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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545249/regulatory-and-safety-requirements-for-food-cultures
#1
REVIEW
Svend Laulund, Anette Wind, Patrick M F Derkx, Véronique Zuliani
The increased use of food cultures to ferment perishable raw materials has potentiated the need for regulations to assess and assure the safety of food cultures and their uses. These regulations differ from country to country, all aimed at assuring the safe use of food cultures which has to be guaranteed by the food culture supplier. Here we highlight national differences in regulations and review a list of methods and methodologies to assess the safety of food cultures at strain level, at production, and in the final product...
May 23, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545232/sensors-and-actuators-on-determining-parameters-for-being-considered-in-selection-of-elastomers-for-biomimetic-hands
#2
Vlad Cârlescu, Dumitru N Olaru, Gheorghe Prisăcaru, Cezar Oprişan, José Machado
In this paper, the authors present a new methodology to study the viscoelastic behaviour of the human finger. The methodology is based on experimental research consisting of a finger's indentation with a small steel cylindrical object for various indentation speeds. The tests were realized on a CETR UMT-2 Tribometer for indentation speed between 0.02 mm/s and 4 mm/s with a normal load of up to 22 N. Using the force-deformation diagrams recorded at the smallest indentation speed determined the elastic modulus of the human finger according to an adapted Hertzian model...
May 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545155/rapid-diagnostic-tests-for-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-enteric-fever
#3
REVIEW
Lalith Wijedoru, Sue Mallett, Christopher M Parry
BACKGROUND: Differentiating both typhoid (Salmonella Typhi) and paratyphoid (Salmonella Paratyphi A) infection from other causes of fever in endemic areas is a diagnostic challenge. Although commercial point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for enteric fever are available as alternatives to the current reference standard test of blood or bone marrow culture, or to the widely used Widal Test, their diagnostic accuracy is unclear. If accurate, they could potentially replace blood culture as the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended main diagnostic test for enteric fever...
May 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545117/on-tests-of-treatment-covariate-interactions-an-illustration-of-appropriate-power-and-sample-size-calculations
#4
Gwowen Shieh
The appraisals of treatment-covariate interaction have theoretical and substantial implications in all scientific fields. Methodologically, the detection of interaction between categorical treatment levels and continuous covariate variables is analogous to the homogeneity of regression slopes test in the context of ANCOVA. A fundamental assumption of ANCOVA is that the regression slopes associating the response variable with the covariate variable are presumed constant across treatment groups. The validity of homogeneous regression slopes accordingly is the most essential concern in traditional ANCOVA and inevitably determines the practical usefulness of research findings...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544951/clinical-balance-scales-indicate-worse-postural-control-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease-who-exhibit-freezing-of-gait-compared-to-those-who-do-not-a-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Esther M J Bekkers, Bauke W Dijkstra, Kim Dockx, Elke Heremans, Sabine M P Verschueren, Alice Nieuwboer
Postural instability and freezing of gait (FOG) are key features of Parkinson's disease (PD) that are closely related to falls. Uncovering the postural control differences between individuals with and without FOG contributes to our understanding of the relationship between these phenomena. The objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate whether postural control deficits, as detected by clinical balance scales, were more apparent in FOG+ compared to FOG-. Furthermore, we aimed to identify whether different scales were equally sensitive to detect postural control deficits and whether medication affected postural control differentially in each subgroup...
May 11, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544890/hybrid-neuro-heuristic-methodology-for-simulation-and-control-of-dynamic-systems-over-time-interval
#6
Marcin Woźniak, Dawid Połap
Simulation and positioning are very important aspects of computer aided engineering. To process these two, we can apply traditional methods or intelligent techniques. The difference between them is in the way they process information. In the first case, to simulate an object in a particular state of action, we need to perform an entire process to read values of parameters. It is not very convenient for objects for which simulation takes a long time, i.e. when mathematical calculations are complicated. In the second case, an intelligent solution can efficiently help on devoted way of simulation, which enables us to simulate the object only in a situation that is necessary for a development process...
May 5, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544863/how-social-status-shapes-person-perception-and-evaluation-a-social-neuroscience-perspective
#7
Bradley D Mattan, Jennifer T Kubota, Jasmin Cloutier
Inferring the relative rank (i.e., status) of others is essential to navigating social hierarchies. A survey of the expanding social psychological and neuroscience literatures on status reveals a diversity of focuses (e.g., perceiver vs. agent), operationalizations (e.g., status as dominance vs. wealth), and methodologies (e.g., behavioral, neuroscientific). Accommodating this burgeoning literature on status in person perception, the present review offers a novel social neuroscientific framework that integrates existing work with theoretical clarity...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544858/effects-of-resistance-training-on-performance-in-previously-trained-endurance-runners-a-systematic-review
#8
Manuel Alcaraz-Ibañez, Manuel Rodríguez-Pérez
The aim of this work was to identify, synthesize and evaluate the results of randomized controlled trials examining the effects of resistance training on performance indicators in previously trained endurance runners. A database search was carried out in PubMed, Science Direct, OvidSPMedLine, Wiley, Web of Science, ProQuest and Google Scholar. In accordance with the PRISMA checklist, 18 published articles dated prior to May 2016 involving 321 endurance runners were reviewed using the PEDro scale. Resistance training led to general improvements in muscular strength, running economy, muscle power factors, and direct performance in distances between 1,500 and 10,000 m...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544847/theoretical-determination-of-band-edge-alignments-at-the-water-cuins2-112-semiconductor-interface
#9
Thomas P Senftle, Emily A Carter
Knowledge of a semiconductor electrode's band edge alignment is essential for optimizing processes that occur at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. Photocatalytic processes are particularly sensitive to such alignments, as they govern the transfer of photo-excited electrons or holes from the surface to reactants in the electrolyte solution. Reconstructions of a semiconductor surface during operation, as well as its interaction with the electrolyte solution, must be considered when determining band edge alignment...
May 25, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544674/direct-hydroxylation-of-benzene-to-phenol-by-cytochrome-p450bm3-triggered-by-amino-acid-derivatives
#10
Osami Shoji, Sota Yanagisawa, Joshua Kyle Stanfield, Kazuto Suzuki, Zhiqi Cong, Hiroshi Sugimoto, Yoshitsugu Shiro, Yoshihito Watanabe
Selective hydroxylation of benzene to phenol, without formation of side products resulting from overoxidation, was catalyzed by cytochrome P450BM3 (P450BM3) with the assistance of amino acid derivatives as decoy molecules. The catalytic turnover rate and the total turnover number reached 259 min-1P450BM3-1 and 40,200 P450BM3-1 when N-heptyl-L-proline modified with L-phenyl alanine (C7-L-Pro-L-Phe) was used as the decoy molecule. This work shows that amino acid derivatives that have a totally different structure from fatty acids can be used as decoy molecules for aromatic hydroxylation by wild-type P450BM3...
May 22, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544643/adaptations-to-endurance-training-depend-on-exercise-induced-oxidative-stress-exploiting-redox-inter-individual-variability
#11
Nikos V Margaritelis, Anastasios A Theodorou, Vassilis Paschalis, Aristidis S Veskoukis, Konstantina Dipla, Andreas Zafeiridis, George Panayiotou, Ioannis S Vrabas, Antonios Kyparos, Michalis G Nikolaidis
AIM: The aim of the present study was to reveal the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in exercise adaptations under physiological in vivo conditions and without the interference from other exogenous redox agents (e.g., a pro-oxidant or antioxidant). METHODS: We invented a novel methodological set-up that exploited the large redox inter-individual variability in exercise responses. More specifically, we used exercise-induced oxidative stress as the "classifier" measure (i...
May 24, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544641/reflectance-spectroscopy-to-shed-new-light-on-the-capillary-refill-test
#12
Rani Toll John, Joakim Henricson, Gert E Nilsson, Daniel Wilhelms, Chris D Anderson
To use Bioengineering methodology is used to achieve, at five anatomical sites, a detailed, quantitative assessment of the return of blood content to the blanched area, during the Capillary Refill (CR) test. An observational, non-randomized, experimental study on 23 healthy subjects (14 females) was performed in our climate controlled skin physiology laboratory. Our main outcome measures were based on the chronological assessment and quantification of red blood cell concentration (RBC) after the release of blanching pressure in the CR test, using Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi), a digital photographic technique based on polarisation spectroscopy...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544514/dynamic-enhancer-function-in-the-chromatin-context
#13
REVIEW
Ido Goldstein, Gordon L Hager
Enhancers serve as critical regulatory elements in higher eukaryotic cells. The characterization of enhancer function has evolved primarily from genome-wide methodologies, including chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq), DNase-I hypersensitivity (DNase-seq), digital genomic footprinting (DGF), and the chromosome conformation capture techniques (3C, 4C, and Hi-C). These population-based assays average signals across millions of cells and lead to enhancer models characterized by static and sequential binding...
May 22, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544497/cell-tracking-using-gold-nanoparticles-and-computed-tomography-imaging
#14
REVIEW
Rinat Meir, Rachela Popovtzer
Cell-based therapies utilize transplantation of living cells with therapeutic traits to alleviate numerous diseases and disorders. The use of such biological agents is an attractive alternative for diseases that existing medicine cannot effectively treat. Although very promising, translating cell therapy to the clinic has proven to be challenging, due to inconsistent results in preclinical and clinical studies. To examine the underlying cause for these inconsistencies, it is crucial to noninvasively monitor the accuracy of cell injection, and cell survival and migration patterns...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544494/4-substituted-thieno-2-3-d-pyrimidines-as-potent-antibacterial-agents-rational-design-microwave-assisted-synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-molecular-docking-studies
#15
Rupinder K Gill, Harpreet Singh, Tilak Raj, Anuradha Sharma, Gagandeep Singh, Jitender Bariwal
In an attempt to discover a new class of antibacterial agents with improved efficacy and to overcome the drug resistant problems, some novel 4-substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines have been synthesized via microwave assisted methodology and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against various pathogenic bacterial strains. Compounds 12b and 13c showed the promising inhibitory potencies against S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa and E. coli with MICs ranging from 2 to 10 μg/ml. Compound 13c was also found to be highly potent against methicillin resistant S...
May 23, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544481/matching-phenotypes-to-whole-genomes-lessons-learned-from-four-iterations-of-the-personal-genome-project-community-challenges
#16
Binghuang Cai, Biao Li, Nikki Kiga, Janita Thusberg, Timothy Bergquist, Yun-Ching Chen, Noushin Niknafs, Hannah Carter, Collin Tokheim, Violeta Beleva-Guthrie, Christopher Douville, Rohit Bhattacharya, Hui Ting Grace Yeo, Jean Fan, Sohini Sengupta, Dewey Kim, Melissa Cline, Tychele Turner, Mark Diekhans, Jan Zaucha, Lipika R Pal, Chen Cao, Chen-Hsin Yu, Yizhou Yin, Marco Carraro, Manuel Giollo, Carlo Ferrari, Emanuela Leonardi, Silvio C E Tosatto, Jason Bobe, Madeleine Ball, Roger Hoskins, Susanna Repo, George Church, Steven E Brenner, John Moult, Julian Gough, Mario Stanke, Rachel Karchin, Sean D Mooney
The advent of next generation sequencing has dramatically decreased the cost for whole genome sequencing and increased the viability for its application in research and clinical care. The Personal Genome Project (PGP) provides unrestricted access to genomes of individuals and their associated phenotypes. This resource enabled the Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI) to create a community challenge to assess the bioinformatics community's ability to predict traits from whole genomes. In CAGI PGP challenge, researchers were asked to predict whether an individual had a particular trait or profile based on their whole genome...
May 23, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544472/engineering-muscle-cell-alignment-through-3d-bioprinting
#17
Pamela Mozetic, Sara Maria Giannitelli, Manuele Gori, Marcella Trombetta, Alberto Rainer
Processing of hydrogels represents a main challenge for the prospective application of additive manufacturing (AM) to soft tissue engineering. Furthermore, direct manufacturing of tissue precursors with a cell density similar to native tissues has the potential to overcome the extensive in vitro culture required for conventional cell-seeded scaffolds seeking to fabricate constructs with tailored structural and functional properties. In this work, we present a simple AM methodology that exploits the thermoresponsive behavior of a block copolymer (Pluronic®) as a means to obtain good shape retention at physiological conditions and to induce cellular alignment...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544435/solid-renal-masses-in-transplanted-allograft-kidneys-a-closer-look-at-the-epidemiology-and-management
#18
John J Griffith, Katherine A Amin, Nikhil Waingankar, Susan M Lerner, Veronica Delaney, Scott A Ames, Ketan Badani, Michael A Palese, Reza Mehrazin
The objective of this review is to explore the available literature on solid renal masses (SRM) in transplant allograft kidneys to better understand the epidemiology and management of these tumors. A literature review using PubMed was performed according to the PRISMA methodology. Fifty-six relevant studies were identified from 1988-2015. A total of 174 SRMs in 163 patients, were identified with a mean tumor size of 2.75 cm (0.5-9.0cm). Tumor histology was available in 164 (94.3%) tumors: clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (45...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544416/global-analysis-of-strategies-to-tackle-antimicrobial-resistance
#19
Funke Adeniji
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health issue driven by inappropriate use of antimicrobials resulting in decreased efficacy on the background of an extremely limited pipeline for new antibiotics. We sought to analyse the effectiveness of key policies and strategies in tackling AMR globally and identify gaps in these. METHOD: The scope, magnitude, history and drivers of AMR were reviewed using supporting evidence. Our methodology included a literature review and semi-structured survey, whilst the analyses process was guided by an adapted health policy analyses framework...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544320/influence-of-radial-versus-femoral-access-site-on-coronary-angiography-and-intervention-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Michael I Brener, Aaron Bush, Julie M Miller, Rani K Hasan
OBJECTIVES: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCT) to compare procedural outcomes between radial access (RA) and femoral access (FA). BACKGROUND: Recent RCTs suggest RA for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention reduces bleeding complications, but controversy exists regarding other benefits and risks relative to FA. METHODS: Searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, LILACS, and major conference abstracts identified relevant studies published from 1985-2016...
May 25, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
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