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Cerebral amyloid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441426/identification-of-genes-associated-with-dissociation-of-cognitive-performance-and-neuropathological-burden-multistep-analysis-of-genetic-epigenetic-and-transcriptional-data
#1
Charles C White, Hyun-Sik Yang, Lei Yu, Lori B Chibnik, Robert J Dawe, Jingyun Yang, Hans-Ulrich Klein, Daniel Felsky, Alfredo Ramos-Miguel, Konstantinos Arfanakis, William G Honer, Reisa A Sperling, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, Philip L De Jager
INTRODUCTION: The molecular underpinnings of the dissociation of cognitive performance and neuropathological burden are poorly understood, and there are currently no known genetic or epigenetic determinants of the dissociation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: "Residual cognition" was quantified by regressing out the effects of cerebral pathologies and demographic characteristics on global cognitive performance proximate to death. To identify genes influencing residual cognition, we leveraged neuropathological, genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptional data available for deceased participants of the Religious Orders Study (n = 492) and the Rush Memory and Aging Project (n = 487)...
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437250/ionizing-radiation-reduces-adam10-expression-in-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-undergoing-stress-induced-senescence
#2
Lucinda S McRobb, Matthew J McKay, Jennifer R Gamble, Michael Grace, Vaughan Moutrie, Estevam D Santos, Vivienne S Lee, Zhenjun Zhao, Mark P Molloy, Marcus A Stoodley
Cellular senescence is associated with aging and is considered a potential contributor to age-associated neurodegenerative disease. Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing premature neurovascular degeneration and dementia but also induces premature senescence. As cells of the cerebrovascular endothelium are particularly susceptible to radiation and play an important role in brain homeostasis, we investigated radiation-induced senescence in brain microvascular endothelial cells (EC). Using biotinylation to label surface proteins, streptavidin enrichment and proteomic analysis, we analyzed the surface proteome of stress-induced senescent EC in culture...
April 17, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434642/-late-life-depression-or-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease-which-tools-for-the-differential-diagnosis
#3
A-I Gasser, V Salamin, S Zumbach
INTRODUCTION: Depression and Alzheimer's disease are both very frequent in elderly people. Cognitive deficits are the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, but they are also common in depressed elderly people who often present cognitive deficits such as memory, attention and executive function problems. On the other hand, people with early Alzheimer's disease demonstrate emotional and behavioral disorders generally encountered in depression such as loss of energy, apathy, mood disorder, and irritability...
April 20, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432486/cholesterol-as-a-modifying-agent-of-the-neurovascular-unit-structure-and-function-under-physiological-and-pathological-conditions
#4
REVIEW
Ewelina Czuba, Aleksandra Steliga, Grażyna Lietzau, Przemysław Kowiański
The brain, demanding constant level of cholesterol, precisely controls its synthesis and homeostasis. The brain cholesterol pool is almost completely separated from the rest of the body by the functional blood-brain barrier (BBB). Only a part of cholesterol pool can be exchanged with the blood circulation in the form of the oxysterol metabolites such, as 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) and 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC). Not only neurons but also blood vessels and neuroglia, constituting neurovascular unit (NVU), are crucial for the brain cholesterol metabolism and undergo precise regulation by numerous modulators, metabolites and signal molecules...
April 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432017/dual-functional-nanoparticles-for-precise-drug-delivery-to-alzheimer-s-disease-lesions-targeting-mechanisms-pharmacodynamics-and-safety
#5
Xiaoyao Zheng, Chi Zhang, Qian Guo, Xu Wan, Xiayan Shao, Qingfeng Liu, Qizhi Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is characterized by the cerebral accumulation of extracellular amyloid plaques. In a previous study, this histopathological hallmark was used as a target on a dual-functional nanoparticle (TQNP) to deliver biotechnological drugs, such as the H102 peptide, a β-sheet breaker, to AD lesions precisely. This delivery system could reduce the amyloid-β (Aβ) burden in the brains of AD model mice, as well as ameliorated the memory impairment of the mice...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431735/characterization-of-an-amyloid-only-transgenic-b6c3-tg-appswe-psen1de9-85dbo-mmjax-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
G S Finnie, R Gunnarsson, J Manavis, P C Blumbergs, K A Mander, S Edwards, C Van den Heuvel, J W Finnie
The spatiotemporal pattern of cerebral amyloid deposition, detectable as light microscopically recognizable aggregates in an 'amyloid only' transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, B6C3-Tg(APPswe,PSEN1dE9)85Dbo/Mmjax, is reported for the first time in this strain. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were used to detect amyloid deposition immunohistochemically in brains collected from these mice at 3-12 months of age. Amyloid aggregates (20-200 μm) were first found in serial, whole coronal sections of brain at 4 months of age and these increased progressively, plateauing at 11-12 months...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429406/haplodeficiency-of-cathepsin-d-does-not-affect-cerebral-amyloidosis-and-autophagy-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#7
Shaowu Cheng, Willayat Y Wani, David A Hottman, Angela Jeong, Dongfeng Cao, Kyle J LeBlanc, Paul Saftig, Jianhua Zhang, Ling Li
Autophagy and lysosomal function are important for protein homeostasis and their dysfunction have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased immunoreactivities of an important lysosomal protease, cathepsin D (Cat D), are evident in amyloid plaques and neurons in patients with AD. The current study tests the hypothesis that deleting one allele of the cathepsin D gene (Ctsd) impacts cerebral β-amyloidosis in APPsw/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) double transgenic mice. Despite a significant 38% decrease of Cat D level in APP/PS1/Ctsd+/- compared to APP/PS1/Ctsd+/+ mice, no changes in steady state levels and deposition of Aβ were found in the brain...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428194/detrimental-effects-of-centrally-administered-angiotensin-ii-are-enhanced-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-disease-independently-of%C3%A2-blood-pressure
#8
Koki Takane, Yu Hasegawa, Bowen Lin, Nobutaka Koibuchi, Cheng Cao, Takashi Yokoo, Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
BACKGROUND: The significance of brain angiotensin II in Alzheimer disease (AD) is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: To examine the role of brain angiotensin II in AD, intracerebroventricular angiotensin II infusion was performed on 5XFAD mice, a mouse model of AD, and wild-type mice, and the detrimental effects of brain angiotensin II was compared between the 2 strains of mice. Intracerebroventricular angiotensin II infusion significantly impaired cognitive function in 5XFAD mice but not in wild-type mice...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422821/how-the-cognitive-reserve-interacts-with-%C3%AE-amyloid-deposition-in-mitigating-fdg-metabolism-an-observational-study
#9
Elena Carapelle, Laura Serra, Sergio Modoni, Michele Falcone, Carlo Caltagirone, Marco Bozzali, Luigi Maria Specchio, Carlo Avolio
This observational study had the aim to assess the interaction between cognitive reserve (CR) and cerebrospinal fluid β-amyloid1-42 (Aβ1-42) in modulating brain [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) metabolism in patients with moderate Alzheimer disease (AD).Twenty-seven patients with probable AD and 25 neurological normal subjects (NNS) entered the study. All participants had an FDG-PET scan, and AD patients also received a lumbar puncture to measure Aβ1-42, 181p-tau, and Tau concentrations...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414186/a-review-on-neuroimaging-based-classification-studies-and-associated-feature-extraction-methods-for-alzheimer-s-disease-and-its-prodromal-stages
#10
REVIEW
Saima Rathore, Mohamad Habes, Muhammad Aksam Iftikhar, Amanda Shacklett, Christos Davatzikos
Neuroimaging has made it possible to measure pathological brain changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in vivo. Over the past decade, these measures have been increasingly integrated into imaging signatures of AD by means of classification frameworks, offering promising tools for individualized diagnosis and prognosis. We reviewed neuroimaging-based studies for AD classification and mild cognitive impairment, selected after online database searches in Google Scholar and PubMed (January, 1985 to June, 2016)...
April 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413987/alzheimer-s-disease-like-early-phase-brain-pathogenesis-self-curing-amelioration-of-neurodegeneration-from-pro-inflammatory-wounding-to-anti-inflammatory-healing
#11
Jiang He, Tao Liao, Guo-Xin Zhong, Ji-Da Zhang, Yan-Ping Chen, Qi Wang, Qing-Ping Zeng
The etiological initiators of neuroinflammation remain inclusive, and effective interventions to block neurodegeneration are unavailable. Surprisingly, we found collagen II-combined complete Freund's adjuvant (CC) that usually induces rheumatoid arthritis (RA) also drives Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neurodegeneration in mice. CC not only upregulates the cerebral pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 8 (IL-8), but also downregulates the cerebral interleukin 10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting enzyme for biosynthesis of the anti-inflammatory neurotransmitter dopamine...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413924/erythropoietin-attenuates-axonal-injury-after-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-mice
#12
Rongliang Wang, Haiping Zhao, Jincheng Li, Yunxia Duan, Zhibin Fan, Zhen Tao, Fei Ju, Feng Yan, Yumin Luo
OBJECTIVE: Erythropoietin (EPO) confers potent neuroprotection against ischemic injury through a variety of mechanisms. However, the protective effect of EPO on axons after cerebral ischemia in adult mice is rarely covered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of EPO on axons in mice after cerebral ischemia. METHODS: A total of 30 adult male C57 BL/6 mice were treated with EPO (5000 IU/kg) or vehicle after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
April 16, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405187/identification-of-cerebral-metal-ion-imbalance-in-the-brain-of-aging-octodon-degus
#13
Nady Braidy, Anne Poljak, Chris Marjo, Helen Rutlidge, Anne Rich, Bat-Erdene Jugder, Tharusha Jayasena, Nibaldo C Inestrosa, Perminder S Sachdev
The accumulation of redox-active transition metals in the brain and metal dyshomeostasis are thought to be associated with the etiology and pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in particular. As well, distinct biometal imaging and role of metal uptake transporters are central to understanding AD pathogenesis and aging but remain elusive, due inappropriate detection methods. We therefore hypothesized that Octodon degus develop neuropathological abnormalities in the distribution of redox active biometals, and this effect may be due to alterations in the expression of lysosomal protein, major Fe/Cu transporters, and selected Zn transporters (ZnTs and ZIPs)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398721/inclusions-of-r6-2-mice-are-not-amyloid-and-differ-structurally-from-those-of-huntington-disease-brain
#14
William André, Christophe Sandt, Isabelle Nondier, Philippe Djian, Guylaine Hoffner
R6/2 mice contain an N-terminal fragment of human huntingtin with an expanded polyQ and develop a neurological disease resembling Huntington disease. Although the brain of R6/2 mice contains numerous inclusions, there is very little neuronal death. In that respect, R6/2 mice differ from patients with Huntington disease whose striatum and cerebral cortex develop inclusions associated with extensive neuronal loss. We have previously demonstrated using synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy that the striatum and the cortex of patients with Huntington disease contained inclusions specifically enriched in amyloid β-sheets...
April 24, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390823/the-expression-and-activity-of-kv3-4-channel-subunits-are-precociously-upregulated-in-astrocytes-exposed-to-a%C3%AE-oligomers-and-in-astrocytes-of-alzheimer-s-disease-tg2576-mice
#15
Francesca Boscia, Anna Pannaccione, Roselia Ciccone, Antonella Casamassa, Cristina Franco, Ilaria Piccialli, Valeria de Rosa, Antonio Vinciguerra, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lucio Annunziato
Astrocyte dysfunction emerges early in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may contribute to its pathology and progression. Recently, the voltage gated potassium channel KV3.4 subunit, which underlies the fast-inactivating K(+) currents, has been recognized to be relevant for AD pathogenesis and is emerging as a new target candidate for AD. In the present study, we investigated both in in vitro and in vivo models of AD the expression and functional activity of KV3.4 potassium channel subunits in astrocytes. In primary astrocytes our biochemical, immunohistochemical, and electrophysiological studies demonstrated a time-dependent upregulation of KV3...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388365/protective-effects-of-telmisartan-and-tempol-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cognitive-impairment-neuro-inflammation-and-amyloidogenesis-possible-role-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#16
Waleed Abd-Elsalam Khallaf, Basim Messiha, Amira Abo-Youssef, Nesrine Salah El Dine El Sayed
Angiotensin II has pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant potentials. We investigated the possible protective effects of the angiotensin receptor blocker telmisartan, compared with the superoxide scavenger tempol, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive decline and amyloidogenesis. Briefly, mice were allocated into a normal control group, an LPS control group, a tempol treatment group, and two telmisartan treatment groups. A behavioral study was conducted followed by a biochemical study via assessment of brain levels of beta amyloid (Aβ) and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) as amyloidogenesis and neuroplasticity markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide end products (NOx), neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (nNOS and iNOS) as inflammatory markers, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione reduced (GSH) and nitrotyrosine (NT) as oxido-nitrosative stress markers...
April 7, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387900/the-relationship-between-intracranial-pressure-and-neurocognitive-function-before-and-after-the-repair-of-a-skull-injury
#17
J He, L-L Chen, D-K Sun, H-T Wang, J-J Wang, X Zhai
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relationship between intracranial pressure (ICP) changes after skull injury repair and neurocognitive function before and after the repair. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty patients undergoing skull injury repair participated in the study. A non-invasive detection analyzer was used to detect the ICP 2 days before operation, 10 days after the operation and one month after the operation in all patients. Additionally, the mean cerebral blood flow velocities (MV) in the internal carotid and the medial cerebral arteries were detected using a transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD)...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387666/increased-carbohydrate-intake-is-associated-with-poorer-performance-in-verbal-memory-and-attention-in-an-apoe-genotype-dependent-manner
#18
Samantha L Gardener, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Hamid R Sohrabi, Michael Weinborn, Giuseppe Verdile, W M A D Binosha Fernando, Yen Ying Lim, Karra Harrington, Samantha Burnham, Kevin Taddei, Colin L Masters, Stuart L Macaulay, Christopher C Rowe, David Ames, Paul Maruff, Ralph N Martins
Evidence suggests that a diet low in carbohydrates can impact on cognitive performance among those with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is a lack of data assessing this relationship among cognitively normal (CN) older adults at increased future risk of developing AD due to carriage of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele. We assessed the cross-sectional association between carbohydrate intake, cognitive performance, and cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) load in CN older adults, genotyped for APOEɛ4 allele carrier status...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385551/down-syndrome-age-dependence-of-pib-binding-in-postmortem-frontal-cortex-across-the-lifespan
#19
Harry LeVine, H Peter Spielmann, Sergey Matveev, Francesca Macchiavello Cauvi, M Paul Murphy, Tina L Beckett, Katie McCarty, Ira T Lott, Eric Doran, Frederick Schmitt, Elizabeth Head
Beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in brain accumulates as a function of age in people with Down syndrome (DS) with subsequent development into Alzheimer disease neuropathology, typically by 40 years of age. In vivo imaging using the Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) ligand has facilitated studies linking Aβ, cognition, and dementia in DS. However, there are no studies of PiB binding across the lifespan in DS. The current study describes in vitro (3)H-PiB binding in the frontal cortex of autopsy cases with DS compared to non-DS controls...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378593/protective-roles-of-monsonia-angustifolia-and-its-active-compounds-in-experimental-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Yoon Sun Chun, Joonki Kim, Sungkwon Chung, Eric Khorombi, Dashnie Naidoo, Rudzani Nthambeleni, Nial Harding, Vinesh Maharaj, Gerda Fouche, Hyun Ok Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the accumulation of neurotoxic β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, which consequently affects cognitive decline and memory impairment. Current research on AD treatment is actively focusing on the prevention of neurotoxic Aβ peptide accumulation. Monsonia angustifolia is reported to be consumed as an indigenous vegetable in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated the effect of the ethanol (EtOH) extract of M. angustifolia dried ground material on Aβ production and spatial learning ability as protection against AD...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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