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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353232/albuminuria-increases-the-risks-for-both-alzheimer-disease-and-vascular-dementia-in-community-dwelling-japanese-elderly-the-hisayama-study
#1
Keita Takae, Jun Hata, Tomoyuki Ohara, Daigo Yoshida, Mao Shibata, Naoko Mukai, Yoichiro Hirakawa, Hiro Kishimoto, Kazuhiko Tsuruya, Takanari Kitazono, Yutaka Kiyohara, Toshiharu Ninomiya
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence has emerged to reveal an association of albuminuria and low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with dementia, but the findings are inconsistent. In addition, there are limited studies addressing the association between albuminuria and Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1562 community-dwelling Japanese subjects aged ≥60 years without dementia were followed up for 10 years. The outcomes were incidence of all-cause dementia and its subtypes, namely, AD and vascular dementia (VaD)...
January 20, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353052/evidence-for-altered-insulin-receptor-signaling-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Chelsea M Griffith, Tore Eid, Gregory M Rose, Peter R Patrylo
Epidemiological data have shown that metabolic disease can increase the propensity for developing cognitive decline and dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). While this interaction is not completely understood, clinical studies suggest that both hyper- and hypoinsulinemia are associated with an increased risk for developing AD. Indeed, insulin signaling is altered in post-mortem brain tissue from AD patients and treatments known to enhance insulin signaling, can improve cognitive function. Further, clinical evidence has shown that AD patients and mouse models of AD often display alterations in peripheral metabolism...
January 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352978/use-of-multimodality-imaging-and-artificial-intelligence-for-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Xiaonan Liu, Kewei Chen, Teresa Wu, David Weidman, Fleming Lure, Jing Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia. Currently, no treatment exists to slow down or stop the progression of AD. There is converging belief that disease-modifying treatments should focus on early stages of the disease, that is, the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and preclinical stages. Making a diagnosis of AD and offering a prognosis (likelihood of converting to AD) at these early stages are challenging tasks but possible with the help of multimodality imaging, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission topography (PET), amyloid-PET, and recently introduced tau-PET, which provides different but complementary information...
January 10, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352507/nuclear-and-membrane-estrogen-receptor-antagonists-induce-similar-mtorc2-activation-reversible-changes-in-synaptic-protein-expression-and-actin-polymerization-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#4
Fang-Zhou Xing, Yan-Gang Zhao, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Li He, Ji-Kai Zhao, Meng-Ying Liu, Yan Liu, Ji-Qiang Zhang
AIMS: Estrogens play pivotal roles in hippocampal synaptic plasticity through nuclear receptors (nERs; including ERα and ERβ) and the membrane receptor (mER; also called GPR30), but the underlying mechanism and the contributions of nERs and mER remain unclear. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) is involved in actin cytoskeleton polymerization and long-term memory, but whether mTORC2 is involved in the regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by ERs is unclear. METHODS: We treated animals with nER antagonists (MPP/PHTPP) or the mER antagonist (G15) alone or in combination with A-443654, an activator of mTORC2...
January 19, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351426/the-effects-of-heat-and-cold-on-health-with-special-reference-to-finnish-sauna-bathing
#5
Ilkka Heinonen, Jari A Laukkanen
Environmental stress such as extremely warm or cold temperature is often considered a challenge to human health and body homeostasis. However, human body can adapt relatively well to heat and cold environments and recent studies have also elucidated that particularly heat stress might be even highly beneficial for human health. Consequently, the aim of the present brief review is first to discuss general cardiovascular and other responses to acute heat stress, followed by a review of beneficial effects of Finnish sauna bathing on general and cardiovascular health and mortality as well as dementia and Alzheimer's disease risk...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350557/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-their-health-benefits
#6
Fereidoon Shahidi, Priyatharini Ambigaipalan
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) include α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 ω-3), stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4 ω-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 ω-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5 ω-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3). In the past few decades, many epidemiological studies have been conducted on the myriad health benefits of omega-3 PUFAs. In this review, we summarized the structural features, properties, dietary sources, metabolism, and bioavailability of omega-3 PUFAs and their effects on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, depression, visual, and neurological development, as well as maternal and child health...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350177/antidepressant-medication-in-a-german-cohort-of-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease%C3%A2
#7
Philipp Hessmann, Richard Dodel, Erika Baum, Matthias J Müller, Greta Paschke, Bernhard Kis, Jan Zeidler, Mike Klora, Jens-Peter Reese, Monika Balzer-Geldsetzer
OBJECTIVE: The use of antidepressant drugs in dementia patients is associated with the risk of adverse events, and the evidence for relevant effects is scarce. We aimed to determine the associations between the prescription of antidepressants and patients' sociodemographic (e.g., age, gender, living situation) and clinical characteristics (e.g., disease severity, neuropsychiatric symptoms). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 395 institutionalized and community-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) across all severity stages of dementia in a cross-sectional study design...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350060/-so-they-are-not-alive-dementia-reality-disjunctions-and-conversational-strategies
#8
Lars-Christer Hydén, Christina Samuelsson
In some conversations involving persons with Alzheimer's disease, the participants may have to deal with the difficulty that they do not share a common ground in terms of not only who is alive or dead, but even more, who could possibly be alive. It is as if the participants face a reality disjunction. There are very few empirical studies of this difficulty in conversations involving persons with Alzheimer's disease or other kinds of dementia diagnoses. Often studies of confabulation have a focus on the behavior and experience of the healthy participants, but rarely on the interaction and the collaborative contributions made by the person with dementia...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350059/a-new-curriculum-to-address-dementia-related-stigma-preliminary-experience-with-alzheimer-s-association-staff
#9
Lynn K Herrmann, Nancy Udelson, Cheryl Kanetsky, Hongyan Liu, Kristin Cassidy, Elisabeth Welter, Martha Sajatovic
Objective Develop and test a stigma awareness and education curriculum targeted to non-medical staff of a local Alzheimer's Association chapter. Methods The curriculum, developed in collaboration with leadership and educational staff from the Cleveland Chapter of the Alzheimer's Association, included a definition, types, and domains of stigma; effects of stigma on individuals with dementia and their families; stigma evaluation studies; tips to address the topic of dementia-related stigma with individuals and families...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349659/-self-and-informant-rating-mood-scales-applied-in-elderly-persons-with-alzheimer-s-dementia-with-or-without-a%C3%A2-language-disorder
#10
Margina Yildirim-Gorter, Djahill Groot, Linda Hermens, Han Diesfeldt, Erik Scherder
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's Dementia (AD) may be associated with symptoms of depression. In AD, problems of language expression or understanding will arise sooner or later. The aim of this study was to determine whether elderly persons with AD, with or without a language disorder, experience difficulties understanding and answering mood related questions. In addition to this, it was our object to test the validity of the answers of nurses as informants, on the mood of an elderly client...
January 18, 2018: Tijdschrift Voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349578/in-situ-tissue-labeling-of-cerebral-amyloid-using-hiv-related-tat-peptide
#11
E Maderna, L Colombo, A Cagnotto, G Di Fede, A Indaco, F Tagliavini, M Salmona, G Giaccone
Delivering peptide-based drugs to the brain is a major challenge because of the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To overcome this problem, cell-penetrating peptides derived from proteins that are able to cross biological membranes have been used as cell-permeable and brain-penetrant compounds. An example is the transactivator of transcription protein transduction domain (Tat) of the human immunodeficiency virus. The basic domain of Tat is formed of arginine and lysine amino acid residues. Tat has been used as brain-penetrant carrier also in therapies for Alzheimer disease (AD), the most common form of dementia characterized by extracellular cerebral deposits of amyloid made up of Aβ peptide...
January 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349556/neuropathology-correlates-of-cognitive-assessments
#12
Francesca M Brett, Hugh Kearney
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease and other dementias are the fourth largest contributors to neurological disability and the second largest contributor to deaths from neurological disease. Described in the 1980s as 'the silent epidemic' these disorders principally, though not exclusively, affect persons 80 years or older, and in developed countries, this 'old old' population continues to grow. Definitive diagnosis of the underlying cause of the neurodegenerative disease relies on neuropathological evaluation...
January 18, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348375/-suspected-non-alzheimer-s-disease-pathophysiology-snap-and-its-pathological-backgrounds-in-the-diagnosis-of-preclinical-and-clinical-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Masahito Yamada
Suspected non-Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology (SNAP) is a biomarker-based condition that is found in individuals with normal levels of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) markers (A-) and abnormal levels of markers of neurodegeneration or neuronal injury (N+). SNAP is found in 20-26% of cognitively normal (CN) individuals aged 65 years or older and 17-35% of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Similarly, 7-39% of patients with clinically probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia are negative for Aβ...
January 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347996/the-apathy-in-dementia-methylphenidate-trial-2-admet-2-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Roberta W Scherer, Lea Drye, Jacobo Mintzer, Krista Lanctôt, Paul Rosenberg, Nathan Herrmann, Prasad Padala, Olga Brawman-Mintzer, William Burke, Suzanne Craft, Alan J Lerner, Allan Levey, Anton Porsteinsson, Christopher H van Dyck
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized not only by cognitive and functional decline, but also often by the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Apathy, which can be defined as a lack of motivation, is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD and typically leads to a worse quality of life and greater burden for caregivers. Treatment options for apathy in AD are limited, but studies have examined the use of the amphetamine, methylphenidate. The Apathy in Dementia Methylphenidate Trial (ADMET) found that treatment of apathy in AD with methylphenidate was associated with significant improvement in apathy in two of three outcome measures, some evidence of improvement in global cognition, and minimal adverse events...
January 18, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346523/timed-up-and-go-test-and-future-dementia-occurrence
#15
Ji Eun Lee, Dong Wook Shin, Su-Min Jeong, Ki Young Son, Belong Cho, Jong Lull Yoon, Byung Joo Park, In Soon Kwon, Jinkook Lee, SangYun Kim
Background: This study evaluated whether baseline results of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is associated with future dementia occurrence. Methods: Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort database, we identified 49 283 subjects without a dementia diagnosis who participated in the National Screening Program for Transitional Ages at 66 years of age during 2007-2012. Gait impairment was defined as taking longer than 10 seconds to perform the TUG test...
January 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345724/effects-of-cognitive-training-on-cognition-and-quality-of-life-of-older-persons-with-dementia
#16
Eeva-Liisa Kallio, Hannareeta Öhman, Marja Hietanen, Helena Soini, Timo E Strandberg, Hannu Kautiainen, Kaisu H Pitkälä
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of cognitive training on cognition and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in community-dwelling persons with dementia. DESIGN: Single-blind randomized controlled trial with 3- and 9-month follow-up. SETTING: Adult day care centers in Helsinki, Finland. PARTICIPANTS: Older individuals with mild to moderate dementia living at home and attending adult day care twice a week (N = 147; mean age 83, 72% female, 63% at mild stage of dementia)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345180/depression-among-caregivers-of-patients-with-dementia
#17
Abdullelah S Alfakhri, Ahmed W Alshudukhi, Ali A Alqahtani, Abdulrahman M Alhumaid, Omer A Alhathlol, Abdullah I Almojali, Muteb A Alotaibi, Meshal K Alaqeel
We aimed to assess depressive symptoms in caregivers of patients with dementia, taking into account variables such as severity of dementia, sex, age, and financial state of the patient. We recruited 222 caregivers of patients with dementia from King Abdulaziz Medical City, Saudi Alzheimer's Disease Association, and online, from February to June 2017, and employed the Patient Health Questionnaire to assess depression, and the Blessed Dementia Scale to assess severity of dementia. The prevalence of clinical depression among the caregivers was 14...
January 2018: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345092/-known-unknowns-examining-the-burden-of-neurocognitive-impairment-in-the-end-stage-renal-failure-population
#18
REVIEW
Scott Wilson, Arup Dhar, Peter Tregaskis, Gavin Lambert, David Barton, Rowan Walker
The burden of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in patients receiving maintenance dialysis represents a spectrum of deficits across multiple cognitive domains which are associated with hospitalisation, reduced quality-of-life, mortality and forced decision-making around dialysis withdrawal. Point prevalence data suggests that dialysis patients manifest NCI at rates 3-5 fold higher than the general population with executive function the most commonly affected cognitive domain. The unique physiology of the renal failure state and maintenance dialysis appears to drive an excess of vascular dementia subtype compared to the general population where classical Alzheimer's disease predominates...
January 18, 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344321/fixed-drug-eruption-to-supplement-containing-ginkgo-biloba-and-vinpocetine-a-case-report-and-review-of-related-cutaneous-side-effects
#19
Philip R Cohen
BACKGROUND: Fixed drug eruption is a cutaneous reaction to a systemic agent that typically presents as an annular or oval erythematous patch or blister and subsequently resolves with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation at the site. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and vinpocetine are nutritional supplements used to enhance memory in patients with dementia and age-related memory impairment conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. PURPOSE: To describe a fixed drug eruption in a man who repeatedly developed pruritus and macular erythema on his distal penile shaft after ingesting a natural product containing Ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343976/epidemiology-associated-burden-and-current-clinical-practice-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-japan
#20
REVIEW
William Montgomery, Kaname Ueda, Margaret Jorgensen, Shari Stathis, Yuanyuan Cheng, Tomomi Nakamura
The burden of dementia in Japan is large and growing. With the world's fastest aging population, it is estimated that one in five elderly people will be living with dementia in Japan by 2025. The most common form of dementia is Alzheimer's disease (AD), accounting for around two-thirds of dementia cases. A systematic review was conducted to examine the epidemiology and associated burden of AD in Japan and to identify how AD is diagnosed and managed in Japan. English and Japanese language databases were searched for articles published between January 2000 and November 2015...
2018: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
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