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Cerebral amyloid

Virawudh Soontornniyomkij, Anya Umlauf, Benchawanna Soontornniyomkij, Ben Gouaux, Ronald J Ellis, Andrew J Levine, David J Moore, Scott L Letendre
OBJECTIVE: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is currently recommended for all persons living with HIV (PLWH), regardless of their CD4+ T-cell count, and should be continued throughout life. Nonetheless, vigilance of the safety of ART, including its neurotoxicity, must continue. We hypothesized that use of certain ART drugs might be associated with aging-related cerebral degenerative changes among PLWH. DESIGN: Clinicopathological study of PLWH who were using ART drugs at the last clinical assessment...
June 14, 2018: AIDS
Robert J Dawe, Lei Yu, Julie A Schneider, Konstantinos Arfanakis, David A Bennett, Patricia A Boyle
The purpose of this study was to determine whether metrics of brain tissue integrity derived from postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with late-life cognitive decline, independent of cerebral vessel disease. Using data from 554 older adults, we used voxelwise regression to identify regions where the postmortem MRI transverse relaxation rate constant R2 was associated with the rate of decline in global cognition. We then used linear mixed models to investigate the association between a composite R2 measure and cognitive decline, controlling for neuropathology including 3 indices of vessel disease: atherosclerosis, arteriolosclerosis, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy...
May 23, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
R F Galiano Blancart, G Fortea, A Pampliega Pérez, S Martí, V Parkhutik, A V Sánchez Cruz, C Soriano, D Geffner Sclarsky, M T Pérez Saldaña, N López Hernández, I Beltrán, A Lago Martín
INTRODUCTION: Cortical subarachnoid haemorrhage (cSAH) has multiple aetiologies. No prospective study has reported the long-term progression of the condition. The objective of this study is to describe the clinical and aetiological characteristics of patients with cSAH and to gain insight into prognosis. METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational, multi-centre study. Data on clinical and radiological variables were collected; during a one-year follow-up period, we recorded data on mortality, dependence, rebleeding, and the appearance of dementia...
June 11, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Murat Bilgel, Yang An, Jessica Helphrey, Wendy Elkins, Gabriela Gomez, Dean F Wong, Christos Davatzikos, Luigi Ferrucci, Susan M Resnick
Understanding short-term cognitive decline in relation to Alzheimer's neuroimaging biomarkers in early stages of the development of neuropathology and neurodegeneration will inform participant recruitment and monitoring strategies in clinical trials aimed at prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia. We assessed associations among neuroimaging measures of cerebral amyloid pathology, a hallmark Alzheimer's neuropathology, hippocampal atrophy, and prospective cognition among 171 cognitively normal Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging participants (baseline age 56-95 years, 48% female, 562 cognitive assessments, 3...
June 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Yue Liu, Nady Braidy, Anne Poljak, Daniel Ky Chan, Perminder Sachdev
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) comprises a variety of disorders affecting small arteries and microvessels of the brain, manifesting as white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and deep brain infarcts. In addition to its contribution to vascular dementia (VaD), it has also been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHOD: A systematic review of the literature available on Medline, Embase and Pubmed was undertaken, whereby CSVD was divided into WMHs, CMBs and deep brain infarcts...
June 10, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Xiaoting Yang, Georg Meisl, Birgitta Frohm, Eva Thulin, Tuomas P J Knowles, Sara Linse
The aggregation of the amyloid- β (A β ) peptide is linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, some point mutations within A β are associated with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Here we set out to explore how the physical properties of the altered side chains, including their sizes and charges, affect the molecular mechanisms of aggregation. We focus on A β 42 with familial mutations-A21G (Flemish), E22K (Italian), E22G (Arctic), E22Q (Dutch), and D23N (Iowa)-which lead to similar or identical pathology with sporadic AD or severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy...
June 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lisa Ruth-Sahd, Melissa Schneider
When a patient presents with stroke-type symptoms, the correct diagnosis is imperative to determine appropriate treatment. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), a buildup of amyloid proteins on the brain artery walls, is a cause of intracerebral hemorrhage. Improved diagnostic criteria and enhanced neuroimaging have resulted in earlier detection of CAA, which will hopefully lead to better outcomes for these patients. More research is being conducted, and neuroscience nurses need to stay informed about this condition to be able to appropriately care for and educate their patients who are diagnosed with CAA...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Brhane Teklebrhan Assefa, Abadi Kahsu Gebre, Birhanetensay Masresha Altaye
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by deposition of extracellular amyloid- β , intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and loss of cortical neurons. However, the mechanism underlying neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains to be explored. Many of the researches on AD have been primarily focused on neuronal changes. Current research, however, broadens to give emphasis on the importance of nonneuronal cells, such as astrocytes. Astrocytes play fundamental roles in several cerebral functions and their dysfunctions promote neurodegeneration and, eventually, retraction of neuronal synapses, which leads to cognitive deficits found in AD...
2018: BioMed Research International
Bernardino Ghetti, Pedro Piccardo, Gianluigi Zanusso
Among genetically determined neurodegenerative diseases, the dominantly inherited prion protein cerebral amyloidoses are characterized by deposition of amyloid in cerebral parenchyma or blood vessels. Among them, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease has been the first to be described. Their clinical, neuropathologic, and molecular phenotypes are distinct from those observed in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and related spongiform encephalopathies. It is not understood why specific mutations in the prion protein gene (PRNP) cause cerebral amyloidosis and others cause CJD...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Hsin-Hsi Tsai, Jong S Kim, Eric Jouvent, M Edip Gurol
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and lacunar infarction (LI) are the major acute clinical manifestations of cerebral small vessel diseases (cSVDs). Hypertensive small vessel disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and hereditary causes, such as Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), constitute the three common cSVD categories. Diagnosing the underlying vascular pathology in these patients is important because the risk and types of recurrent strokes show significant differences...
May 2018: Journal of Stroke
Finnbogi R Thormodsson, Ingvar H Olafsson, Dadi Th Vilhjalmsson
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) results from amyloid accumulation within arteries of the cerebral cortex and leptomeninges. This condition is age-related, especially prevalent in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the main feature of certain hereditary disorders (i.e., HCHWA-I). The vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) appear to play a vital role in the development of CAA, which makes them well suited as an experimental model to study the disease and screen for possible remedies. We describe two different methods for isolating and culturing human VSMCs: First, using the human umbilical cord as an easy source of robust cells, and secondly, using brain tissue that provides the proper cerebral VSMCs, but is more problematic to work with...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Alexander Sandberg, Sofie Nyström
Protein misfolding, aggregation, and amyloid formation is involved in a large number of diseases. Recombinantly expressed proteins to study the amyloid fibril formation process are important for mechanistic studies. We here report protocols for production, purification, and fibrillation of three different proteins commonly found in cerebral amyloid; Aβ and Tau found in Alzheimer's disease, Chronic traumatic brain injury, Corticobasal degeneration, and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy and human prion protein found in Creutzfeldt-Jakob's disease...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Agueda Rostagno, Thomas A Neubert, Jorge Ghiso
Amyloid β (Aβ) is the major constituent of the brain deposits found in parenchymal plaques and cerebral blood vessels of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Besides classic full-length peptides, biochemical analyses of brain deposits have revealed high degree of Aβ heterogeneity likely resulting from the action of multiple proteolytic enzymes. This chapter describes a sequential extraction protocol allowing the differential fractionation of soluble and deposited Aβ species taking advantage of their differential solubility properties...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jingwei Shang, Toru Yamashita, Yun Zhai, Yumiko Nakano, Ryuta Morihara, Xianghong Li, Feng Tian, Xia Liu, Yong Huang, Xiaowen Shi, Kota Sato, Mami Takemoto, Nozomi Hishikawa, Yasuyuki Ohta, Koji Abe
Cerebral neuroinflammation defines a novel pathway for progressing Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. We investigated immunohistological changes of neuroinflammation with nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR)-protein 3 (NLRP3), activated caspase-1 and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in a novel AD (APP23) mice with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) model from 4 months (M) of age, moreover, examined protective effect of galantamine. CCH strongly enhanced NLRP3, activated caspase-1 and IL-1β expressions in hippocampus and thalamus at age 12 M of AD mice...
June 6, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Solène Moulin, Barbara Casolla, Grégory Kuchcinski, Gregoire Boulouis, Costanza Rossi, Hilde Hénon, Didier Leys, Charlotte Cordonnier
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), its clinical and neuroimaging associated markers, and its influence on the risk of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a prospective observational ICH cohort. METHODS: We investigated clinical and radiologic markers associated with cSS using multivariable analysis. In survival analyses, we used Cox models to identify predictors of recurrent ICH after adjusting for potential confounders...
June 8, 2018: Neurology
Kosuke Kusakabe, Akihiro Inoue, Shirabe Matsumoto, Mie Kurata, Riko Kitazawa, Hideaki Watanabe, Takeharu Kunieda
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-ri), a rare and treatable variant of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, lacks specific imaging and clinical features, and requires invasive brain biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) caused by CAA-ri in the right occipital lobe. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 78-year-old man with a history of hypertension and rheumatoid arthritis was admitted to our hospital following an episode of seizures...
May 29, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Shigeki Takeda, Kiyoshi Onda, Yuichi Yoshida
Neuropathological examinations of the brain in cases of brain death are usually insufficient because of autolysis. We examined a case of sporadic-type cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related hemorrhage (sCAA-H) in a 74-year-old Japanese woman who had been clinically established as brain dead 7 days before cardiac arrest. The brain was macerated, and a huge hematoma was evident in the right parieto-occipital region. Ordinary neuropathological examination was unable to clarify where the hematoma was located in the brain parenchyma or the subarachnoid space (SAS)...
June 6, 2018: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
María E Solesio, Pablo M Peixoto, Ludovic Debure, Stephen M Madamba, Mony J de Leon, Thomas Wisniewski, Evgeny V Pavlov, Silvia Fossati
Mounting evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a causal role in the etiology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recently showed that the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI) methazolamide (MTZ) prevents amyloid β (Aβ)-mediated onset of apoptosis in the mouse brain. In this study, we used MTZ and, for the first time, the analog CAI acetazolamide (ATZ) in neuronal and cerebral vascular cells challenged with Aβ, to clarify their protective effects and mitochondrial molecular mechanism of action...
June 5, 2018: Aging Cell
Flavia Turcato, Paul Kim, Austin Barnett, Yongming Jin, Mike Scerba, Anthony Casey, Warren Selman, Nigel H Greig, Yu Luo
OBJECTIVE: Although cerebral ischemia can activate endogenous reparative processes, such as proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ), the majority of these new cells die shortly after injury and do not appropriately differentiate into neurons, or migrate and functionally integrate into the brain. The purpose of this study was to examine a novel strategy for treatment of stroke after injury by optimizing the survival of ischemia-induced endogenous NSCs in the SVZ and SGZ...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
Judith Bellapart, Kylie Cuthbertson, Kimble Dunster, Sara Diab, David G Platts, Owen Christopher Raffel, Levon Gabrielian, Adrian Barnett, Jenifer Paratz, Rob Boots, John F Fraser
Background: Cerebral microcirculation after severe head injury is heterogeneous and temporally variable. Microcirculation is dependent upon the severity of injury, and it is unclear how histology relates to cerebral regional blood flow. Objective: This study assesses the changes of cerebral microcirculation blood flow over time after an experimental brain injury model in sheep and contrasts these findings with the histological analysis of the same regions with the aim of mapping cerebral flow and tissue changes after injury...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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