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Principals of medical education

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904637/development-and-initial-psychometric-evaluation-of-the-hospitalization-related-stressors-questionnaire-for-elderly-patients
#1
Zahra Musavi, Mousa Alavi, Nasrollah Alimohammadi, Habibollah Hosseini
BACKGROUND: Various factors threaten the health and recovery of hospitalized elderly, including stressors in medical service centers. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop and preliminary validate a measurement tool to assess hospitalization-related stressors (HRS) among the elderly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This methodological research was conducted in 2015. The study was performed in two main phases. In the first phase, which was to develop the questionnaire, the data were collected through literature review, interview with few elderly patients, and calculating content validity index with the participation of 16 experts...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894730/living-with-chronic-pain-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-mixed-methods-study
#2
Eva Widerström-Noga, Kimberly D Anderson, Salomé Perez, Judith P Hunter, Alberto Martinez-Arizala, James P Adcock, Maydelis Escalona
OBJECTIVE: To identify the relative importance of positive (facilitators) and negative (barriers) contributors to living with chronic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Mixed-methods: (1) Qualitative: Individual semi-structured, open-ended interviews identifying facilitator/barrier themes; (2) Quantitative: Converting the most common themes into statements and quantifying agreement with these in an online survey to determine relative importance, underlying dimensions and their associations with perceived difficulty in dealing with pain...
November 25, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871179/validating-competencies-for-an-undergraduate-training-program-in-rural-medicine-using-the-delphi-technique
#3
Eneline Ah Gouveia, Taciana D Braga, Sandra A Heráclio, Bruno Henrique S Pessoa
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide,<b> </b>half the population lives in rural or remote areas; however, less than 25% of doctors work in such regions. Despite the continental dimensions of Brazil and its enormous cultural diversity, only some medical schools in this country offer students the opportunity to acquire work experience focused on medicine in rural or remote areas. The objective of the present study was to develop a framework of competencies for a longitudinal medical training program in rural medicine as an integrated part of medical training in Brazil...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824260/underrepresented-minorities-in-medical-school-admissions-a-qualitative-study
#4
Margaret A Hadinger
: Phenomenon: This study explored Black/African American and Hispanic/Latino medical students' perceptions of the medical school admissions process. Previous research has explored other elements of the medical education continuum. However, little is known regarding minorities' perceptions of navigating the medical school admissions process. To address this gap in the literature, this exploratory study suggests a conceptual model describing why minorities apply to medical school and the influences affecting their admissions experience...
November 8, 2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802178/impostor-syndrome-and-burnout-among-american-medical-students-a-pilot-study
#5
Jennifer A Villwock, Lindsay B Sobin, Lindsey A Koester, Tucker M Harris
Objectives: To describe levels of burnout and impostor syndrome (IS) in medical students, and to recognize demographic differences in those experiencing burnout and IS. Methods: Research participants included 2,612 medical students who entered Jefferson Medical College between 2002 and 2012. This sample was divided into two groups: Matriculants between 2002 and 2007 (n=1,380) and between 2008 and 2012 (n=1,232). Data for 2002-2007 matriculants were subjected to EFA (principal component factor extraction), and data for matriculants of 2008-2012 were used for CFA (structural equation modeling, and root mean square error for approximation)...
October 31, 2016: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798553/misuse-of-opioids-in-orthopaedic-post-operative-patients
#6
Gangavalli Anup, Malige Ajith, Terres George, Rehman Saqib, Nwachuku Chinenye
OBJECTIVE: In light of the recent uptrend in the prescription of opioids, this study seeks to identify patterns of opioid misuse among orthopaedic post-operative patients and principal external sources in obtaining these medications. DESIGN: Ten-month survey based study. SETTING: Two Level-I trauma centers (urban and suburban). PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: 207 patients between the ages of 18 to 89 years who underwent surgical fixation of fractures involving the pelvis, long bones or peri-articular regions of the knee, ankle, elbow and wrist...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796130/-use-of-the-short-5-item-version-of-the-who-well-being-questionnaire-in-first-year-students-of-semmelweis-university
#7
Mariann Dinyáné Szabó, Gabriella Pusztai
INTRODUCTION: Studies on well-being of students in higher education are in the centre of international research interest, because adult health as a value plays an important role in the life of future generation. AIM: The authors studied variables that affect the value of well-being (satisfaction with life, student success, satisfaction with academic infrastructure, sports and financial situation of parents) among medical and health science students starting their studies...
October 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708005/leadership-and-the-medical-registrar-how-can-organisations-support-these-unsung-heroes
#8
Tim Blake, Andrew Whallett
Medical registrars have been described as the 'workhorses' of National Health Service hospitals, being at the interface of acute and chronic health services. They are expected to demonstrate effective leadership skills. There are concerns from the Royal College of Physicians that medical registrars are being overwhelmed and unsupported by organisations, and are struggling in their ability to provide safe, high-quality patient care. Junior colleagues are also being deterred by general medical specialties by the prospect of becoming the 'Med Reg'...
October 5, 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695331/predicting-episodic-memory-performance-using-different-biomarkers-results-from-argentina-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative
#9
María Julieta Russo, Gabriela Cohen, Patricio Chrem Mendez, Jorge Campos, Federico E Nahas, Ezequiel I Surace, Silvia Vazquez, Deborah Gustafson, Salvador Guinjoan, Ricardo F Allegri, Gustavo Sevlever
PURPOSE: Argentina-Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (Arg-ADNI) is the first ADNI study to be performed in Latin America at a medical center with the appropriate infrastructure. Our objective was to describe baseline characteristics and to examine whether biomarkers related to Alzheimer's disease (AD) physiopathology were associated with worse memory performance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen controls and 28 mild cognitive impairment and 13 AD dementia subjects were included...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677640/exploring-the-reasons-why-pharmacists-dispense-antibiotics-without-prescriptions-in-khartoum-state-sudan
#10
Anas M A Salim, Bashir Elgizoli
OBJECTIVES: The principal aim of this study was to explore the perspectives of community pharmacists in Khartoum State, Sudan about why they dispense antibiotics without prescription, and to understand their opinions about why they think patients self-medicate. METHODS: This was a qualitative exploratory interview study. Individual, in-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 30 community pharmacists working in Khartoum State, Sudan in the period from May to June 2015...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644621/cancer-screening-knowledge-and-attitudes-of-under-and-post-graduate-students-at-kasr-al-ainy-school-of-medicine-cairo-university-egypt
#11
Amal Samir Sedrak, Yasmine Samir Galal, Tarek Tawfik Amin
BACKGROUND: Increasing knowledge and awareness of cancer screening significantly influence health promotion behavior which could markedly reduce incidence rates. In many countries, health care providers are the principal source of information concerning cancer screening. This study was carried out to assess the level of knowledge concerning cancer screening among medical students, house officers and residents and to explore their attitude towards cancer screening practices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Kasr Al Ainy Medical School at Cairo University in Egypt, with 300 undergraduate medical students and 150 postgraduates (interns and residents) enrolled...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620854/socioeconomic-disparities-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-prevalence-and-self-management-behaviors-in-rural-southwest-china
#12
Cai Le, Su Rong, You Dingyun, Cui Wenlong
BACKGROUND: This study examines how socioeconomic factors are associated with prevalence and self-management of diabetes among ethnic minority groups in the rural Yunnan province, which has the most ethnic minority groups per province in southwest China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2014 in a rural southwest population consisting of 5532 consenting individuals aged ⩾35years. Information about participants' demographic characteristics, as well as diabetes diagnosis, treatment, and self-management behaviors, were obtained using a standard questionnaire...
August 31, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613898/access-to-subsidized-smoking-cessation-medications-by-australian-smokers-aged-45-years-and-older-a-population-based-cohort-study
#13
Adam Skinner, Alys Havard, Duong Thuy Tran, Louisa R Jorm
INTRODUCTION: The principal aim of this study was to assess the accessibility of subsidized cessation medications to socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers, including smokers living in regional and remote communities. METHODS: Analyses used baseline questionnaire and linked Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme data for 18 686 regular smokers participating in the 45 and Up Study, a large-scale Australian cohort study of people aged 45 years and older. Participants who were dispensed nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, or bupropion were identified from the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme data, which provide an essentially complete record of participants' access to subsidized pharmaceuticals...
August 1, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605679/deconstructing-chronic-low-back-pain-in-the-older-adult-step-by-step-evidence-and-expert-based-recommendations-for-evaluation-and-treatment-part-x-sacroiliac-joint-syndrome
#14
Patrick J Polsunas, Gwendolyn Sowa, Julie M Fritz, Angela Gentili, Natalia E Morone, Srinivasa Naga Raja, Eric Rodriguez, Kenneth Schmader, Joel D Scholten, Debra K Weiner
OBJECTIVE: To present an algorithm of sequential treatment options for managing sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain in the setting of chronic low back pain (CLBP) in the older adult. This is the tenth part in a series, and includes an illustrative clinical case. METHODS: The stepped care drug table and evaluation and treatment algorithm were created following a thorough literature review of approaches and subsequent analysis through a modified Delphi process. The principal investigator developed the initial draft, which was refined for content by an interdisciplinary panel of five experts...
September 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562892/a-typology-of-longitudinal-integrated-clerkships
#15
Paul Worley, Ian Couper, Roger Strasser, Lisa Graves, Beth-Ann Cummings, Richard Woodman, Pamela Stagg, David Hirsh
CONTEXT: Longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs) represent a model of the structural redesign of clinical education that is growing in the USA, Canada, Australia and South Africa. By contrast with time-limited traditional block rotations, medical students in LICs provide comprehensive care of patients and populations in continuing learning relationships over time and across disciplines and venues. The evidence base for LICs reveals transformational professional and workforce outcomes derived from a number of small institution-specific studies...
September 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492339/development-and-preliminary-psychometric-properties-of-the-general-practitioner-attitudes-and-confidence-scale-gpacs-d-for-dementia
#16
Ron L Mason, Michael J Annear, Amanda Lo, Fran McInerney, Laura T Tierney, Andrew L Robinson
BACKGROUND: International evidence suggests that dementia is under-diagnosed in the community and that General Practitioners (GPs) are often reluctant to engage to their fullest capability with patients who exhibit cognitive symptoms. This is potentially reflected by a lack of GP knowledge about the syndrome. However, it is also recognised that attitudes and confidence are important in relation to how and to what extent a GP approaches a person with dementia. This research sought to develop a reliable and valid measure of GPs attitudes and confidence towards dementia...
2016: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462282/cross-validation-of-the-spanish-hp-version-of-the-jefferson-scale-of-empathy-confirmed-with-some-cross-cultural-differences
#17
Adelina Alcorta-Garza, Montserrat San-Martín, Roberto Delgado-Bolton, Jorge Soler-González, Helena Roig, Luis Vivanco
CONTEXT: Medical educators agree that empathy is essential for physicians' professionalism. The Health Professional Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE-HP) was developed in response to a need for a psychometrically sound instrument to measure empathy in the context of patient care. Although extensive support for its validity and reliability is available, the authors recognize the necessity to examine psychometrics of the JSE-HP in different socio-cultural contexts to assure the psychometric soundness of this instrument...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402044/experiences-of-medical-students-who-are-first-in-family-to-attend-university
#18
Caragh Brosnan, Erica Southgate, Sue Outram, Heidi Lempp, Sarah Wright, Troy Saxby, Gillian Harris, Anna Bennett, Brian Kelly
CONTEXT: Students from backgrounds of low socio-economic status (SES) or who are first in family to attend university (FiF) are under-represented in medicine. Research has focused on these students' pre-admission perceptions of medicine, rather than on their lived experience as medical students. Such research is necessary to monitor and understand the potential perpetuation of disadvantage within medical schools. OBJECTIVES: This study drew on the theory of Bourdieu to explore FiF students' experiences at one Australian medical school, aiming to identify any barriers faced and inform strategies for equity...
August 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384109/measuring-moral-courage-for-interns-and-residents-scale-development-and-initial-psychometrics
#19
William Martinez, Sigall K Bell, Jason M Etchegaray, Lisa Soleymani Lehmann
PURPOSE: To develop a practical and psychometrically sound set of survey items that measures moral courage for physicians in the context of patient care. METHOD: In 2013, the 731 internal medicine and surgical interns and residents from two northeastern U.S. academic medical centers were invited to anonymously complete a survey about moral courage, empathy, and speaking up about patient safety breaches. RESULTS: Of the eligible participants, 352 (48%) responded...
July 5, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382268/methods-to-reduce-prescribing-errors-in-elderly-patients-with-multimorbidity
#20
REVIEW
Amanda H Lavan, Paul F Gallagher, Denis O'Mahony
The global population of multimorbid older people is growing steadily. Multimorbidity is the principal cause of complex polypharmacy, which in turn is the prime risk factor for inappropriate prescribing and adverse drug reactions and events. Those who prescribe for older frailer multimorbid people are particularly prone to committing prescribing errors of various kinds. The causes of prescribing errors in this patient population are multifaceted and complex, including prescribers' lack of knowledge of aging physiology, geriatric medicine, and geriatric pharmacotherapy, overprescribing that frequently leads to major polypharmacy, inappropriate prescribing, and inappropriate drug omission...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
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