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Frontostriatal circuits

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181956/extrapyramidal-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-evidence-of-blunted-cerebral-hemodynamics-during-a-planning-task
#1
Daniel Schuepbach, Matthias Michel, Gert Wagner, Stefan Duschek, Sabine C Herpertz
Acute extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) occur frequently in schizophrenia, mostly caused by antidopaminergic substances. There have been no published reports on the impact of acute EPS on cerebral blood flow (CBF) or related measures. In the following study, we examined schizophrenic patients with and without EPS during a planning task and measurements of CBF velocity. Sixteen patients with chronic schizophrenia and 16 healthy participants performed a planning paradigm during bilateral functional transcranial Doppler sonography of the middle cerebral arteries...
February 8, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154786/social-cognition-executive-functions-and-self-report-of-psychological-distress-in-huntington-s-disease
#2
Ida Unmack Larsen, Tua Vinther-Jensen, Jørgen Erik Nielsen, Anders Gade, Asmus Vogel
OBJECTIVE: Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in, inter alia, executive functions and social cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective feeling of psychological distress using a self-report questionnaire and performances on tests of executive functions and social cognition in a large consecutive cohort of HD patients. METHOD: 50 manifest HD patients were tested in social cognition and executive functions and each answered a self-report questionnaire about current status of perceived psychological distress (the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R))...
December 28, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123020/dynamic-reconfiguration-of-visuomotor-related-functional-connectivity-networks
#3
Andrea Brovelli, Jean-Michel Badier, Francesca Bonini, Fabrice Bartolomei, Olivier Coulon, Guillaume Auzias
Cognitive functions arise from the coordination of large-scale brain networks. However, the principles governing interareal functional connectivity dynamics (FCD) remain elusive. Here, we tested the hypothesis that human executive functions arise from the dynamic interplay of multiple networks. To do so, we investigated FCD mediating a key executing function, known as arbitrary visuomotor mapping, using brain connectivity analyses of high-gamma activity recorded using MEG and intracranial EEG. Visuomotor mapping was found to arise from the dynamic interplay of three partly overlapping cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical functional connectivity (FC) networks...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118989/perspectives-on-fronto-fugal-circuitry-from-human-imaging-of-alcohol-use-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Natalie M Zahr, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan
Descriptions of the cognitive functions affected by alcohol use disorders (AUD) often highlight dysfunction of executive processes such attention, inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Such complex cognitive functions have historically been ascribed to the prefrontal cortex. AUD, however, disrupts extensive areas of the brain. Structural and functional MRI studies suggest a central role for degradation of circuitry originating in the prefrontal cortex including nodes in widespread brain regions...
January 22, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073327/nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-disease
#5
Rosanna Palmeri, Viviana Lo Buono, Francesco Corallo, Maria Foti, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Nonmotor symptoms include cognitive deficits and impairment in emotions recognition ability associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and with alteration in frontostriatal circuits. In this review, we analyzed the studies on social cognition ability in patients with PD. We searched on PubMed and Web of Science databases and screening references of included studied and review articles for additional citations...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031992/striatal-morphology-correlates-with-frontostriatal-electrophysiological-motor-processing-in-huntington-s-disease-an-image-hd-study
#6
Lauren M Turner, David Jakabek, Fiona A Wilkes, Rodney J Croft, Andrew Churchyard, Mark Walterfang, Dennis Velakoulis, Jeffrey C L Looi, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Deborah Apthorp
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) causes progressive atrophy to the striatum, a critical node in frontostriatal circuitry. Maintenance of motor function is dependent on functional connectivity of these premotor, motor, and dorsolateral frontostriatal circuits, and structural integrity of the striatum itself. We aimed to investigate whether size and shape of the striatum as a measure of frontostriatal circuit structural integrity was correlated with functional frontostriatal electrophysiological neural premotor processing (contingent negative variation, CNV), to better understand motoric structure-function relationships in early HD...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018207/neural-correlates-for-apathy-frontal-prefrontal-and-parietal-cortical-subcortical-circuits
#7
REVIEW
Rita Moretti, Riccardo Signori
Apathy is an uncertain nosographical entity, which includes reduced motivation, abulia, decreased empathy, and lack of emotional involvement; it is an important and heavy-burden clinical condition which strongly impacts in everyday life events, affects the common daily living abilities, reduced the inner goal directed behavior, and gives the heaviest burden on caregivers. Is a quite common comorbidity of many neurological disease, However, there is no definite consensus on the role of apathy in clinical practice, no definite data on anatomical circuits involved in its development, and no definite instrument to detect it at bedside...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769568/specific-frontostriatal-circuits-for-impaired-cognitive-flexibility-and-goal-directed-planning-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-evidence-from-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#8
Matilde M Vaghi, Petra E Vértes, Manfred G Kitzbichler, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, Febe E van der Flier, Naomi A Fineberg, Akeem Sule, Rashid Zaman, Valerie Voon, Prantik Kundu, Edward T Bullmore, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: A recent hypothesis has suggested that core deficits in goal-directed behavior in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are caused by impaired frontostriatal function. We tested this hypothesis in OCD patients and control subjects by relating measures of goal-directed planning and cognitive flexibility to underlying resting-state functional connectivity. METHODS: Multiecho resting-state acquisition, combined with micromovement correction by blood oxygen level-dependent sensitive independent component analysis, was used to obtain in vivo measures of functional connectivity in 44 OCD patients and 43 healthy comparison subjects...
August 11, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757078/functional-connectivity-abnormalities-of-brain-regions-with-structural-deficits-in-young-adult-male-smokers
#9
Limei Bu, Dahua Yu, Shaoping Su, Yao Ma, Karen M von Deneen, Lin Luo, Jinquan Zhai, Bo Liu, Jiadong Cheng, Yanyan Guan, Yangding Li, Yanzhi Bi, Ting Xue, Xiaoqi Lu, Kai Yuan
Smoking is one of the most prevalent dependence disorders. Previous studies have detected structural and functional deficits in smokers. However, few studies focused on the changes of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the brain regions with structural deficits in young adult smokers. Twenty-six young adult smokers and 26 well-matched healthy non-smokers participated in our study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and RSFC were employed to investigate the structural and functional changes in young adult smokers...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707968/role-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-learning-and-generalizing-hierarchical-rules-in-8-month-old-infants
#10
Denise M Werchan, Anne G E Collins, Michael J Frank, Dima Amso
Recent research indicates that adults and infants spontaneously create and generalize hierarchical rule sets during incidental learning. Computational models and empirical data suggest that, in adults, this process is supported by circuits linking prefrontal cortex (PFC) with striatum and their modulation by dopamine, but the neural circuits supporting this form of learning in infants are largely unknown. We used near-infrared spectroscopy to record PFC activity in 8-month-old human infants during a simple audiovisual hierarchical-rule-learning task...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694879/ageing-increases-reliance-on-sensorimotor-prediction-through-structural-and-functional-differences-in-frontostriatal-circuits
#11
Noham Wolpe, James N Ingram, Kamen A Tsvetanov, Linda Geerligs, Rogier A Kievit, Richard N Henson, Daniel M Wolpert, James B Rowe
The control of voluntary movement changes markedly with age. A critical component of motor control is the integration of sensory information with predictions of the consequences of action, arising from internal models of movement. This leads to sensorimotor attenuation-a reduction in the perceived intensity of sensations from self-generated compared with external actions. Here we show that sensorimotor attenuation occurs in 98% of adults in a population-based cohort (n=325; 18-88 years; the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience)...
October 3, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497371/network-dynamics-in-dyslexia-review-and-implications-for-remediation
#12
REVIEW
John R Kershner
Extant neurobiological theories of dyslexia appear fractional in focusing on isolated brain regions, mechanisms, and functional pathways. A synthesis of current research shows support for an Interactive Specialization (IS) model of dyslexia involving the dysfunctional orchestration of a widely-distributed, attentionally-controlled, hierarchical, and interhemispheric circuit of intercommunicating neuronal networks. This circuitry is comprised principally of the frontostriatal-parietal cognitive control system of networks, the posterior corpus callosum, and the left arcuate fasciculus...
December 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436084/increased-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-signaling-underlies-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-like-behavioral-and-striatal-circuit-abnormalities-in-mice
#13
Kristen K Ade, Yehong Wan, Harold C Hamann, Justin K O'Hare, Weirui Guo, Anna Quian, Sunil Kumar, Srishti Bhagat, Ramona M Rodriguiz, William C Wetsel, P Jeffrey Conn, Kafui Dzirasa, Kimberly M Huber, Nicole Calakos
BACKGROUND: Development of treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is hampered by a lack of mechanistic understanding about this prevalent neuropsychiatric condition. Although circuit changes such as elevated frontostriatal activity are linked to OCD, the underlying molecular signaling that drives OCD-related behaviors remains largely unknown. Here, we examine the significance of type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5s) for behavioral and circuit abnormalities relevant to OCD...
October 1, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390774/frontostriatal-circuit-dynamics-correlate-with-cocaine-cue-evoked-behavioral-arousal-during-early-abstinence
#14
Wesley C Smith, Matthew H Rosenberg, Leslie D Claar, Victoria Chang, Sagar N Shah, Wendy M Walwyn, Christopher J Evans, Sotiris C Masmanidis
It is thought that frontostriatal circuits play an important role in mediating conditioned behavioral responses to environmental stimuli that were previously encountered during drug administration. However, the neural correlates of conditioned responses to drug-associated cues are not well understood at the level of large populations of simultaneously recorded neurons, or at the level of local field potential (LFP) synchrony in the frontostriatal network. Here we introduce a behavioral assay of conditioned arousal to cocaine cues involving pupillometry in awake head-restrained mice...
May 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296497/current-concepts-on-the-pathophysiology-of-idiopathic-chronic-adult-hydrocephalus-are-we-facing-another-neurodegenerative-disease
#15
R Martín-Láez, N Valle-San Román, E M Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E Marco-de Lucas, J A Berciano Blanco, A Vázquez-Barquero
INTRODUCTION: Since its description five decades ago, the pathophysiology of idiopathic chronic adult hydrocephalus (iCAH) has been traditionally related to the effect that ventricular dilatation exerts on the structures surrounding the ventricular system. However, altered cerebral blood flow, especially a reduction in the CSF turnover rate, are starting to be considered the main pathophysiological elements of this disease. DEVELOPMENT: Compression of the pyramidal tract, the frontostriatal and frontoreticular circuits, and the paraventricular fibres of the superior longitudinal fasciculus have all been reported in iCAH...
June 10, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198485/cortical-thickness-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-multisite-mega-analysis-of-780-brain-scans-from-six-centres
#16
Jean-Paul Fouche, Stefan du Plessis, Coenie Hattingh, Annerine Roos, Christine Lochner, Carles Soriano-Mas, Joao R Sato, Takashi Nakamae, Seiji Nishida, Jun Soo Kwon, Wi Hoon Jung, David Mataix-Cols, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Pino Alonso, Stella J de Wit, Dick J Veltman, Dan J Stein, Odile A van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence for the role of fronto-striatal and associated circuits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but limited and conflicting data on alterations in cortical thickness. AIMS: To investigate alterations in cortical thickness and subcortical volume in OCD. METHOD: In total, 412 patients with OCD and 368 healthy adults underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans. Between-group analysis of covariance of cortical thickness and subcortical volumes was performed and regression analyses undertaken...
January 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27195123/neurobiological-model-of-the-persistence-of-anorexia-nervosa
#17
REVIEW
Joanna E Steinglass, B Timothy Walsh
Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is characterized by the maintenance of an undernourished, or starved, state. Persistent restrictive eating, or the recurrent intake of a diet that is inadequate to sustain a healthy weight, is the central behavior maintaining AN. To understand this disturbance, we need to understand the neural mechanisms that allow or promote the persistent choice of inadequate caloric intake. While a range of neural disturbances have been reported in AN, abnormalities in systems relevant to reward processing and the development of habit systems have been consistently described in both structural and functional neuroimaging studies...
2016: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26978183/implicit-learning-on-a-probabilistic-classification-task-in-adults-and-adolescents-with-bulimia-nervosa
#18
Christa D Labouliere, Kate Terranova, Joanna Steinglass, Rachel Marsh
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction in frontostriatal circuits likely contributes to impaired regulatory control in Bulimia Nervosa (BN), resulting in binge-eating and purging behaviors that resemble maladaptive habits. Less is known about the implicit learning processes of these circuits, which may contribute to habit formation. METHODS: We compared 52 adolescent and adult females with BN to 55 healthy matched-controls during performance of a probabilistic classification learning task, one form of implicit learning...
June 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26961942/human-choice-strategy-varies-with-anatomical-projections-from-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-to-medial-striatum
#19
Payam Piray, Ivan Toni, Roshan Cools
Two distinct systems, goal-directed and habitual, support decision making. It has recently been hypothesized that this distinction may arise from two computational mechanisms, model-based and model-free reinforcement learning, neuronally implemented in frontostriatal circuits involved in learning and behavioral control. Here, we test whether the relative strength of anatomical connectivity within frontostriatal circuits accounts for variation in human individuals' reliance on model-based and model-free control...
March 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26918784/the-implication-of-frontostriatal-circuits-in-young-smokers-a-resting-state-study
#20
Kai Yuan, Dahua Yu, Yanzhi Bi, Yangding Li, Yanyan Guan, Jixin Liu, Yi Zhang, Wei Qin, Xiaoqi Lu, Jie Tian
The critical roles of frontostriatal circuits had been revealed in addiction. With regard to young smokers, the implication of frontostriatal circuits resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in smoking behaviors and cognitive control deficits remains unclear. In this study, the volume of striatum subsets, i.e., caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, and corresponding RSFC differences were investigated between young smokers (n1  = 60) and nonsmokers (n2  = 60), which were then correlated with cigarette smoking measures, such as pack_years-cumulative effect of smoking, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)-severity of nicotine addiction, Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU)-craving state, and Stroop task performances...
June 2016: Human Brain Mapping
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