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hepatotoxins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746979/benthic-periphyton-from-pennsylvania-usa-are-a-source-for-both-hepatotoxins-microcystins-nodularin-and-neurotoxins-anatoxin-a-homoanatoxin-a
#1
Amanda J Foss, Jeffery Butt, Mark T Aubel
In 2016, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection conducted a limited survey of streams in the Susquehanna River basin in Pennsylvania, USA, to screen for microcystins/nodularins and anatoxin-a (ATX) and homoanatoxin-a (HTX). Testing revealed the presence of HTX in samples collected from the Pine Creek basin, with ATX present at lower levels. Microcystins/nodularins (MCs/NODs) were also tested and found to be concomitant, with NOD-R confirmed present by LC-MS/MS.
May 7, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735893/phytochemistry-antioxidant-and-hepatoprotective-potential-of-acanthospermum-hispidum-dc-extracts-against-diethylnitrosamine-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-rats
#2
Jotham Yhi-Pênê N'do, Adama Hilou, Noufou Ouedraogo, Ernest Nogma Sombie, Tata Kadiatou Traore
Background: Burkina Faso is classified among the countries with a high prevalence (˃12%) of hepatitis. Hepatic diseases, such as cirrhosis—related to alcoholism—and hepatitis B and C, are the cause of the increase in cases of liver cancer. They promote the development of cancer by decreasing the natural cell death, causing problems with DNA repair, or by increasing the production of free radical toxins to the cell. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there were nearly 639,000 deaths from liver cancer worldwide in 2014, hence the need to search for natural hepatoprotective molecules...
May 7, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713599/-caralluma-umbellata-haw-protects-liver-against-paracetamol-toxicity-and-inhibits-cyp2e1
#3
Pavan Kumar Bellamakondi, Ashok Godavarthi, Mohammed Ibrahim
Introduction: Paracetamol is a potent hepatotoxin and may cause severe acute hepatocellular injury. The present study was intended to assess the hepatoprotective potential of Caralluma umbellata Haw. (Asclepiadaceae) ( C. umbellata ) against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Methods: Preliminary analysis for antioxidant and hepatoprotective property was evaluated for methanolic (MCU), aqueous (ACU) and hydro methanolic (HCU) extracts of C. umbellata using in vitro cell-free antioxidant such as DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation models and cell-based hepatoprotective study using BRL3A cells...
2018: BioImpacts: BI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652856/temperature-effects-explain-continental-scale-distribution-of-cyanobacterial-toxins
#4
Evanthia Mantzouki, Miquel Lürling, Jutta Fastner, Lisette de Senerpont Domis, Elzbieta Wilk-Wo Zniak
Insight into how environmental change determines the production and distribution of cyanobacterial toxins is necessary for risk assessment. Management guidelines currently focus on hepatotoxins (microcystins). Increasing attention is given to other classes, such as neurotoxins (e.g., anatoxin-a) and cytotoxins (e.g., cylindrospermopsin) due to their potency. Most studies examine the relationship between individual toxin variants and environmental factors, such as nutrients, temperature and light. In summer 2015, we collected samples across Europe to investigate the effect of nutrient and temperature gradients on the variability of toxin production at a continental scale...
April 13, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618704/pinelliae-rhizoma-praeparatum-involved-in-the-regulation-of-bile-acids-metabolism-in-hepatic-injury
#5
Shun Guo, Song Zhang, Linna Liu, Peng Yang, Xueliang Dang, Huamei Wei, Na Hu, Lei Shi, Yan Zhang
Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum (PRP) as traditional Chinese medicine had been used for hepatic diseases in combinative forms. However, the effect of PRP was not clear when used alone. So to explore the hepatoprotective/hepatotoxin of PRP is necessary. The activities of PRP were investigated in acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury mice. Liver function markers, hepatic oxidative stress markers were evaluated. Bile acids metabolic transports and Nrf2 were detected. As a drug for the treatment of liver diseases, PRP slightly restored the parameters towards normal in model mice only in low dosage, and also had no antioxidant activity and regulate Nrf2...
April 4, 2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582253/development-of-a-droplet-digital-pcr-assay-for-population-analysis-of-aflatoxigenic-and-atoxigenic-aspergillus-flavus-mixtures-in-soil
#6
Sui Sheng T Hua, Jeffrey D Palumbo, Dan E Parfitt, Siov Bouy L Sarreal, Teresa L O'Keeffe
Aflatoxin B1 is a potent hepatotoxin and carcinogen that poses a serious safety hazard to both humans and animals. Aspergillus flavus is the most common aflatoxin-producing species on corn, cotton, peanuts, and tree nuts. Application of atoxigenic strains to compete against aflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus has emerged as one of the most practical strategies for ameliorating aflatoxin contamination in food. Genes directly involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis are clustered on an 82-kb region of the genome. Three atoxigenic strains (CA12, M34, and AF123) were each paired with each of four aflatoxigenic strains (CA28, CA42, CA90, and M52), inoculated into soil and incubated at 28 °C for 2 weeks and 1 month...
March 26, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580866/pyruvate-dehydrogenase-complex-and-lactate-dehydrogenase-as-targets-for-therapy-of-acute-liver-failure
#7
Rosa Ferriero, Edoardo Nusco, Rossella De Cegli, Annamaria Carissimo, Giuseppe Manco, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute liver failure is a rapidly progressive deterioration of hepatic function resulting in high mortality and morbidity. Metabolic enzymes can translocate in the nucleus to regulate histone acetylation and gene expression. METHODS: Levels and activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated in nuclear fractions of livers of mice exposed to various hepatotoxins including CD95-Ab, α-amanitin, and acetaminophen...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574498/pond-bank-access-as-an-approach-for-managing-toxic-cyanobacteria-in-beef-cattle-pasture-drinking-water-ponds
#8
Alan E Wilson, Michael F Chislock, Zhen Yang, Mário U G Barros, John F Roberts
Forty-one livestock drinking water ponds in Alabama beef cattle pastures during were surveyed during the late summer to generally understand water quality patterns in these important water resources. Since livestock drinking water ponds are prone to excess nutrients that typically lead to eutrophication, which can promote blooms of toxigenic phytoplankton such as cyanobacteria, we also assessed the threat of exposure to the hepatotoxin, microcystin. Eighty percent of the ponds studied contained measurable microcystin, while three of these ponds had concentrations above human drinking water thresholds set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (i...
March 25, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522323/seasonally-relevant-cool-temperatures-interact-with-n-chemistry-to-increase-microcystins-produced-in-lab-cultures-of-microcystis-aeruginosa-nies-843
#9
Guotao Peng, Robbie M Martin, Stephen P Dearth, Xiaocun Sun, Gregory L Boyer, Shawn R Campagna, Sijie Lin, Steven W Wilhelm
Freshwater cyanobacterial blooms are regularly formed by Microcystis spp., which are well-known producers of the hepatotoxin microcystin. The environmental factors that regulate microcystin synthesis remain unclear. We used reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), metabolomics, and toxin profiling (both by LC-MS) to measure the response of Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-843 to nitrogen (N) concentration, N chemistry (nitrate versus urea), and a range of seasonally relevant temperatures. Growth rates at lower temperatures were slower but resulted in increased cellular microcystin content (quota), and at these lower temperatures, N concentration had no effect on toxin production...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513515/oxidation-of-microcystin-lr-via-activation-of-peroxymonosulfate-using-ascorbic-acid-kinetic-modeling-and-toxicity-assessment
#10
Shiqing Zhou, Yanghai Yu, Weiqiu Zhang, Xiaoyang Meng, Jinming Luo, Lin Deng, Zhou Shi, John Crittenden
Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been widely used for the destruction of organic contaminants in the aqueous phase. In this study, we introduce an AOP on activated peroxymonosulfate (PMS) by using ascorbic acid (H2 A) to generate sulfate radicals (SO4 •- ). Sulfate radicals, hydroxyl radicals (HO• ), and ascorbyl radicals (A•- ) were found using electron spin resonance (ESR). But we found A•- is negligible in the degradation of microcystin-LR (MCLR) due to its low reactivity. We developed a first-principles kinetic model to simulate the MCLR degradation and predict the radical concentrations...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502198/drug-induced-liver-injury-why-is-the-roussel-uclaf-causality-assessment-method-rucam-still-used-25-years-after-its-launch
#11
Gaby Danan, Rolf Teschke
Launched in 1993 and partially based on the results of an international consensus meeting organized under the auspices of the Council of International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) is the most used causality assessment tool worldwide for the diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and herb-induced liver injury (HILI) in a large number of epidemiological studies, case reports, and case series. The 25-year experience of RUCAM use confirmed that the success was due to its objective, standardized, and liver-injury-specific approach structured with defined key elements derived from a series of DILI cases with positive rechallenge...
March 3, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446022/removal-of-mcs-by-bi-2-o-2-co-3-adsorption-and-the-potential-of-photocatalytic-degradation
#12
Yujiao Wang, Yanqiu Cao, Hongmei Li, Aijun Gong, Jintao Han, Zhen Qian, Wenran Chao
Microcystins (MCs) is a kind of hepatotoxin, which is the secondary metabolite of cyanobacteria. Bi2 O2 CO3 (BOC) is a kind of cheap and nontoxic semiconductor material. BOC was synthetized by solvothermal method and then microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and microcystin-RR (MC-RR) were removed by BOC, through adsorption and photocatalytic degradation. When the dosage of BOC is 6 g/L, the MC-LR and MC-RR in the natural water sample can be completely adsorbed in 30 min and then after 12 h irradiation, MC-LR and MC-RR were photocatalytically degraded by BOC...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329425/comparison-of-hepatic-2d-sandwich-cultures-and-3d-spheroids-for-long-term-toxicity-applications-a-multicenter-study
#13
Catherine C Bell, Anita C A Dankers, Volker M Lauschke, Rowena Sison-Young, Roz Jenkins, Cliff Rowe, Chris E Goldring, Kevin Park, Sophie L Regan, Tracy Walker, Chris Schofield, Audrey Baze, Alison J Foster, Dominic P Williams, Amy W M van de Ven, Frank Jacobs, Jos van Houdt, Tuula Lähteenmäki, Jan Snoeys, Satu Juhila, Lysiane Richert, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg
Primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) are commonly used for in vitro studies of drug-induced liver injury. However, when cultured as 2D monolayers, PHH lose crucial hepatic functions within hours. This dedifferentiation can be ameliorated when PHHs are cultured in sandwich configuration (2Dsw), particularly when cultures are regularly re-overlaid with extracellular matrix, or as 3D spheroids. In this study, the 6 participating laboratories evaluated the robustness of these 2 model systems made from cryopreserved PHH from the same donors considering both inter-donor and inter-laboratory variability and compared their suitability for use in repeated-dose toxicity studies using 5 different hepatotoxins with different toxicity mechanisms...
April 1, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313451/microcystin-lr-degradation-utilizing-a-novel-effective-indigenous-bacterial-community-yfmcd1-from-lake-taihu
#14
Fei Yang, Isaac Yaw Massey, Jian Guo, Shu Yang, Yuepu Pu, Weiming Zeng, Hongzhuan Tan
Microcystins (MC) produced by species of cyanobacteria including Microcystis, Anabaena, and Aphanizomenon are a group of monocyclic hepatotoxins posing serious threat to public health. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most toxic and frequently encountered microcystin variant in the environment, and thus removal of this toxin using bacteria was shown to be a reliable, efficient, and cost-effective method that avoids utilization of chemicals that may produce potentially harmful by-products. The aim of this study was to determine whether a novel indigenous bacterial community designated YFMCD1 was effective in destroying MC...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297242/recent-advances-in-three-dimensional-cell-culturing-to-assess-liver-function-and-dysfunction-from-a-drug-biotransformation-and-toxicity-perspective
#15
Carlemi Calitz, Josias H Hamman, Stephen J Fey, Krzysztof Wrzesinski, Chrisna Gouws
The liver is a vital organ fulfilling a central role in over 500 major metabolic functions, including serving as the most essential site for drug biotransformation. Dysfunction of the drug biotransformation processes may result in the exposure of the liver (and other organs) to hepatotoxins, potentially interacting with cellular constituents and causing toxicity and various lesions. Hepatotoxicity can be investigated on a tissue, cellular and molecular level by employing various in vivo and in vitro techniques, including novel three-dimensional (3 D) cell culturing methods...
June 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248467/protective-capabilities-of-silymarin-and-inulin-nanoparticles-against-hepatic-oxidative-stress-genotoxicity-and-cytotoxicity-of-deoxynivalenol-in-rats
#16
Mosaad A Abdel-Wahhab, Aziza A El-Nekeety, Asmaa S Salman, Sekena H Abdel-Aziem, Fathy M Mehaya, Nabila S Hassan
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a Fusarium mycotoxin that frequently contaminates cereal and cereal-based food and induces liver injury. This study evaluated the protective role of silymarin nanoparticles (SILNPs) and inulin nanoparticles (INNPs) against DON-induced liver injury in rats. Eleven groups of rats were treated orally for 3 weeks as follows: the control group, DON-treated group (5 mg/kg b.w.); INNPs-treated groups at low (LD) or high (HD) dose (100 or 200 mg/kg b.w.); SILPNs-treated group (50 mg/kg b...
February 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241671/mkp-1-protects-mice-against-toxin-induced-liver-damage-by-promoting-the-nrf2-cytoprotective-response
#17
Lin Luo, Yeru Chen, Hongyan Wang, Shengcun Wang, Kaihua Liu, Xin Li, Xiu Jun Wang, Xiuwen Tang
The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effect of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (Mkp-1) on toxin-induced hepatic injury. Here, we uncovered a positive feedback loop between Mkp-1, a dual threonine/tyrosine phosphatase, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a crucial regulator of the defense system in the liver. Mkp-1-/- mice exhibited decreased protein levels of Nrf2, phase II gene products, and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver. Induction of detoxifying enzymes by the Nrf2 activator butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) or sulforaphane, was attenuated in the liver and small intestines of Mkp-1-/- mice, indicating that the Nrf2 signaling pathway is impaired as a result of Mkp-1 deficiency...
February 1, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235390/mir-122-and-other-micrornas-as-potential-circulating-biomarkers-of-drug-induced-liver-injury
#18
Lawrence S Howell, Lucy Ireland, B Kevin Park, Christopher E Goldring
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a severe adverse drug reaction which is of major concern to patients, clinicians and the pharmaceutical industry. Accurate and rapid detection of DILI is important for patient stratification and treatment in the clinic and benefits preclinical drug design and risk assessment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) offer a potential new and improved class of circulating biomarkers of DILI over the current gold standard biomarkers. Areas covered: This review highlights the shortcomings of the currently used panel of biomarkers and how miRNAs, primarily miR-122, show an improved level of specificity and sensitivity in the prediction of DILI...
January 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195944/fresh-produce-and-their-soils-accumulate-cyanotoxins-from-irrigation-water-implications-for-public-health-and-food-security
#19
Seungjun Lee, Xuewen Jiang, Manjunath Manubolu, Ken Riedl, Stuart A Ludsin, Jay F Martin, Jiyoung Lee
Microcystin (MC), a hepatotoxin that can adversely affect human health, has become more prevalent in freshwater ecosystems worldwide, owing to an increase in toxic cyanobacteria blooms. While consumption of water and fish are well-documented exposure pathways of MCs to humans, less is known about the potential transfer to humans through consumption of vegetables that have been irrigated with MC-contaminated water. Likewise, the impact of MC on the performance of food crops is understudied. To help fill these information gaps, we conducted a controlled laboratory experiment in which we exposed lettuce, carrots, and green beans to environmentally relevant concentrations of MC-LR (0, 1, 5, and 10μg/L) via two irrigation methods (drip and spray)...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182536/are-we-underestimating-benthic-cyanotoxins-extensive-sampling-results-from-spain
#20
Enrique A Cantoral Uriza, Antonia D Asencio, Marina Aboal
Microcystins (MCs) are potent hepatotoxins, and their presence in water bodies poses a threat to wildlife and human populations. Most of the available information refers to plankton, and much less is known about microcystins in other habitats. To broaden our understanding of the presence and environmental distribution of this group of toxins, we conducted extensive sampling throughout Spain, under a range of conditions and in distinct aquatic and terrestrial habitats. More than half of the tested strains were toxic; concentrations of the hepatotoxin were low compared with planktic communities, and the number of toxic variants identified in each sample of the Spanish strains ranged from 1-3...
November 28, 2017: Toxins
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