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Alzheimer's dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150331/anti-amyloidogenic-and-anti-apoptotic-effect-of-%C3%AE-bisabolol-against-a%C3%AE-induced-neurotoxicity-in-pc12-cells
#1
Balakrishnan Shanmuganathan, Venkatesan Suryanarayanan, Sethuraman Sathya, Muralidharan Narenkumar, Sanjeev Kumar Singh, Kandasamy Ruckmani, Kasi Pandima Devi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a life-threatening neurodegenerative disorder leading to dementia, with a progressive decline in memory and other thinking skills of elderly populace. Of the multiple etiological factors of AD, the accumulation of senile plaques (SPs) particularly as Aβ oligomers correlates with the relentlessness cognitive impairment in AD patients and play a vital role in AD pathology. Since natural essential oil constituents have successfully served as a source of drugs for AD treatment, the present study aims at the in vitro and in silico investigation of anti-amyloidogenic potential and anti-apoptotic property of the α-bisabolol against Aβ25-35 induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells...
October 10, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150293/a-unique-and-promising-combination-of-medications-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
James D Weinstein
At present there is no therapy for Alzheimer's Disease which completely stops the progressive dementia effecting late onset Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients. It is felt that the main reason for this failure is that AD appears to be a disease caused by four major pathological processes. To date, efforts to develop treatments have addressed only one or another of these four etiologies. However, even a partially effective therapy against one cause allows the others, untreated, to continue their inexorable destruction of the neurons of the brain...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149835/forkhead-transcription-factors-formulating-a-foxo-target-for-cognitive-loss
#3
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: With almost 47 million individuals worldwide suffering from some aspect of dementia, it is clear that cognitive loss impacts a significant proportion of the global population. Unfortunately, definitive treatments to resolve or prevent the onset of cognitive loss are limited. In most cases such care is currently non-existent prompting the need for novel treatment strategies. METHODS: Mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxO) are one such avenue of investigation that offer an exciting potential to bring new treatments forward for disorders that involve cognitive loss...
November 15, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149795/development-of-a-psycho-educational-support-program-for-individuals-with-primary-progressive-aphasia-and-their-care-partners
#4
Darby J Morhardt, Mary C O'Hara, Kristine Zachrich, Christina Wieneke, Emily J Rogalski
Primary progressive aphasia is a language-based dementia that initially spares other cognitive domains; however, aphasia interferes with many life roles such as work and interpersonal relationships. Psycho-educational programs, such as support groups have been shown to be effective for persons with Alzheimer's dementia; however, little is known regarding their effectiveness for persons with primary progressive aphasia. This paper describes the development of a program that offers support, education and activities for persons with primary progressive aphasia and their care-partners and its feasibility...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149791/the-dementia-care-coordination-program-engaging-health-systems-in-caregiver-supports
#5
Pamela Nadash, Nina M Silverstein, Frank Porell
This paper reports on a process evaluation using mixed methods to assess a Dementia Care Coordination Program, which is distinctive in using the medical system, rather than direct outreach, to identify and refer families to supports provided by an Alzheimer's Association chapter via dedicated care consultants. One care consultant received referrals from individual physicians, while the other, employed by a health plan, received referrals from health plan case managers. Through key informant interviews, focus groups, and physician and caregiver surveys, we identified key issues, finding high rates of stakeholder satisfaction, but some practical issues around information sharing and data tracking...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149110/-does-omega-3-supplementation-after-the-age-of-65-influence-cognitive-function-results-of-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
J Baleztena, M Arana, M Bes-Rastrollo, M C Castellanos, M J Gozalo, M Ruiz-Canela
BACKGROUND: The percentage of the older population is progressively increasing as are diseases associated with aging such as cognitive decline (CD) and dementia. Observational epidemiological studies suggest that diets rich in omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (w3-PUFA) might reduce the risk of CD and dementia. The main objective was to assess whether there is sufficient scientific evidence about the relationship between w3-PUFA supplementation in patients aged 65 or older and cognitive performance...
November 17, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147068/the-italian-version-of-the-five-word-test-a-simple-diagnostic-test-for-dementia-due-to-alzheimer-s-disease-in-routine-clinical-practice
#7
Luca Rozzini, Anna Ceraso, Marina Zanetti, Silvia Pelizzari, Evita Tomasoni, Vivian Accardo, Alessandro Padovani
Background: The five-word test (FWT) is a neuropsychological tool (derived from the Grober and Buschke paradigm), measuring hippocampal memory trace consolidation. The study aimed to validate the test for the Italian language and to verify its ability to discriminate patients affected by mild cognitive impairment and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease from healthy matches. Methods: 217 subjects (127 controls, 47 MCI due to AD, and 43 AD) underwent neuropsychological evaluation...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146478/diacylglycerols-as-biomarkers-of-sustained-immune-activation-in-proteinopathies-associated-with-dementia
#8
REVIEW
Paul L Wood, John E Cebak, Randall L Woltjer
Cognitive decline is a devastating clinical condition, heavily correlated with age progression. In the cases of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Lewy body disease, the common neuropathologies are proteinopathies and neuroinflammation. Herein, we review current lipidomics findings and conclude that brain and circulating diacylglycerols represent biomarkers of this ongoing sustained immune response, presumably involving microglia. We further hypothesize that a logical next step will be to evaluate biomarkers of immune activation in a cohort of patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and subsequently attempt to provide therapeutic intervention with anti-inflammatory therapy in MCI patients with immune activation...
November 13, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146111/microrna-expression-patterns-in-human-anterior-cingulate-and-motor-cortex-a-study-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-cases-and-controls
#9
Peter T Nelson, Wang-Xia Wang, Sarah A Janse, Katherine L Thompson
OVERVIEW: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we evaluated the expression of miRNAs in anterior cingulate (AC; Brodmann area [BA] 24) and primary motor (MO; BA 4) cortical tissue from aged human brains in the University of Kentucky AD Center autopsy cohort, with a focus on dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: RNA was isolated from gray matter of brain samples with pathology-defined DLB, AD, AD+DLB, and low-pathology controls, with n=52 cases initially included (n=23 with DLB), all with low (<4hrs) postmortem intervals...
November 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146049/common-and-rare-tbk1-variants-in-early-onset-alzheimer-disease-in-a-european-cohort
#10
Jan Verheijen, Julie van der Zee, Ilse Gijselinck, Tobi Van den Bossche, Lubina Dillen, Bavo Heeman, Estrella Gómez-Tortosa, Albert Lladó, Raquel Sanchez-Valle, Caroline Graff, Pau Pastor, Maria A Pastor, Luisa Benussi, Roberta Ghidoni, Giuliano Binetti, Jordi Clarimon, Alexandre de Mendonça, Ellen Gelpi, Magda Tsolaki, Janine Diehl-Schmid, Benedetta Nacmias, Maria Rosário Almeida, Barbara Borroni, Radoslav Matej, Agustín Ruiz, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Rik Vandenberghe, Peter P De Deyn, Marc Cruts, Christine Van Broeckhoven, Kristel Sleegers
TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) loss-of-function (LoF) mutations are known to cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), often combined with memory deficits early in the disease course. We performed targeted resequencing of TBK1 in 1253 early onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) patients from 8 European countries to investigate whether pathogenic TBK1 mutations are enriched among patients with clinical diagnosis of EOAD. Variant frequencies were compared against 2117 origin-matched controls...
October 25, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145658/characterization-of-detergent-insoluble-proteome-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#11
Jonathan D Cherry, Ahmad Zeineddin, Eric B Dammer, James A Webster, Duc Duong, Nicholas T Seyfried, Allan I Levey, Victor E Alvarez, Bertrand R Huber, Thor D Stein, Patrick T Kiernan, Ann C McKee, James J Lah, Chadwick M Hales
Quantitative proteomics of postmortem human brain can identify dysfunctional proteins that contribute to neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia. Similar studies in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) are limited, therefore we hypothesized that proteomic sequencing of CTE frontal cortex brain homogenates from varying CTE pathologic stages may provide important new insights into this disorder. Quantitative proteomics of control, CTE and AD brains was performed to characterize differentially expressed proteins, and we identified over 4000 proteins in CTE brains, including significant enrichment of the microtubule associated protein tau...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143870/head-to-head-comparison-of-18-f-av-1451-and-18-f-thk5351-for-tau-imaging-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia
#12
Young Kyoung Jang, Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Seongbeom Park, Seung Jun Oh, Hanna Cho, Minyoung Oh, Young Hoon Ryu, Jae Yong Choi, Gil D Rabinovici, Hee Jin Kim, Seung Hwan Moon, Hyemin Jang, Jin San Lee, William J Jagust, Duk L Na, Jae Seung Kim, Sang Won Seo
PURPOSE: Tau accumulation is a core pathologic change in various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration-tau. Recently, tau positron emission tomography tracers such as [(18)F] AV-1451 and [(18)F] THK5351 have been developed to detect tau deposition in vivo. In the present study, we performed a head to head comparison of these two tracers in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia cases and aimed to investigate which tracers are better suited to image tau in these disorders...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143759/the-role-of-food-antioxidants-benefits-of-functional-foods-and-influence-of-feeding-habits-on-the-health-of-the-older-person-an-overview
#13
REVIEW
Douglas W Wilson, Paul Nash, Harpal Singh Buttar, Keith Griffiths, Ram Singh, Fabien De Meester, Rie Horiuchi, Toru Takahashi
This overview was directed towards understanding the relationship of brain functions with dietary choices mainly by older humans. This included food color, flavor, and aroma, as they relate to dietary sufficiency or the association of antioxidants with neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Impairment of olfactory and gustatory function in relation to these diseases was also explored. The role of functional foods was considered as a potential treatment of dementia and Alzheimer's disease through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase as well as similar treatments based on herbs, spices and antioxidants therein...
October 28, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143702/association-between-altered-neurochemical-metabolites-and-apathy-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Yi-Chun Yeh, Chun-Wei Li, Yu-Ting Kuo, Mei-Feng Huang, Tai-Ling Liu, Twei-Shiun Jaw, Yi-Hsin Yang, Kuang-Che Kuo, Cheng-Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Apathy is a condition characterized by a lack of motivation that manifests in emotional, behavioral, and cognitive domains. Although previous studies have indicated that apathy is associated with frontal lesions, few studies have focused on the different subdomains of apathy, and no in vivo human biochemical data have been obtained to examine the neurochemical changes related to apathy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, we investigated the frontal neurochemical alterations related to apathy among patients with AD using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS)...
November 16, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143483/the-impact-of-mental-health-comorbidities-on-adherence-to-buprenorphine-a-claims-based-analysis
#15
Megan Litz, Douglas Leslie
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous research has been inconclusive about whether opioid-dependent patients with psychiatric comorbidities have shorter treatment retention and higher relapse rates. This study aims to evaluate the impact of mental health comorbidities on adherence to buprenorphine using a large, national health insurance claims data base. METHODS: We used MarketScan® data from 2012 to 2014 to perform this analysis. Inclusion criteria included all patients with an opioid use disorder-related ICD-9 code who had been prescribed buprenorphine (n = 2947)...
November 16, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143217/fluid-biomarker-agreement-and-interrelation-in-dementia-due-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Panagiotis Alexopoulos, Jennifer Roesler, Lukas Werle, Nathalie Thierjung, Iliana Lentzari, Marion Ortner, Timo Grimmer, Nikolaos Laskaris, Antonios Politis, Philippos Gourzis, Alexander Kurz, Robert Perneczky
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of β-amyloid 42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau 181 are supposed to be all continuously abnormal in dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD), being the most advanced disease stage. The aim of the present study, which included a monocentric and a multicentric sample (N = 119 and 178, respectively), was to investigate the degree of CSF biomarker agreement and interrelation in AD dementia. Based on previously published cut-off values, biomarker values were categorized as positive or negative for AD (dichotomization strategy) and as either positive, negative, or borderline (trichotomization strategy)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142315/hiv-1-counteracts-an-innate-restriction-by-amyloid-precursor-protein-resulting-in-neurodegeneration
#17
Qingqing Chai, Vladimir Jovasevic, Viacheslav Malikov, Yosef Sabo, Scott Morham, Derek Walsh, Mojgan H Naghavi
While beta-amyloid (Aβ), a classic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia, has long been known to be elevated in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected brain, why and how Aβ is produced, along with its contribution to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains ill-defined. Here, we reveal that the membrane-associated amyloid precursor protein (APP) is highly expressed in macrophages and microglia, and acts as an innate restriction against HIV-1. APP binds the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein, retains it in lipid rafts and blocks HIV-1 virion production and spread...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142140/imaging-and-csf-analyses-effectively-distinguish-cjd-from-its-mimics
#18
Peter Rudge, Harpreet Hyare, Alison Green, John Collinge, Simon Mead
OBJECTIVE: To review clinical and investigation findings in patients referred to a specialist prion clinic who were suspected to have sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) and yet were found to have an alternative final diagnosis. METHODS: Review the clinical findings and investigations in 214 patients enrolled into the UK National Prion Monitoring Cohort Study between October 2008 and November 2015 who had postmortem confirmed sCJD and compare these features with 50 patients referred over the same period who had an alternative final diagnosis (CJD mimics)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141977/vitamins-associated-with-brain-aging-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease-biomarkers-epidemiological-and-experimental-evidence-plausible-mechanisms-and-knowledge-gaps
#19
REVIEW
Michael Fenech
The key to preventing brain aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD) via vitamin intake is first to understand molecular mechanisms, then to deduce relevant biomarkers, and subsequently to test the level of evidence for the impact of vitamins in the relevant pathways and their modulation of dementia risk. This narrative review infers information on mechanisms from gene and metabolic defects associated with MCI and AD, and assesses the role of vitamins using recent results from animal and human studies...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141449/decisions-and-attitudes-regarding-participation-and-proxy-in-clinical-trials-among-patients-with-impaired-cognitive-function
#20
S Stormoen, I M Tallberg, O Almkvist, M Eriksdotter, E Sundström
Background Medical decision-making capacity is impaired in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Medical decision-making capacity depends on many different cognitive functions and varies due to situation and cognitive, social, and emotional status of the patient. Our aim was to analyze dementia patients' capacity to estimate risks and benefits in different clinical trials and determine how cognitive decline affects their attitude toward possible participation and proxy consent. Methods Groups: Alzheimer's disease (n = 20), mild cognitive impairment (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 33)...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
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