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Frontostriatal circuits

Matilde M Vaghi, Petra E Vértes, Manfred G Kitzbichler, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, Febe E van der Flier, Naomi A Fineberg, Akeem Sule, Rashid Zaman, Valerie Voon, Prantik Kundu, Edward T Bullmore, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: A recent hypothesis has suggested that core deficits in goal-directed behavior in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are caused by impaired frontostriatal function. We tested this hypothesis in OCD patients and control subjects by relating measures of goal-directed planning and cognitive flexibility to underlying resting-state functional connectivity. METHODS: Multiecho resting-state acquisition, combined with micromovement correction by blood oxygen level-dependent sensitive independent component analysis, was used to obtain in vivo measures of functional connectivity in 44 OCD patients and 43 healthy comparison subjects...
August 11, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Limei Bu, Dahua Yu, Shaoping Su, Yao Ma, Karen M von Deneen, Lin Luo, Jinquan Zhai, Bo Liu, Jiadong Cheng, Yanyan Guan, Yangding Li, Yanzhi Bi, Ting Xue, Xiaoqi Lu, Kai Yuan
Smoking is one of the most prevalent dependence disorders. Previous studies have detected structural and functional deficits in smokers. However, few studies focused on the changes of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the brain regions with structural deficits in young adult smokers. Twenty-six young adult smokers and 26 well-matched healthy non-smokers participated in our study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and RSFC were employed to investigate the structural and functional changes in young adult smokers...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Denise M Werchan, Anne G E Collins, Michael J Frank, Dima Amso
: Recent research indicates that adults and infants spontaneously create and generalize hierarchical rule sets during incidental learning. Computational models and empirical data suggest that, in adults, this process is supported by circuits linking prefrontal cortex (PFC) with striatum and their modulation by dopamine, but the neural circuits supporting this form of learning in infants are largely unknown. We used near-infrared spectroscopy to record PFC activity in 8-month-old human infants during a simple audiovisual hierarchical-rule-learning task...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Noham Wolpe, James N Ingram, Kamen A Tsvetanov, Linda Geerligs, Rogier A Kievit, Richard N Henson, Daniel M Wolpert, James B Rowe
The control of voluntary movement changes markedly with age. A critical component of motor control is the integration of sensory information with predictions of the consequences of action, arising from internal models of movement. This leads to sensorimotor attenuation-a reduction in the perceived intensity of sensations from self-generated compared with external actions. Here we show that sensorimotor attenuation occurs in 98% of adults in a population-based cohort (n=325; 18-88 years; the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience)...
October 3, 2016: Nature Communications
John R Kershner
Extant neurobiological theories of dyslexia appear fractional in focusing on isolated brain regions, mechanisms, and functional pathways. A synthesis of current research shows support for an Interactive Specialization (IS) model of dyslexia involving the dysfunctional orchestration of a widely-distributed, attentionally-controlled, hierarchical, and interhemispheric circuit of intercommunicating neuronal networks. This circuitry is comprised principally of the frontostriatal-parietal cognitive control system of networks, the posterior corpus callosum, and the left arcuate fasciculus...
August 3, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Kristen K Ade, Yehong Wan, Harold C Hamann, Justin K O'Hare, Weirui Guo, Anna Quian, Sunil Kumar, Srishti Bhagat, Ramona M Rodriguiz, William C Wetsel, P Jeffrey Conn, Kafui Dzirasa, Kimberly M Huber, Nicole Calakos
BACKGROUND: Development of treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is hampered by a lack of mechanistic understanding about this prevalent neuropsychiatric condition. Although circuit changes such as elevated frontostriatal activity are linked to OCD, the underlying molecular signaling that drives OCD-related behaviors remains largely unknown. Here, we examine the significance of type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5s) for behavioral and circuit abnormalities relevant to OCD...
October 1, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Wesley C Smith, Matthew H Rosenberg, Leslie D Claar, Victoria Chang, Sagar N Shah, Wendy M Walwyn, Christopher J Evans, Sotiris C Masmanidis
It is thought that frontostriatal circuits play an important role in mediating conditioned behavioral responses to environmental stimuli that were previously encountered during drug administration. However, the neural correlates of conditioned responses to drug-associated cues are not well understood at the level of large populations of simultaneously recorded neurons, or at the level of local field potential (LFP) synchrony in the frontostriatal network. Here we introduce a behavioral assay of conditioned arousal to cocaine cues involving pupillometry in awake head-restrained mice...
May 2016: ENeuro
R Martín-Láez, N Valle-San Román, E M Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E Marco-de Lucas, J A Berciano Blanco, A Vázquez-Barquero
INTRODUCTION: Since its description five decades ago, the pathophysiology of idiopathic chronic adult hydrocephalus (iCAH) has been traditionally related to the effect that ventricular dilatation exerts on the structures surrounding the ventricular system. However, altered cerebral blood flow, especially a reduction in the CSF turnover rate, are starting to be considered the main pathophysiological elements of this disease. DEVELOPMENT: Compression of the pyramidal tract, the frontostriatal and frontoreticular circuits, and the paraventricular fibres of the superior longitudinal fasciculus have all been reported in iCAH...
June 10, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Jean-Paul Fouche, Stefan du Plessis, Coenie Hattingh, Annerine Roos, Christine Lochner, Carles Soriano-Mas, Joao R Sato, Takashi Nakamae, Seiji Nishida, Jun Soo Kwon, Wi Hoon Jung, David Mataix-Cols, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Pino Alonso, Stella J de Wit, Dick J Veltman, Dan J Stein, Odile A van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence for the role of fronto-striatal and associated circuits in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but limited and conflicting data on alterations in cortical thickness. AIMS: To investigate alterations in cortical thickness and subcortical volume in OCD. METHOD: In total, 412 patients with OCD and 368 healthy adults underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans. Between-group analysis of covariance of cortical thickness and subcortical volumes was performed and regression analyses undertaken...
May 19, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Joanna E Steinglass, B Timothy Walsh
Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is characterized by the maintenance of an undernourished, or starved, state. Persistent restrictive eating, or the recurrent intake of a diet that is inadequate to sustain a healthy weight, is the central behavior maintaining AN. To understand this disturbance, we need to understand the neural mechanisms that allow or promote the persistent choice of inadequate caloric intake. While a range of neural disturbances have been reported in AN, abnormalities in systems relevant to reward processing and the development of habit systems have been consistently described in both structural and functional neuroimaging studies...
2016: Journal of Eating Disorders
Christa D Labouliere, Kate Terranova, Joanna Steinglass, Rachel Marsh
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction in frontostriatal circuits likely contributes to impaired regulatory control in Bulimia Nervosa (BN), resulting in binge-eating and purging behaviors that resemble maladaptive habits. Less is known about the implicit learning processes of these circuits, which may contribute to habit formation. METHODS: We compared 52 adolescent and adult females with BN to 55 healthy matched-controls during performance of a probabilistic classification learning task, one form of implicit learning...
June 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Payam Piray, Ivan Toni, Roshan Cools
Two distinct systems, goal-directed and habitual, support decision making. It has recently been hypothesized that this distinction may arise from two computational mechanisms, model-based and model-free reinforcement learning, neuronally implemented in frontostriatal circuits involved in learning and behavioral control. Here, we test whether the relative strength of anatomical connectivity within frontostriatal circuits accounts for variation in human individuals' reliance on model-based and model-free control...
March 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Kai Yuan, Dahua Yu, Yanzhi Bi, Yangding Li, Yanyan Guan, Jixin Liu, Yi Zhang, Wei Qin, Xiaoqi Lu, Jie Tian
The critical roles of frontostriatal circuits had been revealed in addiction. With regard to young smokers, the implication of frontostriatal circuits resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in smoking behaviors and cognitive control deficits remains unclear. In this study, the volume of striatum subsets, i.e., caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, and corresponding RSFC differences were investigated between young smokers (n1  = 60) and nonsmokers (n2  = 60), which were then correlated with cigarette smoking measures, such as pack_years-cumulative effect of smoking, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)-severity of nicotine addiction, Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU)-craving state, and Stroop task performances...
June 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Karin Foerde, Bernd Figner, Bradley B Doll, Isabel C Woyke, Erin Kendall Braun, Elke U Weber, Daphna Shohamy
Choosing between smaller prompt rewards and larger later rewards is a common choice problem, and studies widely agree that frontostriatal circuits heavily innervated by dopamine are centrally involved. Understanding how dopamine modulates intertemporal choice has important implications for neurobiological models and for understanding the mechanisms underlying maladaptive decision-making. However, the specific role of dopamine in intertemporal decisions is not well understood. Dopamine may play a role in multiple aspects of intertemporal choices--the valuation of choice outcomes and sensitivity to reward delays...
May 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Vinay Parikh, Robert D Cole, Purav J Patel, Rachel L Poole, Thomas J Gould
Nicotine is a major psychoactive and addictive component of tobacco. Although cessation of tobacco use produces various somatic and affective symptoms, withdrawal-related cognitive deficits are considered to be a critical symptom that predict relapse. Therefore, delineating the cognitive mechanisms of nicotine withdrawal may likely provide gainful insights into the neurobiology of nicotine addiction. The present study was designed to examine the effects of nicotine withdrawal induced by mecamylamine, a non-specific nicotinic receptor (nAChR) antagonist, on cognitive control processes in mice using an operant strategy switching task...
February 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Martijn Figee, Tommy Pattij, Ingo Willuhn, Judy Luigjes, Wim van den Brink, Anneke Goudriaan, Marc N Potenza, Trevor W Robbins, Damiaan Denys
Compulsive behaviors are driven by repetitive urges and typically involve the experience of limited voluntary control over these urges, a diminished ability to delay or inhibit these behaviors, and a tendency to perform repetitive acts in a habitual or stereotyped manner. Compulsivity is not only a central characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but is also crucial to addiction. Based on this analogy, OCD has been proposed to be part of the concept of behavioral addiction along with other non-drug-related disorders that share compulsivity, such as pathological gambling, skin-picking, trichotillomania and compulsive eating...
May 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Marta Subirà, Marta Cano, Stella J de Wit, Pino Alonso, Narcís Cardoner, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Jun Soo Kwon, Takashi Nakamae, Christine Lochner, João R Sato, Wi Hoon Jung, Jin Narumoto, Dan J Stein, Jesus Pujol, David Mataix-Cols, Dick J Veltman, José M Menchón, Odile A van den Heuvel, Carles Soriano-Mas
BACKGROUND: Frontostriatal and frontoamygdalar connectivity alterations in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been typically described in functional neuroimaging studies. However, structural covariance, or volumetric correlations across distant brain regions, also provides network-level information. Altered structural covariance has been described in patients with different psychiatric disorders, including OCD, but to our knowledge, alterations within frontostriatal and frontoamygdalar circuits have not been explored...
March 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Jutta Peterburs, Stefan Kobza, Christian Bellebaum
Processing of performance-related feedback is an essential prerequisite for adaptive behavior. Even though in everyday life feedback is rarely immediate, to date very few studies have investigated whether the feedback-related negativity (FRN), a relative negativity in the ERP approximately 200 to 300 ms after feedback that is sensitive to feedback valence and predictability, is modulated by feedback timing, and findings are inconsistent. The present study investigated effects of gradually increasing feedback delays on feedback processing in the FRN time window...
February 2016: Psychophysiology
Harleen Hehar, Keith Yeates, Bryan Kolb, Michael J Esser, Richelle Mychasiuk
Impulsivity and poor executive control have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many developmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Similarly, concussions/mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) have been associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders and the development of impulsivity and inattention. Researchers and epidemiologists have therefore considered whether or not concussions induce symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or merely unmask impulsive tendencies that were already present...
2015: PloS One
Andrea Brovelli, Daniel Chicharro, Jean-Michel Badier, Huifang Wang, Viktor Jirsa
UNLABELLED: Adaptive behaviors are built on the arbitrary linkage of sensory inputs to actions and goals. Although the sensorimotor and associative frontostriatal circuits are known to mediate arbitrary visuomotor mappings, the underlying corticocortico dynamics remain elusive. Here, we take a novel approach exploiting gamma-band neural activity to study the human cortical networks and corticocortical functional connectivity mediating arbitrary visuomotor mapping. Single-trial gamma-power time courses were estimated for all Brodmann areas by combing magnetoencephalographic and MRI data with spectral analysis and beam-forming techniques...
September 16, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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