
#2
Wei Kong, Xiaoyang Mou, Jin Deng, Benteng Di, Ruxing Zhong, Shuaiqun Wang, Yang Yang, Weiming Zeng
Although chronic inflammation and immune disorders are of great importance to the pathogenesis of both dementia and cancer, the pathophysiological mechanisms are not clearly understood. In recent years, growing epidemiological evidence and meta-analysis data suggest an inverse association between Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is the most common form of dementia, and cancer. It has been revealed that some common genes and biological processes play opposite roles in AD and cancer; however, the biological immune mechanism for the inverse association is not clearly defined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719360/alzheimer-s-disease-dawn-of-a-new-era
#3
Farideh Amirrad, Emira Bousoik, Kiumars Shamloo, Hassan Al-Shiyab, Viet-Huong V Nguyen, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive decline in cognition and memory, leading to significant impairment in daily activities and ultimately death. It is the most common cause of dementia, the prevalence of which increases with age; however, age is not the only predisposing factor. The pathology of this cognitive impairing disease is still not completely understood, which has limited the development of valid therapeutic options. Recent years have witnessed a wide range of novel approaches to combat this disease, so that they greatly increased our understanding of the disease and of the unique drug development issues associated with this disease...
2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716886/clinical-neurology-and-epidemiology-of-the-major-neurodegenerative-diseases
#4
Michael G Erkkinen, Mee-Ohk Kim, Michael D Geschwind
Neurodegenerative diseases are a common cause of morbidity and cognitive impairment in older adults. Most clinicians who care for the elderly are not trained to diagnose these conditions, perhaps other than typical Alzheimer's disease (AD). Each of these disorders has varied epidemiology, clinical symptomatology, laboratory and neuroimaging features, neuropathology, and management. Thus, it is important that clinicians be able to differentiate and diagnose these conditions accurately. This review summarizes and highlights clinical aspects of several of the most commonly encountered neurodegenerative diseases, including AD, frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and its variants, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and Huntington's disease (HD)...
July 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716534/mutations-in-tyrobp-are-not-a-common-cause-of-dementia-in-a-turkish-cohort
#5
Lee Darwent, Susana Carmona, Ebba Lohmann, Gamze Guven, Celia Kun-Rodrigues, Basar Bilgic, Hasmet Hanagasi, Hakan Gurvit, Nihan Erginel-Unaltuna, Meltem Pak, John Hardy, Andrew Singleton, Jose Brás, Rita Guerreiro
Mutations in TYROBP and TREM2 have been shown to cause polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy. Recently, variants in TREM2 were also associated with frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Given the functional proximity between these 2 genes, we investigated the genetic variation of TYROBP in a Turkish cohort of 103 dementia patients. No mutations or copy number variants predicted to be pathogenic were identified. These results indicate that mutations in TYROBP are not a common cause of dementia in this Turkish cohort...
June 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716532/multivariate-analyses-of-peripheral-blood-leukocyte-transcripts-distinguish-alzheimer-s-parkinson-s-control-and-those-at-risk-for-developing-alzheimer-s
#6
Elaine Delvaux, Diego Mastroeni, Jennifer Nolz, Nienwen Chow, Marwan Sabbagh, Richard J Caselli, Eric M Reiman, Frederick J Marshall, Paul D Coleman
The need for a reliable, simple, and inexpensive blood test for Alzheimer's disease (AD) suitable for use in a primary care setting is widely recognized. This has led to a large number of publications describing blood tests for AD, which have, for the most part, not been replicable. We have chosen to examine transcripts expressed by the cellular, leukocyte compartment of blood. We have used hypothesis-based cDNA arrays and quantitative PCR to quantify the expression of selected sets of genes followed by multivariate analyses in multiple independent samples...
June 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716371/detection-risk-factors-and-functional-consequences-of-cerebral-microinfarcts
#7
REVIEW
Susanne J van Veluw, Andy Y Shih, Eric E Smith, Christopher Chen, Julie A Schneider, Joanna M Wardlaw, Steven M Greenberg, Geert Jan Biessels
Cerebral microinfarcts are small lesions that are presumed to be ischaemic. Despite the small size of these lesions, affected individuals can have hundreds to thousands of cerebral microinfarcts, which cause measurable disruption to structural brain connections, and are associated with dementia that is independent of Alzheimer's disease pathology or larger infarcts (ie, lacunar infarcts, and large cortical and non-lacunar subcortical infarcts). Substantial progress has been made with regard to understanding risk factors and functional consequences of cerebral microinfarcts, partly driven by new in-vivo detection methods and the development of animal models that closely mimic multiple aspects of cerebral microinfarcts in human beings...
July 14, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714419/design-of-multi-target-agents-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-based-on-tacrine
#8
Hongzhi Lin, Qi Li, Kai Gu, Jie Zhu, Xueyang Jiang, Yao Chen, Haopeng Sun
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of dementia in elderly people. To date, efficacious therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD is still very limited, so it has long been a challenging and attractive task to discover new anti-AD drugs. Considering the multifactorial nature of AD, recently, the concept of multi-target-directed ligands (MTDLs) has emerged as a new strategy for designing therapeutic agents on AD. MTDLs are believed to exert their effects through simultaneously affecting multiple targets which contribute to etiology of AD...
July 17, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714389/a-peptide-based-pro-drug-ameliorates-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-in-in-vitro-sh-sy5y-cells
#9
Sourav Kumar, Ashim Paul, Sourav Kalita, Awanish Kumar, Saurabh Srivastav, Somoday Hazra, Anup Kumar Ghosh, Bhubaneswar Mandal, Amal Chandra Mondal
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD), a common protein misfolding neurodegenerative disorder, is one of the most common forms of dementia. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) derived amyloid-β (Aβ) proteins accumulated into interneuronal spaces and plays a crucial role in the disease progression and its pathology. The aggregated Aβ exerts its neurotoxic effects by inducing apoptosis and oxidative damage in neuronal cells. OBJECTIVES: We have investigated the effects of a synthesized Pro-Drug peptide (PDp) on Aβ1-40 induced cytotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, represents one of the most effective strategies in combating human AD...
July 13, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714019/salidroside-protects-pc12-cells-from-a%C3%AE-1%C3%A2-40%C3%A2-induced-cytotoxicity-by-regulating-the-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-signaling-pathway
#10
Xujiao Huang, Sanli Xing, Chuan Chen, Zhihua Yu, Jiulin Chen
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of senile dementia, which often develops in elderly or presenile individuals. As one of the pathological features of AD, amyloid β‑protein (Aβ) causes energy dysmetabolism, thereby inducing cellular damage and apoptosis. Salidroside is the main active component of the traditional Chinese medicine Rhodiola. Previous studies have demonstrated that salidroside exerts a regulatory role in energy metabolism. However, the role and the mechanism of action of salidroside in AD remain unclear...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714010/ptprq-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#11
Yuki Nagata, Masahiko Bundo, Saiko Sugiura, Masahiro Kamita, Masaya Ono, Kotaro Hattori, Sumiko Yoshida, Yu-Ichi Goto, Katsuya Urakami, Shumpei Niida
Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is caused by the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is characterized by gait disturbance, urinary incontinence, and dementia. iNPH dementia is treatable by shunt operation; however, since the cognitive symptoms of iNPH are often similar to those of other dementias, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), accurate diagnosis of iNPH is difficult. To overcome this problem, the identification of novel diagnostic markers to distinguish iNPH and AD is warranted...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713963/sexual-dimorphism-of-frailty-and-cognitive-impairment-potential-underlying-mechanisms-review
#12
Qingwei Ruan, Grazia D'onofrio, Tao Wu, Antonio Greco, Daniele Sancarlo, Zhuowei Yu
The aim of the present study was to assess systematically gender differences in susceptibility to frailty and cognitive performance decline, and the underlying mechanisms. A systematic assessment was performed of the identified reviews of cohort, mechanistic and epidemiological studies. The selection criteria of the present study included: i) Sexual dimorphism of frailty, ii) sexual dimorphism of subjective memory decline (impairment) and atrophy of hippocampus during early life, iii) sexual dimorphism of late‑onset Alzheimer's disease and iv) sexual dimorphism mechanisms underlying frailty and cognitive impairment...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713690/three-dimensional-stereotactic-surface-projection-in-the-statistical-analysis-of-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-data-for-distinguishing-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-depression
#13
Eiji Kirino
AIM: To evaluate usefulness of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) in distinguishing between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression. METHODS: We studied 43 patients who presented with both depressive symptoms and memory disturbance. Each subject was evaluated using the following: (1) the Minimal Mental State Examination; (2) the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; (3) Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale (CGI-S); and (4) SPECT imaging with 3D-SSP...
June 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713585/associations-of-centrally-acting-ace-inhibitors-with-cognitive-decline-and-survival-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Karim Fazal, Gayan Perera, Mizanur Khondoker, Robert Howard, Robert Stewart
BACKGROUND: Cognitive improvement has been reported in patients receiving centrally acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (C-ACEIs). AIMS: To compare cognitive decline and survival after diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease between people receiving C-ACEIs, non-centrally acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (NC-ACEIs), and neither. METHOD: Routine Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were extracted in 5260 patients receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and analysed against C-/NC-ACEI exposure at the time of Alzheimer's disease diagnosis...
July 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713158/amyloid-beta-structure-biology-and-structure-based-therapeutic-development
#15
REVIEW
Guo-Fang Chen, Ting-Hai Xu, Yan Yan, Yu-Ren Zhou, Yi Jiang, Karsten Melcher, H Eric Xu
Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) is produced through the proteolytic processing of a transmembrane protein, amyloid precursor protein (APP), by β- and γ-secretases. Aβ accumulation in the brain is proposed to be an early toxic event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, which is the most common form of dementia associated with plaques and tangles in the brain. Currently, it is unclear what the physiological and pathological forms of Aβ are and by what mechanism Aβ causes dementia. Moreover, there are no efficient drugs to stop or reverse the progression of Alzheimer's disease...
July 17, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712011/fgf21-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-cognitive-impairment-via-metabolic-regulation-and-anti-inflammation-of-obese-mice
#16
Qingzhi Wang, Jing Yuan, Zhanyang Yu, Li Lin, Yinghua Jiang, Zeyuan Cao, Pengwei Zhuang, Michael J Whalen, Bo Song, Xiao-Jie Wang, Xiaokun Li, Eng H Lo, Yuming Xu, Xiaoying Wang
Accumulating studies suggest that overnutrition-associated obesity may lead to development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndromes (MetS). MetS and its components are important risk factors of mild cognitive impairment, age-related cognitive decline, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. It has been recently proposed that development of a disease-course modification strategy toward early and effective risk factor management would be clinically significant in reducing the risk of metabolic disorder-initiated cognitive decline...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711424/conversion-and-reversion-rates-in-japanese-older-people-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#17
Hiroyuki Shimada, Hyuma Makizako, Takehiko Doi, SungChul Lee, Sangyoon Lee
OBJECTIVES: Approximately 25% of individuals who are diagnosed with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) revert to normal cognition (NC) rather than progressing to Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the prevalence of progression and reversion among older people in Asia remains unclear. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: A community in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4153 individuals without dementia aged ≥65 years were classified as having NC, aMCI single domain (aMCIs), non-aMCI single domain (naMCIs), aMCI multiple domain (aMCIm), non-aMCI multiple domain (naMCIm), or global cognitive impairment (GCI)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711405/a-unique-glycan-isoform-of-transferrin-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-a-potential-diagnostic-marker-for-neurological-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Kyoka Hoshi, Hiromi Ito, Yuka Matsumoto, Kiyoshi Saito, Takashi Honda, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is sequestered from blood by the blood-brain barrier and directly communicates with brain parenchymal interstitial fluid, leading to contain specific biomarkers of neurological diseases. SCOPE OF REVIEW: CSF contains glycan isoforms of transferrin (Tf): one appears to be derived from the brain and the other from blood. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: CSF contains two glycan-isoforms; brain-type Tf and serum-type Tf...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711346/association-of-cancer-and-alzheimer-s-disease-risk-in-a-national-cohort-of-veterans
#19
Laura Frain, David Swanson, Kelly Cho, David Gagnon, Kun Ping Lu, Rebecca A Betensky, Jane Driver
INTRODUCTION: To examine the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among cancer survivors in a national database. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of 3,499,378 mostly male US veterans aged ≥65 years were followed between 1996 and 2011. We used Cox models to estimate risk of AD and alternative outcomes (non-AD dementia, osteoarthritis, stroke, and macular degeneration) in veterans with and without a history of cancer. RESULTS: Survivors of a wide variety of cancers had modestly lower AD risk, but increased risk of the alternative outcomes...
July 12, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710524/altered-n100-potential-associates-with-working-memory-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Tua Annanmaki, Kirsi Palmu, Kari Murros, Juhani Partanen
The diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia often occurring with Parkinson's disease (PD) is still based on the clinical picture and neuropsychological examination. Ancillary methods to detect cognitive decline in these patients are, therefore, needed. Alterations in the latencies and amplitudes of evoked response potential (ERP) components N100 and P200 have been described in PD. Due to limited number of studies their relation to cognitive deficits in PD remains obscure. The present study was designed to examine if alterations in the N100- and P200-potentials associate with neuropsychological impairment in PD...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
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