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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938794/association-between-plant-based-diets-and-plasma-lipids-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Yoko Yokoyama, Susan M Levin, Neal D Barnard
Context: Although a recent meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials showed that adoption of a vegetarian diet reduces plasma lipids, the association between vegetarian diets and long-term effects on plasma lipids has not been subjected to meta-analysis. Objective: The aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies and clinical trials that have examined associations between plant-based diets and plasma lipids. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for articles published in English until June 2015...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938772/susceptibility-to-keel-bone-fractures-in-laying-hens-and-the-role-of-genetic-variation
#2
Laura Candelotto, Ariane Stratmann, Sabine G Gebhardt-Henrich, Christina Rufener, Teun van de Braak, Michael J Toscano
Keel bone fractures are a well-known welfare problem in modern commercial laying hen systems. The present study sought to identify genetic variation in relation to keel bone fracture susceptibility of 4 distinct crossbred and one pure line, and by extension, possible breeding traits. Susceptibility to fractures were assessed using an ex vivo impact testing protocol in combination with a study design that minimized environmental variation to focus on genetic differences. The 5 crossbred/pure lines differed in their susceptibility to keel bone fractures with the greatest likelihood of fracture in one of the 3 commercial lines and the lowest susceptibility to fractures in one of the experimental lines...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938751/new-permeable-cryoprotectant-free-vitrification-method-for-native-human-sperm
#3
J Aizpurua, L Medrano, M Enciso, J Sarasa, A Romero, M A Fernández, M J Gómez-Torres
STUDY QUESTION: Is permeable cryoprotectant-free vitrification of native sperm samples a good alternative to conventional slow freezing? SUMMARY ANSWER: The permeable cryoprotectant-free sperm vitrification protocol tested in this study renders considerably better recovery rates of good quality sperm compared to slow freezing. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Slow freezing is currently the most commonly used technique for sperm cryopreservation, though this method has been repeatedly shown to have negative effects on both structural and functional sperm features...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938714/lash-responds-to-is-reproducibility-thwarted-by-hypothesis-testing-and-the-need-for-cognitive-science-in-methodology
#4
Timothy L Lash
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938712/invited-commentary-the-need-for-cognitive-science-in-methodology
#5
Sander Greenland
There is no complete solution for the problem of abuse of statistics, but methodological training needs to cover cognitive biases and other psychosocial factors affecting inferences. The present paper discusses 3 common cognitive distortions: 1) dichotomania, the compulsion to perceive quantities as dichotomous even when dichotomization is unnecessary and misleading, as in inferences based on whether a P value is "statistically significant"; 2) nullism, the tendency to privilege the hypothesis of no difference or no effect when there is no scientific basis for doing so, as when testing only the null hypothesis; and 3) statistical reification, treating hypothetical data distributions and statistical models as if they reflect known physical laws rather than speculative assumptions for thought experiments...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938657/a-network-meta-analysis-on-the-efficacy-of-targeted-agents-in-combination-with-chemotherapy-for-treatment-of-advanced-metastatic-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#6
Long Ge, Yan Tang, Qiu-Ning Zhang, Jin-Hui Tian, Xiao-Hu Wang, Dawid Pieper, Bei Pan, Lun Li, Juan Ling, Zhi-Tong Bing, Ke-Hu Yang
OBJECTIVE: Our network meta-analysis aimed to determine the assistant efficacy of targeted therapy in combined with chemotherapy for advanced/metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). RESULTS: A total of 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), involving 2,410 patients, met our inclusion criteria. Eight targeted agents involving 11 treatment arms were included. The methodological quality of included RCTs was acceptable. The results of direct comparisons showed that progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly longer with bevacizumab+chemotherapy when compared to chemotherapy alone (hazard ratio [HR] = 0...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938590/ocular-toxicities-associated-with-targeted-anticancer-agents-an-analysis-of-clinical-data-with-management-suggestions
#7
Chen Fu, Dan S Gombos, Jared Lee, Goldy C George, Kenneth Hess, Andrew Whyte, David S Hong
Ocular toxicities are among the most common adverse events resulting from targeted anticancer agents and are becoming increasingly relevant in the management of patients on these agents. The purpose of this study is to provide a framework for management of these challenging toxicities based on objective data from FDA labels and from analysis of the literature. All oncologic drugs approved by the FDA up to March 14, 2015, were screened for inclusion. A total of 16 drugs (12 small-molecule drugs and 4 monoclonal antibodies) were analyzed for ocular toxicity profiles based on evidence of ocular toxicity...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938513/increased-anterior-default-mode-network-homogeneity-in-first-episode-drug-naive-major-depressive-disorder-a-replication-study
#8
Wenbin Guo, Xilong Cui, Feng Liu, Jindong Chen, Guangrong Xie, Renrong Wu, Zhikun Zhang, Huafu Chen, Jingping Zhao
BACKGROUND: Abnormal default-mode network (DMN) homogeneity has been involved in the neurophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) with inconsistent findings. The inconsistency may be due to clinical and methodological variability, and the reproducibility of the findings is limited. The present study aimed to examine alterations of the DMN homogeneity in two independent samples of patients with first-episode, drug-naive MDD. METHODS: The samples included 59 patients with MDD and 31 comparison subjects from Sample 1 and 29 patients with MDD and 24 comparison subjects from Sample 2...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938425/linking-stress-and-infertility-a-novel-role-for-ghrelin
#9
Luba Sominsky, Deborah M Hodgson, Eileen A McLaughlin, Roger Smith, Hannah M Wall, Sarah J Spencer
Infertility affects a remarkable one in four couples in developing countries. Psychological stress is a ubiquitous facet of life, and while stress affects us all at some point, prolonged or unmanageable stress may become harmful for some individuals, negatively impacting on their health, including fertility. For instance, women who struggle to conceive are twice as likely to suffer from emotional distress than fertile women. Assisted reproductive technology treatments place an additional physical, emotional and financial burden of stress, particularly on women, who are often exposed to invasive techniques associated with treatment...
July 27, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938326/progress-on-botulinum-toxin-type-a-induced-pain-relief-in-the-field-of-plastics
#10
Xiaona Lu, Guocheng Chen, Pengjie Ren, Yan Yang, Fei Fan
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of Botulinum Toxin Type A (BTX-A) injections relieve pain in the field of plastic surgery and postoperative rehabilitation, and discuss the analgesic mechanism of BTX- A in plastics and related research progress. METHODS: From appearance to September 1, 2016, PUBMED, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched, using the key words related to "Botulinum Toxin Type A" and "Pain." Furtherly, nonplastic surgery-related literature was excluded by manual screening...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938253/guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-critical-illness-related-corticosteroid-insufficiency-circi-in-critically-ill-patients-part-i-society-of-critical-care-medicine-sccm-and-european-society-of-intensive-care-medicine-esicm-2017
#11
Djillali Annane, Stephen M Pastores, Bram Rochwerg, Wiebke Arlt, Robert A Balk, Albertus Beishuizen, Josef Briegel, Joseph Carcillo, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Mark S Cooper, Paul E Marik, Gianfranco Umberto Meduri, Keith M Olsen, Sophia C Rodgers, James A Russell, Greet Van den Berghe
OBJECTIVE: To update the 2008 consensus statements for the diagnosis and management of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) in adult and pediatric patients. PARTICIPANTS: A multispecialty task force of 16 international experts in critical care medicine, endocrinology, and guideline methods, all of them members of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and/or the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. DESIGN/METHODS: The recommendations were based on the summarized evidence from the 2008 document in addition to more recent findings from an updated systematic review of relevant studies from 2008 to 2017 and were formulated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology...
September 21, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938186/electrochemiluminescence-resonance-energy-transfer-system-between-gnrs-and-ru-bpy-3-2-application-in-magnetic-aptasensor-for-%C3%AE-amyloid
#12
Hong Ke, Haifeng Sha, Yinfang Wang, Weiwei Guo, Xin Zhang, Zhiming Wang, Chusen Huang, Nengqin Jia
Electrochemiluminescent (ECL) assay has gradually drawn increasing interest in the biomedical analysis. This paper proposed a new methodology for ultrasensitive and facile detection of Alzheimer's disease marker β-amyloid (Aβ) by fabricating a sandwich-type ECL sensing platform. Herein, electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) was employed to determine Aβ concentration, which can be attributed to the quenching effect from RET between Ru(bpy)3(2+) and gold nanorods (GNRs) acting as ECL-RET electron donor and acceptor, respectively...
September 14, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938154/massively-parallel-sequencing-of-forensic-strs-and-snps-using-the-illumina-%C3%A2-forenseq%C3%A2-dna-signature-prep-kit-on-the-miseq-fgx%C3%A2-forensic-genomics-system
#13
Fei Guo, Jiao Yu, Lu Zhang, Jun Li
The ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit (ForenSeq Kit) is designed to detect more than 200 forensically relevant markers in a single reaction on the MiSeq FGx™ Forensic Genomics System (MiSeq FGx System), including Amelogenin, 27 autosomal short tandem repeats (A-STRs), 7 X chromosomal STRs (X-STRs), 24 Y chromosomal STRs (Y-STRs) and 94 identity-informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (iSNPs) with the option to contain 22 phenotypic-informative SNPs (pSNPs) and 56 ancestry-informative SNPs (aSNPs). In this study, we evaluated the MiSeq FGx System on three major parts: methodological optimization (DNA extraction, sample quantification, library normalization, diluted libraries concentration, and sample-to-cell arrangement), massively parallel sequencing (MPS) performance (depth of coverage, sequence coverage ratio, and allele coverage ratio), and ForenSeq Kit characteristics (repeatability and concordance, sensitivity, mixture, stability and case-type samples)...
September 8, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938073/transfer-learning-from-markov-models-leads-to-efficient-sampling-of-related-systems
#14
Mohammad Muneeb Sultan, Vijay S Pande
We recently showed that the time-structure based independent component analysis method from Markov state model literature provided a set of variationally optimal slow collective variables for Metadynamics (tICA-Metadynamics). In this paper, we extend the methodology towards efficient sampling of related mutants by borrowing ideas from transfer learning methods in machine learning. Our method explicitly assumes that a similar set of slow modes and metastable states are found in both the wild type (base line) and its mutants...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938002/regional-endothermy-as-a-trigger-for-gigantism-in-some-extinct-macropredatory-sharks
#15
Humberto G Ferrón
Otodontids include some of the largest macropredatory sharks that ever lived, the most extreme case being Otodus (Megaselachus) megalodon. The reasons underlying their gigantism, distribution patterns and extinction have been classically linked with climatic factors and the evolution, radiation and migrations of cetaceans during the Paleogene. However, most of these previous proposals are based on the idea of otodontids as ectothermic sharks regardless of the ecological, energetic and body size constraints that this implies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937993/anaesthesia-not-number-of-sessions-influences-the-magnitude-and-duration-of-an-ahf-rtms-in-dogs
#16
Robrecht Dockx, Kathelijne Peremans, Lise Vlerick, Nick Van Laeken, Jimmy H Saunders, Ingeborgh Polis, Filip De Vos, Chris Baeken
BACKGROUND: Currently, the rat has been a useful animal model in brain stimulation research. Nevertheless, extrapolating results from rodent repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) research to humans contains several hurdles. This suggests the desperate need for a large animal model in translational rTMS research. The dog would be a valid choice, not only due to the fact that humans and dogs share a neurophysiological background, but a similar neuropathological background as well...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937962/portable-functional-neuroimaging-as-an-environmental-epidemiology-tool-a-how-to-guide-for-the-use-of-fnirs-in-field-studies
#17
Joseph M Baker, Daniel Rojas-Valverde, Randall Gutiérrez, Mirko Winkler, Samuel Fuhrimann, Brenda Eskenazi, Allan L Reiss, Ana M Mora
The widespread application of functional neuroimaging within the field of environmental epidemiology has the potential to greatly enhance our understanding of how environmental toxicants affect brain function. Because many epidemiological studies take place in remote and frequently changing environments, it is necessary that the primary neuroimaging approach adopted by the epidemiology community be robust to many environments, easy to use, and, preferably, mobile. Here, we outline our use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to collect functional brain imaging data from Costa Rican farm workers enrolled in an epidemiological study on the health effects of chronic pesticide exposure...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937953/the-biological-basis-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-following-blast-injury-a-literature-review
#18
Matt Aldag, Regina C Armstrong, Faris Bandak, Patrick S F Bellgowan, Timothy Bentley, Sean Biggerstaff, Katrina Caravelli, Joan Cmarik, Alicia Crowder, Thomas J DeGraba, Travis A Dittmer, Richard G Ellenbogen, Colin Greene, Raj K Gupta, Ramona Hicks, Stuart Hoffman, Robert C Latta, Michael J Leggieri, Donald Marion, Robert Mazzoli, Michael McCrea, John O'Donnell, Mark Packer, James B Petro, Todd E Rasmussen, Wendy Sammons-Jackson, Richard Shoge, Victoria Tepe, Ladd A Tremaine, James Zheng
The United States Department of Defense Blast Injury Research Program Coordinating Office organized the 2015 International State-of-the-Science meeting to explore links between blast-related head injury and the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Before the meeting, the planning committee examined articles published between 2005 and October 2015 and prepared this literature review, which summarized broadly CTE research and addressed questions about the pathophysiological basis of CTE and its relationship to blast- and nonblast-related head injury...
September 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937891/barriers-and-drawbacks-of-the-assessment-of-dental-fear-dental-anxiety-and-dental-phobia-in-children-a-critical-literature-review
#19
N A Aminabadi, Marzieh Shokravi, Zahra Jamali, Sajjad Shirazi
OBJECTIVE: Dental anxiety, fear and phobia have different etiology, response patterns, time courses, and intensities that justify a clear distinction between these constructs. Differentiation of dental anxiety, fear or phobia in practice is a critical prerequisite for developing and implementing effective treatment for children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether current researches in the pediatric dentistry appropriately discriminate the central construct of dental anxiety, fear and phobia...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937865/recall-of-the-real-cost-anti-smoking-campaign-is-specifically-associated-with-endorsement-of-campaign-targeted-beliefs
#20
Elissa C Kranzler, Laura A Gibson, Robert C Hornik
Though previous research suggests the FDA's "The Real Cost" anti-smoking campaign has reduced smoking initiation, the theorized pathway of effects (through targeted beliefs) has not been evaluated. This study assesses the relationship between recall of campaign television advertisements and ad-specific anti-smoking beliefs. Respondents in a nationally representative survey of nonsmoking youths age 13-17 (n = 4,831) reported exposure to four The Real Cost advertisements and a fake ad, smoking-relevant beliefs, and nonsmoking intentions...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
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