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pediatric bacterial meningitis review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669791/retrospective-evaluation-of-infants-aged-1-60-days-with-residual-csf-tested-using-the-filmarray%C3%A2-meningitis-encephalitis-me-panel
#1
Anne J Blaschke, Kristen M Holmberg, Judy A Daly, Amy L Leber, Jennifer Dien Bard, Ernest K Korgenski, Kevin M Bourzac, Kristen J Kanack
In pediatric practice it is common for infants under 2 months of age to undergo evaluation for sepsis when they are ill, often including lumbar puncture (LP) to assess for central nervous system (CNS) infection. The FilmArray® Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) Panel is a newly approved test for rapid identification of CNS pathogens. Our objective was to study the epidemiology of CNS infection in young infants and the potential impact of rapid multiplex PCR on their care.A performance evaluation of the FilmArray ME Panel was conducted from 2/2014-9/2014 at 11 sites...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540454/one-year-in-the-life-of-a-rapid-syndromic-panel-for-meningitis-encephalitis-a-pediatric-tertiary-care-facility-s-experience
#2
Samia N Naccache, Maryann Lustestica, Margil Fahit, Javier Mestas, Jennifer Dien Bard
Early establishment of infectious process allows for expedited clinical management of meningitis and encephalitis. The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (FA-M/E) panel provides rapid detection of potential pathogens associated with encephalitis/meningitis in both immunocompetent and compromised patients. Here we conducted a one year review of the performance of the FA-M/E panel at a tertiary care children's hospital. 265 samples from 251 patients were tested. 87.25% (219/251) were negative, 9.96% (25/251) were positive for viral analytes and 3...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490126/corticosteroid-use-in-management-of-pediatric-emergency-conditions
#3
Asalim Thabet, Tyler Greenfield, Richard M Cantor
Corticosteroids have been used for over half a century to treat various inflammatory disorders; however, their use in many pediatric conditions remains controversial. This issue reviews evidence on corticosteroid treatment in acute asthma exacerbations, croup, acute pharyngitis, anaphylaxis, acute spinal injury, and bacterial meningitis. While corticosteroids are clearly indicated for management of asthma exacerbations and croup, they are not universally recommended for potential spinal cord injury. Due to insufficient data or conflicting data, corticosteroids may be considered in children with acute pharyngitis, anaphylaxis, and bacterial meningitis...
March 2018: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490125/corticosteroid-use-in-management-of-pediatric-emergency-conditions-digest
#4
Asalim Thabet, Tyler Greenfield, Richard M Cantor, Bryan Wilson
Corticosteroids have been used for over half a century to treat various inflammatory disorders; however, their use in many pediatric conditions remains controversial. This issue reviews evidence on corticosteroid treatment in acute asthma exacerbations, croup, acute pharyngitis, anaphylaxis, acute spinal injury, and bacterial meningitis. While corticosteroids are clearly indicated for management of asthma exacerbations and croup, they are not universally recommended for potential spinal cord injury. Due to insufficient data or conflicting data, corticosteroids may be considered in children with acute pharyngitis, anaphylaxis, and bacterial meningitis...
March 1, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406479/application-of-the-rochester-criteria-to-identify-febrile-infants-with-bacteremia-and-meningitis
#5
Paul L Aronson, Russell J McCulloh, Joel S Tieder, Lise E Nigrovic, Rianna C Leazer, Elizabeth R Alpern, Elana A Feldman, Fran Balamuth, Whitney L Browning, Mark I Neuman
OBJECTIVES: The Rochester criteria were developed to identify febrile infants aged 60 days or younger at low-risk of bacterial infection and do not include cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing. Prior studies have not specifically assessed criteria performance for bacteremia and bacterial meningitis (invasive bacterial infection). Our objective was to determine the sensitivity of the Rochester criteria for detection of invasive bacterial infection. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of febrile infants aged 60 days or younger with invasive bacterial infections evaluated at 8 pediatric emergency departments from July 1, 2012, to June 30, 2014...
February 5, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729240/empiric-antibiotic-use-and-susceptibility-in-infants-with-bacterial-infections-a-multicenter-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Elana A Feldman, Russell J McCulloh, Angela L Myers, Paul L Aronson, Mark I Neuman, Miranda C Bradford, Elizabeth R Alpern, Frances Balamuth, Mercedes M Blackstone, Whitney L Browning, Katie Hayes, Rosalynne Korman, Rianna C Leazer, Lise E Nigrovic, Richard Marble, Emily Roben, Derek J Williams, Joel S Tieder
OBJECTIVES: To assess hospital differences in empirical antibiotic use, bacterial epidemiology, and antimicrobial susceptibility for common antibiotic regimens among young infants with urinary tract infection (UTI), bacteremia, or bacterial meningitis. METHODS: We reviewed medical records from infants <90 days old presenting to 8 US children's hospitals with UTI, bacteremia, or meningitis. We used the Pediatric Health Information System database to identify cases and empirical antibiotic use and medical record review to determine infection, pathogen, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns...
July 20, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463942/diagnostic-practices-for-suspected-community-acquired-central-nervous-system-infection-in-the-post-conjugate-vaccine-era
#7
Natalie Banniettis, Saumya Joshi, Shubhi Kaushik, Stephan Kohlhoff, Margaret R Hammerschlag
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic practices for suspected community-acquired central nervous system (CNS) infection in an urban pediatric population. METHODS: This is an observational, retrospective single-center review of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies in children, 1 month to 21 years old, evaluated for suspected CNS infection from 2004 to 2014. Cases of suspected nosocomial meningitis were excluded. The frequency of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody (NMDAR ab) encephalitis was analyzed from 2010 to 2014...
May 1, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419005/clinical-utility-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-testing-for-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-pediatric-cerebrospinal-fluid-samples-a-diagnostic-accuracy-study-of-more-than-2000-samples-from-2004-to-2015
#8
Abdullah Alqayoudhi, Maryke Nielsen, Nicola O'Sullivan, Mary Corcoran, Patrick J Gavin, Karina M Butler, Robert Cunney, Richard J Drew
The aim of this retrospective study was to review the diagnostic accuracy of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA in comparison with traditional bacterial culture. The hypothesis was that PCR is more sensitive than culture and would detect more cases of pneumococcal meningitis, particularly in children treated with antimicrobials before CSF sampling occurred. Patients younger than 16 years of age who had a CSF sample tested for S...
September 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382572/current-clinical-trials-on-the-use-of-ceftaroline-in-the-pediatric-population
#9
REVIEW
Adam Corey, Tsz-Yin So
The rate of antibiotic resistance in children continues to rise requiring the use of new antibiotics. Ceftaroline fosamil, a newer-generation cephalosporin, was recently approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in children aged >2 months. Ceftaroline provides coverage against staphylococcal and streptococcal infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae...
July 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184287/of-the-phrensy-an-update-on-the-epidemiology-and-pathogenesis-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-the-pediatric-population
#10
REVIEW
Andrew Janowski, Jason Newland
In the past century, advances in antibiotics and vaccination have dramatically altered the incidence and clinical outcomes of bacterial meningitis. We review the shifting epidemiology of meningitis in children, including after the implementation of vaccines that target common meningitic pathogens and the introduction of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis offered to mothers colonized with Streptococcus agalactiae. We also discuss what is currently known about the pathogenesis of meningitis. Recent studies of the human microbiome have illustrated dynamic relationships of bacterial and viral populations with the host, which may potentiate the risk of bacterial meningitis...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452172/clinical-and-pathogenic-analysis-of-507-children-with-bacterial-meningitis-in-beijing-2010-2014
#11
Ling-Yun Guo, Zhi-Xiao Zhang, Xi Wang, Ping-Ping Zhang, Wei Shi, Kai-Hu Yao, Lin-Lin Liu, Gang Liu, Yong-Hong Yang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the clinical characteristics and analyze the pathogens of bacterial meningitis in children. METHODS: Bacterial meningitis cases occurring from January 2010 through December 2014 at Beijing Children's Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. The records of all patients, including data on clinical features and laboratory information, were obtained and analyzed. RESULTS: In total, the cases of 507 pediatric patients seen over a 5-year period were analyzed; 220 of these cases were etiologically confirmed...
September 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26536413/the-impact-of-postmeningitic-labyrinthitis-ossificans-on-speech-performance-after-pediatric-cochlear-implantation
#12
Christopher C Liu, Melissa Sweeney, Timothy N Booth, Kenneth H Lee, Joe W Kutz, Peter Roland, Brandon Isaacson
OBJECTIVE: 1) To characterize pediatric cochlear implant performance in patients with hearing loss secondary to bacterial meningitis. 2) To evaluate performance differences in patients with and without labyrinthitis ossificans (LO). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: A large university-based multidisciplinary cochlear implant program. PATIENTS: Forty-nine patients with hearing loss from bacterial meningitis who received cochlear implants from 1991 to 2011...
December 2015: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24550632/clinical-profile-of-bronchiolitis-in-infants-younger-than-90-days-in-saudi-arabia
#13
Syed Amir Ahmad, Quais Mujawar, Mohammed Al Othman, Hashim Bin Salleh, Mahmoud Abdelhadi Alsarfandi
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is a self-limiting disease of children caused by viral infections of the small airways with a wide spectrum of illness severity. Search of the literature reveals a need for refinement of criteria for testing for concomitant severe bacterial infections as well as appropriate therapeutic interventions for patients <90-day-old diagnosed with clinical bronchiolitis. We believe that a better understanding of the disease spectrum will help optimize health-care delivery to these patients...
January 2014: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24447897/centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-expert-panel-meetings-on-prevention-and-treatment-of-anthrax-in-adults
#14
Katherine A Hendricks, Mary E Wright, Sean V Shadomy, John S Bradley, Meredith G Morrow, Andy T Pavia, Ethan Rubinstein, Jon-Erik C Holty, Nancy E Messonnier, Theresa L Smith, Nicki Pesik, Tracee A Treadwell, William A Bower
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened panels of anthrax experts to review and update guidelines for anthrax postexposure prophylaxis and treatment. The panels included civilian and military anthrax experts and clinicians with experience treating anthrax patients. Specialties represented included internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, infectious disease, emergency medicine, critical care, pulmonology, hematology, and nephrology. Panelists discussed recent patients with systemic anthrax; reviews of published, unpublished, and proprietary data regarding antimicrobial drugs and anthrax antitoxins; and critical care measures of potential benefit to patients with anthrax...
February 2014: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24335463/is-chryseobacterium-indologenes-a-shunt-lover-bacterium-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Nida Ozcan, Tuba Dal, Alicem Tekin, Selvi Kelekci, Sukran Can, Ozgur Ezin, Idris Kandemir, Kadri Gul
Chryseobacterium indologenes is a non-fermentative Gram-negative bacillus formerly belonging to the Flavobacterium genus. It is widely found in water and soil, also on wet surfaces of the hospital environment. It rarely causes infections and is usually associated with altered immune status or indwelling devices. We present a case of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection caused by C. indologenes in a premature pediatric patient. A six-month-old male infant with congenital hydrocephalus and ventriculoperitoneal shunt was admitted with complaints of irritability, high fever and projectile vomiting...
December 2013: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24188604/pediatric-lumbar-puncture-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-analysis
#16
REVIEW
William Bonadio
BACKGROUND: Lumbar puncture (LP) is a commonly performed procedure in pediatrics. Accurate analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profile is essential in diagnosing and managing a variety of infectious and inflammatory conditions involving the brain, meninges, and spinal cord. It can also provide useful diagnostic information in the evaluation of possible subarachnoid hemorrhage and demyelinating syndromes, and aid in the diagnosis and management of pseudotumor cerebri. OBJECTIVES: To review anatomic, physiologic, and pathologic aspects of performing pediatric lumbar puncture and CSF analysis...
January 2014: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24104957/urinary-tract-infection-in-outpatient-febrile-infants-younger-than-30-days-of-age-a-10-year-evaluation
#17
William Bonadio, Gary Maida
BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of outpatient-diagnosed urinary tract infection (UTI) in consecutive febrile neonates ≤ 30 days of age and correlate demographic, laboratory and radiographic imaging results with infectious etiology. METHODS: Review of medical records of consecutive febrile infants ≤ 30 days of age presenting to an urban pediatric emergency department during a 10-year period, whose policy is to perform a sepsis evaluation (urine culture obtained by bladder catheterization) and hospitalize for parenteral antibiotic therapy pending culture results...
April 2014: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24094835/isolation-of-bacterial-cerebrospinal-fluid-culture-contaminants-at-a-major-military-medical-center
#18
Priscilla H Wong, Ashley M Maranich, Dawn F Muench
In recent decades, bacterial meningitis rates have decreased secondary to the success of routine vaccinations. Ironically, the decreased incidence may contribute to the challenge of establishing accurate and timely diagnoses. Studies have suggested that in immunocompetent patients with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell counts (WBC), positive CSF cultures may be disregarded as presumed contaminants, making the initial CSF WBC increasingly relevant. This single-institution retrospective study sought to integrate clinical data with positive cultures in an era when CSF contaminants may be more commonly isolated in culture than true pathogens...
December 2013: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24043242/predictors-of-serious-bacterial-infections-in-pediatric-burn-patients-with-fever
#19
David Vyles, Madhumita Sinha, David I Rosenberg, Kevin N Foster, Melissa Tran, David Drachman
To determine predictors of serious bacterial infections in pediatric burn patients with fever (core temp ≥38.5°C), the authors conducted a retrospective review of medical records of pediatric (0-18 years) patients admitted to the Arizona Burn Center between 2008 and 2011 with greater than 5% TBSA and inpatient hospitalization for ≥72 hours. The study group comprised patients with a febrile episode during their inpatient stay. Serious bacterial infection (the primary outcome variable) was defined as: bacteremia, urinary tract infection, meningitis (blood, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid culture positive for a pathogen respectively), pneumonia, line, and wound infection...
July 2014: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24000099/a-review-of-the-impact-of-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-conjugate-vaccine-7-valent-on-pneumococcal-meningitis
#20
REVIEW
Myint Tin Tin Htar, Harish Madhava, Paul Balmer, Dina Christopoulou, Damianos Menegas, Eric Bonnet
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis. Young children, the elderly and those who are immunocompromised or who suffer from chronic diseases have the highest risk of developing pneumococcal meningitis. A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was licensed in 2000 in the US and in 2001 in Europe. METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed to identify studies assessing the impact of routine childhood PCV7 vaccination on pneumococcal diseases...
August 2013: Advances in Therapy
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