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pediatric bacterial meningitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600447/the-epidemiology-management-and-outcomes-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-infants
#1
Lynda Ouchenir, Christian Renaud, Sarah Khan, Ari Bitnun, Andree-Anne Boisvert, Jane McDonald, Jennifer Bowes, Jason Brophy, Michelle Barton, Joseph Ting, Ashley Roberts, Michael Hawkes, Joan L Robinson
OBJECTIVES: The pathogens that cause bacterial meningitis in infants and their antimicrobial susceptibilities may have changed in this era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, use of conjugated vaccines, and maternal antibiotic prophylaxis for group B Streptococcus (GBS). The objective was to determine the optimal empirical antibiotics for bacterial meningitis in early infancy. METHODS: This was a cohort study of infants <90 days of age with bacterial meningitis at 7 pediatric tertiary care hospitals across Canada in 2013 and 2014...
June 9, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472006/concomitant-bacterial-meningitis-in-infants-with-urinary-tract-infection
#2
Joanna Thomson, Andrea T Cruz, Lise E Nigrovic, Stephen B Freedman, Aris C Garro, Paul T Ishimine, Dina M Kulik, Neil G Uspal, Kendra L Grether-Jones, Aaron S Miller, David Schnadower, Samir S Shah
To determine age-stratified prevalence of concomitant bacterial meningitis in infants ≤ 60 days with a urinary tract infection (UTI), we performed a 23-center retrospective study of 1,737 infants with UTI. Concomitant bacterial meningitis was rare, but more common in infants 0-28 days (0.9%, 95% CI: 0.4-1.9%) compared with infants 29-60 days (0.2%, 95% CI: 0-0.8%).
May 2, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471865/correction-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-protein-in-infants-with-traumatic-lumbar-punctures
#3
Todd W Lyons, Andrea T Cruz, Stephen B Freedman, Joseph L Arms, Paul L Aronson, Alesia H Fleming, Dina M Kulik, Prashant Mahajan, Rakesh D Mistry, Christopher M Pruitt, Amy D Thompson, Lise Nigrovic
In our multi-center cohort of infants ≤ 60 days of age, we identified 2,646 infants with a traumatic lumbar puncture of which 31 (1.2%) had bacterial meningitis. For every 1,000 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) red blood cells per mm, cerebrospinal (CSF) protein increased 1.1 mg/dL [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.2 mg/dL].
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463942/diagnostic-practices-for-suspected-community-acquired-central-nervous-system-infection-in-the-post-conjugate-vaccine-era
#4
Natalie Banniettis, Saumya Joshi, Shubhi Kaushik, Stephan Kohlhoff, Margaret R Hammerschlag
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic practices for suspected community-acquired central nervous system (CNS) infection in an urban pediatric population. METHODS: This is an observational, retrospective single-center review of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies in children, 1 month to 21 years old, evaluated for suspected CNS infection from 2004 to 2014. Cases of suspected nosocomial meningitis were excluded. The frequency of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody (NMDAR ab) encephalitis was analyzed from 2010 to 2014...
May 1, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456490/pediatric-bacterial-meningitis-in-japan-2013-2015-3-5-years-after-the-wide-use-of-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-conjugated-vaccines
#5
Masayoshi Shinjoh, Yoshio Yamaguchi, Satoshi Iwata
BACKGROUND: Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV) have been widely used since 2010 in Japan when both vaccines were supported by the regional governments, and they were covered as routine recommended vaccines in 2013. The incidence of bacterial meningitis due to these organisms decreased in 2011 and 2012, but meningitis due to Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli remained unchanged. OBJECTIVES: We planned to confirm whether the incidence also decreased in subsequent years...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419005/clinical-utility-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-testing-for-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-pediatric-cerebrospinal-fluid-samples-a-diagnostic-accuracy-study-of-more-than-2000-samples-from-2004-2015
#6
Abdullah Alqayoudhi, Maryke Nielsen, Nicola O'Sullivan, Mary Corcoran, Patrick J Gavin, Karina M Butler, Robert Cunney, Richard J Drew
The aim of this retrospective study was to review the diagnostic accuracy of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA in comparison with traditional bacterial culture. The hypothesis was that PCR is more sensitive than culture and would detect more cases of pneumococcal meningitis, particularly in children treated with antimicrobials before CSF sampling occurred. Patients younger than 16 years who had a CSF sample tested for S.pneumoniae DNA by PCR between 2004 and 2015 were included...
April 17, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382572/current-clinical-trials-on-the-use-of-ceftaroline-in-the-pediatric-population
#7
REVIEW
Adam Corey, Tsz-Yin So
The rate of antibiotic resistance in children continues to rise requiring the use of new antibiotics. Ceftaroline fosamil, a newer-generation cephalosporin, was recently approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in children aged >2 months. Ceftaroline provides coverage against staphylococcal and streptococcal infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae...
April 5, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298206/burden-and-spectrum-of-bacterial-infections-among-sickle-cell-disease-children-living-in-cameroon
#8
Anastasie Nicole Alima Yanda, Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Hubert Désiré Mbassi Awa, Sandra A Tatah, Judith Seungue, Charlotte Eposse, Paul Olivier N Koki
BACKGROUND: Although sickle cell disease (SCD) children are highly susceptible to bacterial infections (BIs), there is a dreadful lack of data related to the burden and spectrum of BIs in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the highest affected region with SCD. This study aimed to determine the burden and spectrum of BIs among SCD children hospitalized in a pediatric reference hospital in Cameroon, a SSA country. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of records of children hospitalized from November 2012 to August 2015 in the SCD unit of the Mother and Child Centre of the Chantal Biya Foundation, Cameroon...
March 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259480/do-all-children-who-present-with-a-complex-febrile-seizure-need-a-lumbar-puncture
#9
Romain Guedj, Hélène Chappuy, Luigi Titomanlio, Loic De Pontual, Sandra Biscardi, Gisèle Nissack-Obiketeki, Béatrice Pellegrino, Oussama Charara, François Angoulvant, Julien Denis, Corinne Levy, Robert Cohen, Solène Loschi, Pierre Louis Leger, Ricardo Carbajal
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We assess the prevalences of bacterial meningitis and herpes simplex virus meningoencephalitis (HSV-ME) in children with a complex febrile seizure and determine these prevalences in the subgroup of children with a clinical examination result not suggestive of meningitis or encephalitis. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study was conducted in 7 pediatric emergency departments (EDs) in the region of Paris, France. Visits of patients aged 6 months to 5 years for a complex febrile seizure from January 2007 to December 2011 were analyzed...
March 1, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216208/a-rare-case-of-pediatric-lumbar-spinal-ependymoma-mimicking-meningitis
#10
Ezeali Mike Ekuma, Kiyoshi Ito, Akihiro Chiba, Yosuke Hara, Kohei Kanaya, Tetsuyoshi Horiuchi, Samuel Ohaegbulam, Kazuhiro Hongo
Spontaneous acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from lumbar ependymoma in children is rare. We report a case of a 14-year-old boy who developed sudden radicular low back pain while playing baseball. He was initially managed conservatively in a local hospital for suspected lumbar disc herniation, but he later developed meningeal symptoms and fever before being referred to our hospital. He underwent a diagnostic lumbar puncture in the emergency department; his cerebrospinal fluid suggested an SAH. Physical examination showed meningeal signs and cauda equina features...
April 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184287/of-the-phrensy-an-update-on-the-epidemiology-and-pathogenesis-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-the-pediatric-population
#11
REVIEW
Andrew Janowski, Jason Newland
In the past century, advances in antibiotics and vaccination have dramatically altered the incidence and clinical outcomes of bacterial meningitis. We review the shifting epidemiology of meningitis in children, including after the implementation of vaccines that target common meningitic pathogens and the introduction of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis offered to mothers colonized with Streptococcus agalactiae. We also discuss what is currently known about the pathogenesis of meningitis. Recent studies of the human microbiome have illustrated dynamic relationships of bacterial and viral populations with the host, which may potentiate the risk of bacterial meningitis...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182657/modeling-the-potential-for-vaccination-to-diminish-the-burden-of-invasive-non-typhoidal-salmonella-disease-in-young-children-in-mali-west-africa
#12
Kristin Bornstein, Laura Hungerford, David Hartley, John D Sorkin, Milagritos D Tapia, Samba O Sow, Uma Onwuchekwa, Raphael Simon, Sharon M Tennant, Myron M Levine
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, systematic surveillance of young children with suspected invasive bacterial disease (e.g., septicemia, meningitis) has revealed non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) to be a major pathogen exhibiting high case fatality (~20%). Where infant vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae has been introduced to prevent invasive disease caused by these pathogens, as in Bamako, Mali, their burden has decreased markedly. In parallel, NTS has become the predominant invasive bacterial pathogen in children aged <5 years...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115875/pediatric-endogenous-haemophilus-influenzae-endophthalmitis-with-presumed-hyposplenism
#13
Masatoshi Haruta, Yumiko Yoshida, Ryoji Yamakawa
BACKGROUND: Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis is a rare but potentially devastating intraocular infection that can have severe sight-threatening complications. Most patients with endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis have underlying infectious conditions, such as diabetes or malignancy, which predispose them to infection. CASE REPORT: A 1-year-old girl presented with cloudiness of the right eye. Ocular examination showed a cloudy cornea in the right eye with conjunctival injection and hypopyon...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041826/interpretation-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-white-blood-cell-counts-in-young-infants-with-a-traumatic-lumbar-puncture
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
Todd W Lyons, Andrea T Cruz, Stephen B Freedman, Mark I Neuman, Fran Balamuth, Rakesh D Mistry, Prashant Mahajan, Paul L Aronson, Joanna E Thomson, Christopher M Pruitt, Samir S Shah, Lise E Nigrovic
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We determine the optimal correction factor for cerebrospinal fluid WBC counts in infants with traumatic lumbar punctures. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort of infants aged 60 days or younger and with a traumatic lumbar puncture (cerebrospinal fluid RBC count ≥10,000 cells/mm(3)) at 20 participating centers. Cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis was defined as a cerebrospinal fluid WBC count greater than or equal to 20 cells/mm(3) for infants aged 28 days or younger and greater than or equal to 10 cells/mm(3) for infants aged 29 to 60 days; bacterial meningitis was defined as growth of pathogenic bacteria from cerebrospinal fluid culture...
May 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935825/microglia-activation-in-a-pediatric-rabbit-model-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#15
Elizabeth W Tucker, Supriya Pokkali, Zhi Zhang, Vincent P DeMarco, Mariah Klunk, Elizabeth S Smith, Alvaro A Ordonez, Marie-France Penet, Zaver Bhujwalla, Sanjay K Jain, Sujatha Kannan
Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary TB and disproportionately affects young children where the developing brain has a unique host response. New Zealand white rabbits were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis via subarachnoid inoculation at postnatal day 4-8 and evaluated until 4-6 weeks post-infection. Control and infected rabbit kits were assessed for the development of neurological deficits, bacterial burden, and postmortem microbiologic and pathologic changes...
December 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925848/hospitalizations-for-pneumonia-invasive-diseases-and-otitis-in-tuscany-italy-2002-2014-which-was-the-impact-of-universal-pneumococcal-pediatric-vaccination
#16
Sara Boccalini, Ornella Varone, Martina Chellini, Luca Pieri, Antonino Sala, Cesare Berardi, Paolo Bonanni, Angela Bechini
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main causative organism of acute media otitis in children and meningitis and bacterial pneumonia in the community. Since 2008 in Tuscany, central Italy, the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7-valent vaccine, switched to 13-valent vaccine in 2010) was actively offered free of charge to all newborns. Aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of pneumococcal pediatric vaccination in the Tuscan population on hospitalizations potentially caused by S. pneumoniae, during pre-vaccination (PVP, 2002-2007) and vaccination period (VP, 2009-2014)...
February 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902653/meningococcal-disease-in-children-in-argentina-a-3-year-active-sentinel-hospital-surveillance-study
#17
Ángela Gentile, Julia Bakir, María Rosa Agosti, Gabriela Ensinck, Hector Abate, Andrea Gajo Gane, Alejandro Santillán Iturres, Adriana Efron, Mabel Regueira, Ricardo Rüttimann
BACKGROUND: Meningococcal disease (MD) is a medical emergency and a serious public health problem. As new meningococcal vaccines become available, MD surveillance is crucial to provide baseline epidemiologic data before implementing preventive measures. We estimated MD incidence and epidemiology in Argentina using hospital-based surveillance. METHODS: Three-year prospective active surveillance in patients ≤15 years of age was conducted at 6 pediatric hospital sentinel units (March 2012 to February 2015)...
March 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887787/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-vegf-and-platelet-derived-growth-factor-pdgf-levels-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-children-with-influenza-associated-encephalopathy
#18
Shinichiro Morichi, Natsumi Morishita, Mika Takeshita, Yu Ishida, Shingo Oana, Gaku Yamanaka, Yasuyo Kashiwagi, Hisashi Kawashima
INTRODUCTION: To search for an index of neurologic prognosis of children with influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE), involvement of angiogenesis-related growth factors in the pathology was investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The subjects were 11 IAE patients, 6 patients with bacterial meningitis (BM), and 24 patients with non-central nervous system infection as a control group admitted to our hospital. The correlation between the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) levels in cerebrospinal fluid and the relationship with an index of inflammatory marker, interleukin (IL)-6, were investigated...
February 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879558/impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-selected-head-and-neck-infections-in-hospitalized-israeli-children
#19
Tal Marom, Shiran Bookstein Peretz, Orna Schwartz, Abraham Goldfarb, Yahav Oron, Sharon Ovnat Tamir
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen of pediatric head and neck infections (HNIs), for example, acute otitis media (AOM), acute mastoiditis, acute bacterial sinusitis and meningitis. The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of pneumococcal HNIs (pHNIs) before, during and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). METHODS: Children 0-16 years of age, who were hospitalized with HNIs in the pediatrics department in a general hospital between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2014, were retrospectively identified...
March 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832151/nationwide-trends-in-bacterial-meningitis-before-the-introduction-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-burkina-faso-2011-2013
#20
Dinanibè Kambiré, Heidi M Soeters, Rasmata Ouédraogo-Traoré, Isaïe Medah, Lassana Sangare, Issaka Yaméogo, Guetawendé Sawadogo, Abdoul-Salam Ouédraogo, Soumeya Hema-Ouangraoua, Lesley McGee, Velusamy Srinivasan, Flavien Aké, Malika Congo-Ouédraogo, Soufian Sanou, Absatou Ky Ba, Ryan T Novak, Chris Van Beneden
BACKGROUND: Following introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in 2006 and serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) became the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in Burkina Faso. We describe bacterial meningitis epidemiology, focusing on pneumococcal meningitis, before 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction in the pediatric routine immunization program in October 2013. METHODS: Nationwide population-based meningitis surveillance collects case-level demographic and clinical information and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory results...
2016: PloS One
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