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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214236/are-hospital-ed-transfers-less-likely-among-nursing-home-residents-with-do-not-hospitalize-orders
#1
Taeko Nakashima, Yuchi Young, Wan-Hsiang Hsu
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine whether an advance directive "Do Not Hospitalize" (DNH) would be effective in reducing hospital/emergency department (ED) transfers. Similar effects in residents with dementia were also examined. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING/SUBJECTS: New York State (NYS) nursing home residents (n = 43,024). MEASUREMENTS AND ANALYSIS: The Minimum Data Set 2.0 was used to address the study aims...
February 14, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214109/a-novel-mutation-in-trem2-gene-causing-nasu-hakola-disease-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Efthimios Dardiotis, Vasileios Siokas, Eva Pantazi, Maria Dardioti, Dimitrios Rikos, Georgia Xiromerisiou, Aikaterini Markou, Dimitra Papadimitriou, Matthaios Speletas, Georgios M Hadjigeorgiou
Nasu-hakola disease (NHD) is a rare disease characterized by bone cysts and fractures, frontal lobe syndrome, and progressive presenile dementia. NHD may be the prototype of primary microglial disorders of the CNS or, as they have been coined, "microgliopathies". Mutations in TREM2 and TYROBP genes are known to cause NHD. Interestingly, recent evidence-associated rare genetic variants of TREM2 gene with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease...
January 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213293/relations-between-personality-changes-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology
#3
D Tautvydaitė, J P Antonietti, H Henry, A von Gunten, J Popp
Specific changes in personality profiles may represent early non-cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Evaluating the subject's personality changes may add significant clinical information, as well as help to better understand the interaction between personality change, cognitive decline, and cerebral pathology. With this study we aimed to describe the relationship between personality changes and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of AD pathology at early clinical stages of the disease. One hundred and ten subjects, of whom 66 cognitively impaired patients (57 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 9 with mild dementia) and 44 healthy controls, had neuropsychological examination as well as lumbar puncture to determine concentrations of CSF biomarkers of AD pathology (amyloid beta1-42 (Aβ1-42), phosphorylated tau (ptau-181), and total-tau (tau))...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213071/pla2g6-accumulates-in-lewy-bodies-in-park14-and-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Yasuo Miki, Kunikazu Tanji, Fumiaki Mori, Akiyoshi Kakita, Hitoshi Takahashi, Koichi Wakabayashi
The histopathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the occurrence of insoluble fibrillary aggregates known as Lewy bodies, in which phosphorylated α-synuclein (α-syn) is a major component. To date, familial PD-linked gene products, including α-syn, parkin, PINK-1, DJ-1 and LRRK2, are known to be involved in Lewy body formation. Phospholipase A2, group VI (PLA2G6) is the causative gene for PARK14-linked parkinsonism (PARK14), a familial form of juvenile-onset dystonia parkinsonism...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212683/evidence-for-benefit-of-statins-to-modify-cognitive-decline-and-risk-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Nophar Geifman, Roberta Diaz Brinton, Richard E Kennedy, Lon S Schneider, Atul J Butte
BACKGROUND: Despite substantial research and development investment in Alzheimer's disease (AD), effective therapeutics remain elusive. Significant emerging evidence has linked cholesterol, β-amyloid and AD, and several studies have shown a reduced risk for AD and dementia in populations treated with statins. However, while some clinical trials evaluating statins in general AD populations have been conducted, these resulted in no significant therapeutic benefit. By focusing on subgroups of the AD population, it may be possible to detect endotypes responsive to statin therapy...
February 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212648/formulation-of-evidence-based-messages-to-promote-the-use-of-physical-activity-to-prevent-and-manage-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Kathleen A Martin Ginis, Jennifer Heisz, John C Spence, Ilana B Clark, Jordan Antflick, Chris I Ardern, Christa Costas-Bradstreet, Mary Duggan, Audrey L Hicks, Amy E Latimer-Cheung, Laura Middleton, Kirk Nylen, Donald H Paterson, Chelsea Pelletier, Michael A Rotondi
BACKGROUND: The impending public health impact of Alzheimer's disease is tremendous. Physical activity is a promising intervention for preventing and managing Alzheimer's disease. However, there is a lack of evidence-based public health messaging to support this position. This paper describes the application of the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation II (AGREE-II) principles to formulate an evidence-based message to promote physical activity for the purposes of preventing and managing Alzheimer's disease...
February 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212619/brain-and-liver-pathology-amyloid-deposition-and-interferon-responses-among-older-hiv-positive-patients-in-the-late-haart-era
#7
Isaac H Solomon, Umberto De Girolami, Sukrutha Chettimada, Vikas Misra, Elyse J Singer, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: HIV+ patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with suppressed viral loads have a low incidence of HIV-associated dementia, but increased prevalence of milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). These milder forms of HAND are often associated with minimal histological abnormalities, and their pathophysiology is unclear. Comorbidities, altered amyloid metabolism, accelerated brain aging, and activated interferon responses are suspected to play a role in HAND pathogenesis in HAART-treated persons...
February 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212172/cognitive-decline-associated-with-anesthesia-and-surgery-in-the-elderly-does-this-contribute-to-dementia-prevalence
#8
Lisbeth Evered, David A Scott, Brendan Silbert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the current state of research investigating the effects of anesthesia and surgery on cognition in the elderly, including consideration of overlap with cognitive disorders in the community. RECENT FINDINGS: The studies reviewed here identify detrimental effects of anesthesia and surgery on cognition in a proportion of elderly individuals. Animal models demonstrate an association between anesthetic agents and Alzheimer's disease pathology...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211814/are-major-dementias-triggered-by-poor-blood-flow-to-the-brain-theoretical-considerations
#9
Jack C de la Torre
There is growing evidence that chronic brain hypoperfusion plays a central role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) long before dyscognitive symptoms or amyloid-β accumulation in the brain appear. This commentary proposes that dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) may also develop from chronic brain hypoperfusion following a similar but not identical neurometabolic breakdown as AD. The argument to support this conclusion is that chronic brain hypoperfusion, which is found at the early stages of the three dementias reviewed here, will reduce oxygen delivery and lower oxidative phosphorylation promoting a steady decline in the synthesis of the cell energy fuel adenosine triphosphate (ATP)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211813/classification-of-depression-cognitive-disorders-and-co-morbid-depression-and-cognitive-disorders-with-perfusion-spect-neuroimaging
#10
Daniel G Amen, Pavitra Krishnamani, Somayeh Meysami, Andrew Newberg, Cyrus A Raji
BACKGROUND: Depression and cognitive disorders (CDs) are two common co-morbid afflictions that commonly present with overlapping symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if perfusion neuroimaging with brain SPECT can distinguish persons with depression from those with CDs or both conditions. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were DSM-IV defined depression or CDs (Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, dementia not otherwise specified, and amnestic disorders not otherwise specified) including persons with both (total n = 4,541; 847 CDs, 3,269 depression, 425 with both)...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211452/early-onset-and-delayed-onset-poststroke-dementia-revisiting-the-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Vincent C T Mok, Bonnie Y K Lam, Adrian Wong, Ho Ko, Hugh S Markus, Lawrence K S Wong
Incident stroke has long been recognized to cause dementia shortly after the event. Patients who survive stroke without early-onset poststroke dementia (PSD) are at a high risk of developing dementia months to years after the initial stroke incident, which has generated enthusiasm for exploring treatments to prevent delayed-onset PSD in survivors of stroke. However, results from clinical trials completed in the past 10-15 years have been disappointing. In light of these results, the present Review revisits the mechanisms of both early-onset and delayed-onset PSD and proposes preventive strategies and directions for future clinical trials...
February 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210978/future-directions-in-imaging-neurodegeneration
#12
REVIEW
Joseph C Masdeu
Neuroimaging comprises a powerful set of instruments to diagnose various neurodegenerative disorders, clarifies their neurobiology, and monitors their treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging depicts volume changes, as well as abnormalities in functional and structural connectivity. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows for the quantification of regional cerebral metabolism, characteristically altered in Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, diffuse Lewy-body disease, and the frontotemporal dementias...
January 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210868/cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-a-new-emerging-complication-of-type-2-diabetes-the-diabetologist-s-perspective
#13
Rafael Simó, Andreea Ciudin, Olga Simó-Servat, Cristina Hernández
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two of the most common diseases of aging around the world. Given the frequency with which T2D and AD occur, the notion that people with T2D may be at increased risk for AD has large societal consequences, and understanding the mechanistic links between these diseases is imperative for the development of effective AD prevention and treatment strategies. Apart from being an accelerator of AD, T2D is associated with a progressive cognitive decline...
February 16, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210541/a-t1-and-dti-fused-3d-corpus-callosum-analysis-in-mci-subjects-with-high-and-low-cardiovascular-risk-profile
#14
Yi Lao, Binh Nguyen, Sinchai Tsao, Niharika Gajawelli, Meng Law, Helena Chui, Michael Weiner, Yalin Wang, Natasha Leporé
Understanding the extent to which vascular disease and its risk factors are associated with prodromal dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD), may enhance predictive accuracy as well as guide early interventions. One promising avenue to determine this relationship consists of looking for reliable and sensitive in-vivo imaging methods capable of characterizing the subtle brain alterations before the clinical manifestations. However, little is known from the imaging perspective about how risk factors such as vascular disease influence AD progression...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210222/icariside-ii-a-broad-spectrum-anti-cancer-agent-reverses-beta-amyloid-induced-cognitive-impairment-through-reducing-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-rats
#15
Yuanyuan Deng, Long Long, Keke Wang, Jiayin Zhou, Lingrong Zeng, Lianzi He, Qihai Gong
Beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition, associated neuronal apoptosis and neuroinflammation are considered as the important factors which lead to cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Icariside II (ICS II), an active flavonoid compound derived from Epimedium brevicornum Maxim, has been extensively used to treat erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis and dementia in traditional Chinese medicine. Recently, ICS II attracts great interest due to its broad-spectrum anti-cancer property. ICS II shows an anti-inflammatory potential both in cancer treatment and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210220/mri-based-classification-models-in-prediction-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-in-late-life-depression
#16
Aleksandra K Lebedeva, Eric Westman, Tom Borza, Mona K Beyer, Knut Engedal, Dag Aarsland, Geir Selbaek, Asta K Haberg
Objective: Late-life depression (LLD) is associated with development of different types of dementia. Identification of LLD patients, who will develop cognitive decline, i.e., the early stage of dementia would help to implement interventions earlier. The purpose of this study was to assess whether structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in LLD patients can predict mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia 1 year prior to the diagnosis. Methods: LLD patients underwent brain MRI at baseline and repeated clinical assessment after 1-year...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209520/deconstructing-empathy-neuroanatomical-dissociations-between-affect-sharing-and-prosocial-motivation-using-a-patient-lesion-model
#17
Suzanne M Shdo, Kamalini G Ranasinghe, Kelly A Gola, Clinton J Mielke, Paul V Sukhanov, Bruce L Miller, Katherine P Rankin
Affect sharing and prosocial motivation are integral parts of empathy that are conceptually and mechanistically distinct. We used a neurodegenerative disease (NDG) lesion model to more directly examine the neural correlates of these two aspects of real-world empathic responding. The study enrolled 275 participants, including 44 healthy older controls and 231 patients diagnosed with one of five neurodegenerative diseases (75 Alzheimer's disease, 58 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 42 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), 28 progressive supranuclear palsy, and 28 non-fluent variant (nfvPPA)...
February 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209256/sharpening-a-classic-scalpel-to-face-the-growth-of-alzheimer-s-dementia
#18
EDITORIAL
Tarek K Rajji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208063/white-matter-lesions-and-the-cholinergic-deficit-in-aging-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#19
Nils Richter, Anne Michel, Oezguer A Onur, Lutz Kracht, Markus Dietlein, Marc Tittgemeyer, Bernd Neumaier, Gereon R Fink, Juraj Kukolja
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), white matter lesions (WMLs) are associated with an increased risk of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia, while memory deficits have, at least in part, been linked to a cholinergic deficit. We investigated the relationship between WML load assessed with the Scheltens scale, cerebral acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity measured with [(11)C]N-methyl-4-piperidyl acetate PET, and neuropsychological performance in 17 patients with MCI due to AD and 18 cognitively normal older participants...
January 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206976/lipid-and-alzheimer-s-disease-genes-associated-with-healthy-aging-and-longevity-in-healthy-oldest-old
#20
Lauren C Tindale, Stephen Leach, John J Spinelli, Angela R Brooks-Wilson
Several studies have found that long-lived individuals do not appear to carry lower numbers of common disease-associated variants than ordinary people; it has been hypothesized that they may instead carry protective variants. An intriguing type of protective variant is buffering variants that protect against variants that have deleterious effects. We genotyped 18 variants in 15 genes related to longevity or healthy aging that had been previously reported as having a gene-gene interaction or buffering effect...
February 11, 2017: Oncotarget
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