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pediatric bacterial meningitis review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463942/diagnostic-practices-for-suspected-community-acquired-central-nervous-system-infection-in-the-post-conjugate-vaccine-era
#1
Natalie Banniettis, Saumya Joshi, Shubhi Kaushik, Stephan Kohlhoff, Margaret R Hammerschlag
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic practices for suspected community-acquired central nervous system (CNS) infection in an urban pediatric population. METHODS: This is an observational, retrospective single-center review of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies in children, 1 month to 21 years old, evaluated for suspected CNS infection from 2004 to 2014. Cases of suspected nosocomial meningitis were excluded. The frequency of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody (NMDAR ab) encephalitis was analyzed from 2010 to 2014...
May 1, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419005/clinical-utility-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-testing-for-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-pediatric-cerebrospinal-fluid-samples-a-diagnostic-accuracy-study-of-more-than-2000-samples-from-2004-2015
#2
Abdullah Alqayoudhi, Maryke Nielsen, Nicola O'Sullivan, Mary Corcoran, Patrick J Gavin, Karina M Butler, Robert Cunney, Richard J Drew
The aim of this retrospective study was to review the diagnostic accuracy of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA in comparison with traditional bacterial culture. The hypothesis was that PCR is more sensitive than culture and would detect more cases of pneumococcal meningitis, particularly in children treated with antimicrobials before CSF sampling occurred. Patients younger than 16 years who had a CSF sample tested for S.pneumoniae DNA by PCR between 2004 and 2015 were included...
April 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382572/current-clinical-trials-on-the-use-of-ceftaroline-in-the-pediatric-population
#3
REVIEW
Adam Corey, Tsz-Yin So
The rate of antibiotic resistance in children continues to rise requiring the use of new antibiotics. Ceftaroline fosamil, a newer-generation cephalosporin, was recently approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in children aged >2 months. Ceftaroline provides coverage against staphylococcal and streptococcal infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae...
April 5, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184287/of-the-phrensy-an-update-on-the-epidemiology-and-pathogenesis-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-the-pediatric-population
#4
REVIEW
Andrew Janowski, Jason Newland
In the past century, advances in antibiotics and vaccination have dramatically altered the incidence and clinical outcomes of bacterial meningitis. We review the shifting epidemiology of meningitis in children, including after the implementation of vaccines that target common meningitic pathogens and the introduction of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis offered to mothers colonized with Streptococcus agalactiae. We also discuss what is currently known about the pathogenesis of meningitis. Recent studies of the human microbiome have illustrated dynamic relationships of bacterial and viral populations with the host, which may potentiate the risk of bacterial meningitis...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452172/clinical-and-pathogenic-analysis-of-507-children-with-bacterial-meningitis-in-beijing-2010-2014
#5
Ling-Yun Guo, Zhi-Xiao Zhang, Xi Wang, Ping-Ping Zhang, Wei Shi, Kai-Hu Yao, Lin-Lin Liu, Gang Liu, Yong-Hong Yang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the clinical characteristics and analyze the pathogens of bacterial meningitis in children. METHODS: Bacterial meningitis cases occurring from January 2010 through December 2014 at Beijing Children's Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. The records of all patients, including data on clinical features and laboratory information, were obtained and analyzed. RESULTS: In total, the cases of 507 pediatric patients seen over a 5-year period were analyzed; 220 of these cases were etiologically confirmed...
September 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26536413/the-impact-of-postmeningitic-labyrinthitis-ossificans-on-speech-performance-after-pediatric-cochlear-implantation
#6
Christopher C Liu, Melissa Sweeney, Timothy N Booth, Kenneth H Lee, Joe W Kutz, Peter Roland, Brandon Isaacson
OBJECTIVE: 1) To characterize pediatric cochlear implant performance in patients with hearing loss secondary to bacterial meningitis. 2) To evaluate performance differences in patients with and without labyrinthitis ossificans (LO). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: A large university-based multidisciplinary cochlear implant program. PATIENTS: Forty-nine patients with hearing loss from bacterial meningitis who received cochlear implants from 1991 to 2011...
December 2015: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24550632/clinical-profile-of-bronchiolitis-in-infants-younger-than-90-days-in-saudi-arabia
#7
Syed Amir Ahmad, Quais Mujawar, Mohammed Al Othman, Hashim Bin Salleh, Mahmoud Abdelhadi Alsarfandi
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is a self-limiting disease of children caused by viral infections of the small airways with a wide spectrum of illness severity. Search of the literature reveals a need for refinement of criteria for testing for concomitant severe bacterial infections as well as appropriate therapeutic interventions for patients <90-day-old diagnosed with clinical bronchiolitis. We believe that a better understanding of the disease spectrum will help optimize health-care delivery to these patients...
January 2014: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24447897/centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-expert-panel-meetings-on-prevention-and-treatment-of-anthrax-in-adults
#8
Katherine A Hendricks, Mary E Wright, Sean V Shadomy, John S Bradley, Meredith G Morrow, Andy T Pavia, Ethan Rubinstein, Jon-Erik C Holty, Nancy E Messonnier, Theresa L Smith, Nicki Pesik, Tracee A Treadwell, William A Bower
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened panels of anthrax experts to review and update guidelines for anthrax postexposure prophylaxis and treatment. The panels included civilian and military anthrax experts and clinicians with experience treating anthrax patients. Specialties represented included internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, infectious disease, emergency medicine, critical care, pulmonology, hematology, and nephrology. Panelists discussed recent patients with systemic anthrax; reviews of published, unpublished, and proprietary data regarding antimicrobial drugs and anthrax antitoxins; and critical care measures of potential benefit to patients with anthrax...
February 2014: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24335463/is-chryseobacterium-indologenes-a-shunt-lover-bacterium-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
Nida Ozcan, Tuba Dal, Alicem Tekin, Selvi Kelekci, Sukran Can, Ozgur Ezin, Idris Kandemir, Kadri Gul
Chryseobacterium indologenes is a non-fermentative Gram-negative bacillus formerly belonging to the Flavobacterium genus. It is widely found in water and soil, also on wet surfaces of the hospital environment. It rarely causes infections and is usually associated with altered immune status or indwelling devices. We present a case of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection caused by C. indologenes in a premature pediatric patient. A six-month-old male infant with congenital hydrocephalus and ventriculoperitoneal shunt was admitted with complaints of irritability, high fever and projectile vomiting...
December 2013: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24188604/pediatric-lumbar-puncture-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-analysis
#10
REVIEW
William Bonadio
BACKGROUND: Lumbar puncture (LP) is a commonly performed procedure in pediatrics. Accurate analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profile is essential in diagnosing and managing a variety of infectious and inflammatory conditions involving the brain, meninges, and spinal cord. It can also provide useful diagnostic information in the evaluation of possible subarachnoid hemorrhage and demyelinating syndromes, and aid in the diagnosis and management of pseudotumor cerebri. OBJECTIVES: To review anatomic, physiologic, and pathologic aspects of performing pediatric lumbar puncture and CSF analysis...
January 2014: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24104957/urinary-tract-infection-in-outpatient-febrile-infants-younger-than-30-days-of-age-a-10-year-evaluation
#11
William Bonadio, Gary Maida
BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of outpatient-diagnosed urinary tract infection (UTI) in consecutive febrile neonates ≤ 30 days of age and correlate demographic, laboratory and radiographic imaging results with infectious etiology. METHODS: Review of medical records of consecutive febrile infants ≤ 30 days of age presenting to an urban pediatric emergency department during a 10-year period, whose policy is to perform a sepsis evaluation (urine culture obtained by bladder catheterization) and hospitalize for parenteral antibiotic therapy pending culture results...
April 2014: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24094835/isolation-of-bacterial-cerebrospinal-fluid-culture-contaminants-at-a-major-military-medical-center
#12
Priscilla H Wong, Ashley M Maranich, Dawn F Muench
In recent decades, bacterial meningitis rates have decreased secondary to the success of routine vaccinations. Ironically, the decreased incidence may contribute to the challenge of establishing accurate and timely diagnoses. Studies have suggested that in immunocompetent patients with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell counts (WBC), positive CSF cultures may be disregarded as presumed contaminants, making the initial CSF WBC increasingly relevant. This single-institution retrospective study sought to integrate clinical data with positive cultures in an era when CSF contaminants may be more commonly isolated in culture than true pathogens...
December 2013: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24043242/predictors-of-serious-bacterial-infections-in-pediatric-burn-patients-with-fever
#13
David Vyles, Madhumita Sinha, David I Rosenberg, Kevin N Foster, Melissa Tran, David Drachman
To determine predictors of serious bacterial infections in pediatric burn patients with fever (core temp ≥38.5°C), the authors conducted a retrospective review of medical records of pediatric (0-18 years) patients admitted to the Arizona Burn Center between 2008 and 2011 with greater than 5% TBSA and inpatient hospitalization for ≥72 hours. The study group comprised patients with a febrile episode during their inpatient stay. Serious bacterial infection (the primary outcome variable) was defined as: bacteremia, urinary tract infection, meningitis (blood, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid culture positive for a pathogen respectively), pneumonia, line, and wound infection...
July 2014: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24000099/a-review-of-the-impact-of-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-conjugate-vaccine-7-valent-on-pneumococcal-meningitis
#14
REVIEW
Myint Tin Tin Htar, Harish Madhava, Paul Balmer, Dina Christopoulou, Damianos Menegas, Eric Bonnet
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis. Young children, the elderly and those who are immunocompromised or who suffer from chronic diseases have the highest risk of developing pneumococcal meningitis. A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was licensed in 2000 in the US and in 2001 in Europe. METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed to identify studies assessing the impact of routine childhood PCV7 vaccination on pneumococcal diseases...
August 2013: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23971270/an-evidence-based-approach-to-managing-acute-otitis-media
#15
REVIEW
Chadd E Nesbit, Margaret C Powers
Acute otitis media is one of the most common pediatric illnesses; however, there is considerable controversy in its management. While most cases are treated with antibiotics, there is a growing concern regarding antibiotic overuse and subsequent drug resistance. Researchers in the Netherlands have developed a "watchful waiting" (ie, an observation approach) that has been successful in treating acute otitis media, although it has not gained widespread popularity in the United States. This review will summarize the latest research on diagnosing acute otitis media as well as different treatment regimens, including the efficacy of the watchful-waiting approach...
April 2013: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23687537/necessity-of-lumbar-puncture-in-patients-presenting-with-new-onset-complex-febrile-seizures
#16
Erin M Fletcher, Ghazala Sharieff
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to characterize the population of patients presenting to a pediatric emergency department (ED) for a first complex febrile seizure, and subsequently assess the rate of acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) occurrence in this population. Furthermore, this study seeks to identify whether a specific subset of patients may be at lesser risk for ABM or other serious neurological disease. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study reviewed the charts of patients between the ages of 6 months to 5 years of age admitted to an ED between 2005 and 2010 for a first complex febrile seizure (CFS)...
May 2013: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23661790/incidence-of-serious-bacterial-infections-in-febrile-children-with-sickle-cell-disease
#17
Nelson H Bansil, Tommy Y Kim, Linh Tieu, Besh Barcega
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of serious bacterial infections in febrile children with sickle cell disease and to describe the outcomes of children discharged from the pediatric emergency department. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 188 febrile patients with sickle cell disease presenting to our pediatric emergency department over a 10-year period. Serious bacterial infection was defined as bacteremia, meningitis, urinary tract infection, osteomyelitis, or pneumonia...
July 2013: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23538645/cronobacter-an-emerging-opportunistic-pathogen-associated-with-neonatal-meningitis-sepsis-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#18
REVIEW
C J Hunter, J F Bean
Members of the genus Cronobacter are an emerging group of opportunist Gram-negative pathogens. This genus was previously thought to be a single species, called Enterobacter sakazakii. Cronobacter spp. typically affect low-birth-weight neonates, causing life-threatening meningitis, sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Outbreaks of disease have been associated with contaminated infant formula, although the primary environmental source remains elusive. Advanced understanding of these bacteria and better classification has been obtained by improved detection techniques and genomic analysis...
August 2013: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23529866/pharmacokinetics-of-antibacterial-agents-in-the-csf-of-children-and-adolescents
#19
REVIEW
Amanda K Sullins, Susan M Abdel-Rahman
The adequate management of central nervous system (CNS) infections requires that antimicrobial agents penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and achieve concentrations in the CNS adequate for eradication of the infecting pathogen. This review details the currently available literature on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antibacterials in the CNS of children. Clinical trials affirm that the physicochemical properties of a drug remain one of the most important factors dictating penetration of antimicrobial agents into the CNS, irrespective of the population being treated (i...
April 2013: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23448849/clinical-presentation-of-patients-with-aseptic-meningitis-factors-influencing-treatment-and-hospitalization-and-consequences-of-enterovirus-cerebrospinal-fluid-polymerase-chain-reaction-testing
#20
Glenn Patriquin, Jill Hatchette, Kevin Forward
INTRODUCTION: Clinical and laboratory features of enteroviral meningitis may overlap with those of bacterial meningitis. In the present retrospective review, we compared features of enteroviral (EV)-positive and -negative patients to determine those that were most influential in admission, discharge and in anti-infective administration. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the records of 117 pediatric and adult patients who underwent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) EV testing over a three-year period...
2012: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
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