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Hyoung Sook Park, Ji Hye Kim, Bo Kyung Sun, Sun U Song, Wonhee Suh, Jong-Hyuk Sung
It has previously been demonstrated that hypoxia has diverse stimulatory effects on adipose‑derived stem cells (ASCs), however, metabolic responses under hypoxia remain to be elucidated. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the glucose uptake and metabolism of ASCs under hypoxic conditions, and to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. ASCs were cultured in 1% oxygen, and experiments were conducted in vitro. As determined by proteomic analysis and western blotting, GAPDH and enolase 1 (ENO1) expression were upregulated under hypoxia...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yi Rang Na, Gyo Jung Gu, Daun Jung, Young Won Kim, Juri Na, Jin Sun Woo, Joo Youn Cho, Hyewon Youn, Seung Hyeok Seok
GM-CSF induces proinflammatory macrophages, but the underlying mechanisms have not been studied thus far. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of how GM-CSF induces inflammatory macrophages. First, we observed that GM-CSF increased the extent of LPS-induced acute glycolysis in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. This directly correlates with an inflammatory phenotype because glycolysis inhibition by 2-deoxyglucose abolished GM-CSF-mediated increase of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12p70 synthesis upon LPS stimulation...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Carla Cunha, Catarina R Almeida, Maria Inês Almeida, Andreia M Silva, Maria Molinos, Sofia Lamas, Catarina L Pereira, Graciosa Q Teixeira, António T Monteiro, Susana G Santos, Raquel M Gonçalves, Mário A Barbosa
: : Cell therapies for intervertebral disc (IVD) regeneration presently rely on transplantation of IVD cells or stem cells directly to the lesion site. Still, the harsh IVD environment, with low irrigation and high mechanical stress, challenges cell administration and survival. In this study, we addressed systemic transplantation of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) intravenously into a rat IVD lesion model, exploring tissue regeneration via cell signaling to the lesion site...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Leandro Castañeyra-Ruiz, Ibrahim González-Marrero, Luis G Hernández-Abad, Emilia M Carmona-Calero, Gundela Meyer, Agustín Castañeyra-Perdomo
The choroid plexuses (ChP) are highly vascularized tissues suspended from each of the cerebral ventricles. Their main function is to secret cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that fills the ventricles and the subarachnoid spaces, forming a crucial system for the development and maintenance of the CNS. However, despite the essential role of the ChP-CSF system to regulate the CNS in a global manner, it still remains one of the most understudied areas in neurobiology. Here we define by immunohistochemistry the expression of different proteins involved in the maturation and functionality of the ChP from the late embryological period to maturity...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Xiao Bao, Ming-Wei Wang, Jian-Min Luo, Si-Yang Wang, Yong-Ping Zhang, Ying-Jian Zhang
Objective: Antiangiogenesis therapy (AAT) has provided substantial benefits regarding improved outcomes and survival for suitable patients in clinical settings. Therefore, the early definition of therapeutic effects is urgently needed to guide cancer AAT. We aimed to optimize the early response monitoring and prediction of AAT efficacy, as indicated by the multi-targeted anti-angiogenic drug sunitinib in U87MG tumors, using noninvasive positron emission computed tomography (PET) molecular imaging strategies of multifactorial bioparameters...
2016: Theranostics
Hayato Kaida, Koichi Azuma, Akihiko Kawahara, Masafumi Yasunaga, Yuhei Kitasato, Satoshi Hattori, Tomoki Taira, Hiroki Ureshino, Masayoshi Kage, Kazunari Ishii, Takamichi Murakami, Masatoshi Ishibashi
PURPOSE: We examined whether fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake is related to the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal pathway and its related proteins in pancreatic cancer patients. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 53 pancreatic cancer patients who underwent FDG positron emission tomography (PET) or FDG PET/CT, and complete curative surgical resection. The SUV max, the tumor to nontumor activity of pancreas [T/N (P)] ratio and the T/N of liver [T/N (L)] ratio were calculated...
October 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Kotaro Higashi, Toshiaki Yamagishi, Yoshimichi Ueda, Yasuhito Ishigaki, Miyako Shimasaki, Yuka Nakamura, Manabu Oguchi, Tsutomu Takegami, Motoyasu Sagawa, Hisao Tonami
OBJECTIVES: Hypoxia is a key element involved in the development and progression of tumors. HIF-1α may transiently induce and mediate the response to acute and severe hypoxia, while HIF-2α may induce a longer response and may control the response to chronic and moderate hypoxia. Hypoxia increases the cellular uptake of FDG. Therefore, HIF may play an important role in the process of the cellular uptake of FDG. The aim of this study was to compare HIF-1α/HIF-2α expression with FDG uptake, Glut-1 expression, and prognosis in the patients with lung adenocarcinoma and to investigate the role of HIF-1α/HIF-2α in the uptake of FDG in lung adenocarcinoma...
September 23, 2016: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Graham M Strub, Andrew L Kirsh, Mark E Whipple, Winston P Kuo, Rachel B Keller, Raj P Kapur, Mark W Majesky, Jonathan A Perkins
Infantile hemangioma (IH) is the most common vascular tumor of infancy, and it uniquely regresses in response to oral propranolol. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of vascular development and are dysregulated in many disease processes, but the role of miRNAs in IH growth has not been investigated. We report expression of C19MC, a primate-specific megacluster of miRNAs expressed in placenta with rare expression in postnatal tissues, in glucose transporter 1-expressing (GLUT-1-expressing) IH endothelial cells and in the plasma of children with IH...
2016: JCI Insight
E M Sadeesh, P Sikka, A K Balhara, S Balhara
The study examined the effects of different environmental stress on developmental competence and the relative abundance (RA) of various gene transcripts in oocytes and embryos of buffalo. Oocytes collected during cold period (CP) and hot period (HP) were matured, fertilized and cultured in vitro to blastocyst hatching stage. The mRNA expression patterns of genes implicated in developmental competence (OCT-4, IGF-2R and GDF-9), heat shock (HSP-70.1), oxidative stress (MnSOD), metabolism (GLUT-1), pro-apoptosis (BAX) and anti-apoptosis (BCL-2) were evaluated in immature and matured oocytes as well as in pre-implantation stage embryos...
September 20, 2016: Cytotechnology
Roman C Brands, Olga Köhler, Stephan Rauthe, Stefan Hartmann, Harald Ebhardt, Axel Seher, Christian Linz, Alexander C Kübler, Urs D A Müller-Richter
BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) ranks as the sixth most common tumor entity worldwide. Unfortunately, the multimodal treatment consisting of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy does not show the desired efficacy. The intent of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of an oral brush biopsy in combination with glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 staining in identifying premalignant and malignant lesions. METHODS: A total of 72 patients were included in the study, divided into four diagnostic subgroups (24 healthy, 15 carcinoma, 18 leukoplakia, 15 oral lichen planus)...
September 8, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
Joon Ha Park, Ki-Yeon Yoo, In Hye Kim, Jeong-Hwi Cho, Jae-Chul Lee, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Hyun Jin Tae, Bing Chun Yan, Dae Won Kim, Ok Kyu Park, Seung-Hae Kwon, Song Her, Jin Su Kim, Jung Hoon Choi, Choong Hyun Lee, In Koo Hwang, Jae Youl Cho, Jun Hwi Cho, Young-Guen Kwon, Sungwoo Ryoo, Young-Myeong Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Il Jun Kang
Hydroquinone (HQ), a major benzene metabolite, occurs naturally in various plants and is manufactured for commercial use. Although HQ displays various biological effects, its neuroprotective effects following ischemic insults have not been investigated. In this study, we first examined neuroprotective effects of HQ in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. Animals were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for 120 min. HQ (50 or 100 mg/kg) or vehicle was intraperitoneally administered once at 30 min after ischemia-reperfusion...
August 31, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Ludovica Pasca, Valentina De Giorgis, Joyce Ann Macasaet, Claudia Trentani, Anna Tagliabue, Pierangelo Veggiotti
UNLABELLED: Ketogenic diet is an established and effective non-pharmacologic treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy. Ketogenic diet represents the treatment of choice for GLUT-1 deficiency syndrome and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency. Infantile spasms, Dravet syndrome and myoclonic-astatic epilepsy are epilepsy syndromes for which ketogenic diet should be considered early in the therapeutic pathway. Recently, clinical indications for ketogenic diet have been increasing, as there is emerging evidence regarding safety and effectiveness...
October 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Tuba Canpolat, Canan Ersöz, Aysun Uğuz, Mehmet Ali Vardar, Aytekin Altintaş
OBJECTIVE: Malignant cells show increased glucose uptake in in vitro and in vivo studies. This uptake is mediated by glucose transporter proteins. GLUT-1 is the most common transporter protein, and its expression is reported to be increase in many human cancers. The aim of this study is to determine the GLUT-1 overexpression in benign, hyperplastic, and malignant endometrial tissues, to evaluate the usefulness of GLUT-1 expression in endometrial hyperplasia, and to determine its role in the neoplastic progression to endometrioid type adenocarcinoma...
2016: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
Masamichi Koyama, Takashi Terauchi, Mitsuru Koizumi, Hiroko Tanaka, Kengo Takeuchi
INTRODUCTION: F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is useful for the staging and assessment of treatment response in patients with lymphoma. Occasionally, benign lesions demonstrate avid FDG uptake and result in false positive findings. CASE: We report the case of an 82-year-old man presenting with cutaneous lesions, which were histopathologically diagnosed as intravascular lymphoma. FDG-PET/CT for staging demonstrated an FDG-avid mass extending from the right maxillary sinus to the nasal cavity, moderate uptake in the adrenal glands, mild uptake in the knee and the foot, and faint uptake in the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the legs...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Juan Su, Tianyuan Gao, Minghao Jiang, Lisha Wu, Weiqi Zeng, Shuang Zhao, Cong Peng, Xiang Chen
Melanoma is a very malignant disease and there are still no effective treatments. CD147 participates in the carcinogenesis of multiple human cancers and GLUT-1, as a glucose transporter, is associated with tumor growth. However, the function of CD147 and GLUT-1 in melanoma have not been completely understood. Thus, in this study we investigated the expression of CD147 and GLUT-1 in melanoma tissue, which were overexpressed compared with that in nevus tissue. In addition, CD147 and GLUT-1 were co-localized in the cytoplasm of human melanoma A375 cells...
August 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Phillip L Pearl
Vitamin-dependent epilepsies and multiple metabolic epilepsies are amenable to treatment that markedly improves the disease course. Knowledge of these amenably treatable severe pediatric epilepsies allows for early identification, testing, and treatment. These disorders present with various phenotypes, including early onset epileptic encephalopathy (refractory neonatal seizures, early myoclonic encephalopathy, and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy), infantile spasms, or mixed generalized seizure types in infancy, childhood, or even adolescence and adulthood...
May 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
N Kuroda, C Ohe, S Deepika, K Yorita, S Mikami, M Furuya, Y Nagashima, O Hes, A Agaimy, M Michal, M B Amin
Renal anastomosing hemangiomas (RAH) has been recently proposed as a new entity. In this article, we summarize the clinicopathologic features of this tumor. RAH usually develops on a background of end-stage renal disease. Macroscopically, tumors are well-defined and their cut surface shows mahogany brown spongy tissue with epicenter in the renal medulla. Tumors are usually small, but larger lesions are reported. On microscopic examination, the tumor consists of sinusoid-like vascular channels lined by cuboidal endothelial cells with occasional hobnail-like appearance of endothelial cells closely mimicking splenic sinusoids...
June 2016: Polish Journal of Pathology: Official Journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
Michael Qize Jiang, Ying-Ying Zhao, Wenyuan Cao, Zheng Zachory Wei, Xiaohuan Gu, Ling Wei, Shan Ping Yu
Focal cerebral ischemia results in an ischemic core surrounded by the peri-infarct region (penumbra). Most research attention has been focused on penumbra while the pattern of cell fates inside the ischemic core is poorly defined. In the present investigation, we tested the hypothesis that, inside the ischemic core, some neuronal and vascular cells could survive the initial ischemic insult while regenerative niches might exist many days after stroke in the adult brain. Adult mice were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia induced by permanent occlusion of distal branches of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) plus transient ligations of bilateral common carotid artery (CCA)...
August 11, 2016: Brain Pathology
Michelle Blumenschine, Jacqueline Montes, Ashwini K Rao, Kristin Engelstad, Darryl C De Vivo
Anticipating potential therapies for Glut 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1DS) emphasizes the need for effective clinical outcome measures. The 6-minute walk test is a well-established outcome measure that evaluates walking ability in neurological diseases. Twenty-one children with Glut 1 deficiency syndrome and 21 controls performed the 6-minute walk test. Fatigue was determined by comparing distance walked in the first and sixth minutes. Gait was analyzed by stride length, velocity, cadence, base of support, and percentage time in double support...
November 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
Bao Zhang, Zhen Jin, Lei Sun, Yang Zheng, Jiexuan Jiang, Chong Feng, Yue Wang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the probable pathogenesis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by analyzing the correlation between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) secreted by the placenta during pregnancy and insulin signaling components and glucose transporter proteins (GLUTs) in the placental tissue. DESIGN AND METHODS: Placental tissue was collected from full-term and non-obese [body mass index <25kg/m(2)] pregnant women; 10 diagnosed with GDM and 10 with normal pregnancy...
September 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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