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Cerebral amyloid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232251/are-the-brain-s-vascular-and-alzheimer-pathologies-additive-or-interactive
#1
Rebecca Koncz, Perminder Sachdev
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) commonly co-occur. Whether CVD promotes the progression of Alzheimer's disease pathology remains a source of great interest. Recent technological developments have enabled us to examine their inter-relationship using quantifiable, biomarker-based approaches. We provide an overview of advances in understanding the relationship between vascular and Alzheimer's disease pathologies, with particular emphasis on β-amyloid and tau as measured by positron emission tomography and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration, and magnetic resonance imaging markers of small vessel disease (SVD)...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226875/vegfr1-and-vegfr2-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Rachel Harris, James Scott Miners, Shelley Allen, Seth Love
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor. Despite upregulation of VEGF in the brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD), probably in response to amyloid-β, vasoconstriction, and tissue hypoxia, there is no consequent increase in microvessel density. VEGF binds to and activates VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), but also binds to VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1), which exists in less-active membrane-bound and inactive soluble (sVEGFR1) forms and inhibits pro-angiogenic signaling. We have investigated whether altered expression of VEGF receptors might account for the lack of angiogenic response to VEGF in AD...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226863/associations-between-use-of-specific-analgesics-and-concentrations-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-or-phospho-tau-in-regions-of-human-cerebral-cortex
#3
Margaret E Flanagan, Eric B Larson, Rod L Walker, C Dirk Keene, Nadia Postupna, Brenna Cholerton, Joshua A Sonnen, Sascha Dublin, Paul K Crane, Thomas J Montine
Analgesics are commonly used by older adults, raising the question of whether their use might contribute to dementia risk and neuropathologic changes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study is a population-based study of brain aging and incident dementia among people 65 years or older who are community dwelling and not demented at entry. Amyloid-β (Aβ)42 and phospho-tau were quantified using Histelide in regions of cerebral cortex from 420 brain autopsies. Total standard daily doses of prescription opioid and non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exposure during a defined 10-year exposure window were identified using automated pharmacy dispensing data and used to classify people as having no/low, intermediate, or high exposure...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222944/cerebral-microbleeds-an-mri-review-of-common-and-less-common-causes
#4
REVIEW
Dimitri Renard
Cerebral microbleeds (CMB) are small foci of (acute, subacute, or chronic) blood products, best seen using MRI techniques sensitive to iron deposits (i.e. gradient-echo T2*-weighted and susceptibility-weighted imaging), frequently encountered in small vessel disease (SVD, with hypertensive vasculopathy and cerebral amyloid angiopathy as most frequent conditions) and also in other disorders. In this review, we will mainly discuss the MRI characteristics of CMB and the associated MRI abnormalities encountered in common and less common SVD and non-SVD conditions...
December 9, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209396/whole-brain-voxel-wise-analysis-of-cerebral-retention-of-beta-amyloid-in-cognitively-normal-older-adults-using-18f-florbetaben
#5
Yoo Hyun Um, Woo Hee Choi, Won Sang Jung, Young Ha Park, Chang-Uk Lee, Hyun Kook Lim
Objective: Recently developed 18F-labelled amyloid beta (Aβ) positron emission tomography (PET) tracers have demonstrated potentials to enable more prevalent application of amyloid imaging in the clinical setting. The aim of this study is to demonstrate cerebral retention of Aβ in cognitively normal older adults, by implementing voxel-based analysis on images acquired from 18F-Florbetaben amyloid PET. Methods: Fifty cognitive normal elderly subjects were recruited and included in the study...
November 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204961/patterns-of-convexal-subarachnoid-haemorrhage-clinical-radiological-and-outcome-differences-between-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-and-other-causes
#6
Lionel Calviere, Nicolas Raposo, Victor Cuvinciuc, Christophe Cognard, Fabrice Bonneville, Alain Viguier
BACKGROUND: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common aetiology of convexal subarachnoid haemorrhage (cSAH) but little is known about its specific characteristics in comparison with cSAH from other causes. In this study we compared patients with CAA vs. non-CAA-related cSAH. METHODS: Retrospective review of baseline and follow-up data of consecutive patients admitted with a symptomatic acute cSAH. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients were included (mean age 66...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201990/retinal-thickness-correlates-with-parietal-cortical-atrophy-in-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-and-controls
#7
Jurre den Haan, Sarah F Janssen, Jacoba A van de Kreeke, Philip Scheltens, Frank D Verbraak, Femke H Bouwman
Introduction: The retina may reflect Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathological changes and is easily visualized with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Retinal thickness decrease has been correlated to AD, however, without information on amyloid status. We correlated retinal (layer) thickness to AD biomarkers in amyloid-positive early-onset AD (EOAD) patients and amyloid-negative controls. Methods: We measured macular thickness and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness with OCT in 15 EOAD patients and 15 controls and correlated retinal thickness to visual rating scores for atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201555/background-and-distribution-of-lobar-microbleeds-in-cognitive-dysfunction
#8
Hirofumi Matsuyama, Yuichiro Ii, Masayuki Maeda, Maki Umino, Yukito Ueda, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Hirotaka Kida, Masayuki Satoh, Akihiro Shindo, Akira Taniguchi, Ryosuke Takahashi, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Objectives: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are often observed in memory clinic patients. It has been generally accepted that deep CMBs (D-CMBs) result from hypertensive vasculopathy (HV), whereas strictly lobar CMBs (SL-CMBs) result from cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) which frequently coexists with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mixed CMBs (M-CMBs) have been partially attributed to HV and also partially attributed to CAA. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differences between SL-CMBs and M-CMBs in terms of clinical features and regional distribution...
November 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195510/cerebrovascular-pathology-in-down-syndrome-and-alzheimer-disease
#9
Elizabeth Head, Michael J Phelan, Eric Doran, Ronald C Kim, Wayne W Poon, Frederick A Schmitt, Ira T Lott
People with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for developing Alzheimer disease (AD) with age. Typically, by age 40 years, most people with DS have sufficient neuropathology for an AD diagnosis. Interestingly, atherosclerosis and hypertension are atypical in DS with age, suggesting the lack of these vascular risk factors may be associated with reduced cerebrovascular pathology. However, because the extra copy of APP leads to increased beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) accumulation in DS, we hypothesized that there would be more extensive and widespread cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) with age in DS relative to sporadic AD...
December 1, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193080/neuroprotection-mediated-post-ischemically-by-a-non-peptidic-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-agonist-tan-67-in-ischemic-stroke-mice-is-associated-with-altered-amyloid-precursor-protein-expression-maturation-and-processing
#10
Jia-Wei Min, Yanying Liu, David Wang, Fangfang Qiao, Hongmin Wang
Tan-67 is a selective non-peptidic δ-opioid receptor (DOR) agonist that confers neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-caused neuronal injury in pre-treated animals. In this study, we examined whether post-ischemic administration of Tan-67 in stroke mice is also neuroprotective and whether the treatment affects expression, maturation and processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). A focal cerebral I/R model in mice was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 1 hour (h) and Tan-67 (1...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191087/neuroprotective-effect-of-formononetin-in-ameliorating-learning-and-memory-impairment-in-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Hong-Xin Fei, Ying-Bo Zhang, Ting Liu, Xiao-Jie Zhang, Shu-Liang Wu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia among elderly population. Deranged β-amyloid (Aβ) trafficking across the blood-brain barrier is known to be a critical element in the pathogenesis of AD. In the vascular endothelial cells of hippocampus, Aβ transport is mainly mediated by low-density lipoprotein-associated protein 1 (LRP1) and the receptor for advanced glycation end (RAGE) products; therefore, LRP1 and RAGE endothelial cells are potential therapeutic targets for AD. In this study, we explored the effects of Formononetin (FMN) on learning and memory improvement in APP/PS1 mice and the related mechanisms...
December 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188863/cross-sectional-associations-of-total-plasma-homocysteine-with-cortical-%C3%AE-amyloid-independently-and-as-a-function-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-status-in-older-adults-at-risk-of-dementia
#12
C Hooper, P De Souto Barreto, N Coley, E Caussé, P Payoux, A S Salabert, M Cesari, S Andrieu, G-L Bowman, M Weiner, B Vellas
OBJECTIVES: Elevated total plasma homocysteine is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and there is some evidence that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can modulate the effects of homocysteine-lowering B vitamins on AD related pathologies. Hence we investigated the relationship between total plasma homocysteine and cortical β-amyloid (Aβ) in older adults at risk of dementia. The role of erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFAs (omega 3 index) on this relationship was also explored...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188296/association-of-cerebral-amyloid-%C3%AE-aggregation-with-cognitive-functioning-in-persons-without-dementia
#13
Willemijn J Jansen, Rik Ossenkoppele, Betty M Tijms, Anne M Fagan, Oskar Hansson, William E Klunk, Wiesje M van der Flier, Victor L Villemagne, Giovanni B Frisoni, Adam S Fleisher, Alberto Lleó, Mark A Mintun, Anders Wallin, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Duk L Na, Gäel Chételat, José Luis Molinuevo, Susan M Landau, Niklas Mattsson, Johannes Kornhuber, Osama Sabri, Christopher C Rowe, Lucilla Parnetti, Julius Popp, Tormod Fladby, William J Jagust, Pauline Aalten, Dong Young Lee, Rik Vandenberghe, Catarina Resende de Oliveira, Elisabeth Kapaki, Lutz Froelich, Adrian Ivanoiu, Tomasz Gabryelewicz, Marcel M Verbeek, Páscual Sanchez-Juan, Helmut Hildebrandt, Vincent Camus, Marzena Zboch, David J Brooks, Alexander Drzezga, Juha O Rinne, Andrew Newberg, Alexandre de Mendonça, Marie Sarazin, Gil D Rabinovici, Karine Madsen, Milica G Kramberger, Agneta Nordberg, Vincent Mok, Barbara Mroczko, David A Wolk, Philipp T Meyer, Magda Tsolaki, Philip Scheltens, Frans R J Verhey, Pieter Jelle Visser, Dag Aarsland, Daniel Alcolea, Myriam Alexander, Ina S Almdahl, Steven E Arnold, Inês Baldeiras, Henryk Barthel, Bart N M van Berckel, Kaj Blennow, Mark A van Buchem, Enrica Cavedo, Kewei Chen, Elena Chipi, Ann D Cohen, Stefan Förster, Juan Fortea, Kristian S Frederiksen, Yvonne Freund-Levi, Olymbia Gkatzima, Mark Forrest Gordon, Timo Grimmer, Harald Hampel, Lucrezia Hausner, Sabine Hellwig, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Peter Johannsen, Aleksandra Klimkowicz-Mrowiec, Sebastian Köhler, Norman Koglin, Koen van Laere, Mony de Leon, Viviana Lisetti, Wolfgang Maier, Jan Marcusson, Olga Meulenbroek, Hanne M Møllergård, John C Morris, Arto Nordlund, Gerald P Novak, George P Paraskevas, Gayan Perera, Oliver Peters, Inez H G B Ramakers, Lorena Rami, Eloy Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Catherine M Roe, Uros Rot, Eckart Rüther, Isabel Santana, Johannes Schröder, Sang W Seo, Hilkka Sorininen, Luiza Spiru, Erik Stomrud, Hanne Struyfs, Charlotte E Teunissen, Stephanie J B Vos, Linda J C van Waalwijk van Doorn, Gunhild Waldemar, Åsa K Wallin, Jens Wiltfang, Henrik Zetterberg
Importance: Cerebral amyloid-β aggregation is an early event in Alzheimer disease (AD). Understanding the association between amyloid aggregation and cognitive manifestation in persons without dementia is important for a better understanding of the course of AD and for the design of prevention trials. Objective: To investigate whether amyloid-β aggregation is associated with cognitive functioning in persons without dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 2908 participants with normal cognition and 4133 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from 53 studies in the multicenter Amyloid Biomarker Study...
November 29, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183952/cerebellar-hematoma-location-implications-for-the-underlying-microangiopathy
#14
Marco Pasi, Sandro Marini, Andrea Morotti, Gregoire Boulouis, Li Xiong, Andreas Charidimou, Alison M Ayres, Myung Joo Lee, Alessandro Biffi, Joshua N Goldstein, Jonathan Rosand, M Edip Gurol, Steven M Greenberg, Anand Viswanathan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Spontaneous cerebellar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has been reported to be mainly associated with vascular changes secondary to hypertension. However, a subgroup of cerebellar ICH seems related to vascular amyloid deposition (cerebral amyloid angiopathy). We sought to determine whether location of hematoma in the cerebellum (deep and superficial regions) was suggestive of a particular hemorrhage-prone small-vessel disease pathology (cerebral amyloid angiopathy or hypertensive vasculopathy)...
November 28, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175981/validation-of-non-invasive-tracer-kinetic-analysis-of-18f-florbetaben-pet-using-a-dual-time-window-acquisition-protocol
#15
Santiago Bullich, Henryk Barthel, Norman Koglin, Georg A Becker, Susan De Santi, Aleksandar Jovalekic, Andrew W Stephens, Osama Sabri
Accurate amyloid PET quantification is necessary for monitoring amyloid-beta accumulation and response to therapy. Currently, most of the studies are analyzed using the static standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) approach because of its simplicity. However, this approach may be influenced by changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) or radiotracer clearance. Full tracer kinetic models require arterial blood sampling and dynamic image acquisition. The objectives of this work were: (1) to validate a non-invasive kinetic modeling approach for 18F-florbetaben PET using an acquisition protocol with the best compromise between quantification accuracy and simplicity and (2) to assess the impact of CBF changes and radiotracer clearance on SUVRs and non-invasive kinetic modeling data in 18F-florbetaben PET...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171999/abc-transporters-are-key-players-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Cátia D Pereira, Filipa Martins, Jens Wiltfang, Odete A B da Cruz E Silva, Sandra Rebelo
Human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate a critical function in the cell, namely the transport of molecules across lipid membranes. Associated to their ubiquitous tissue distribution, they are key players in cellular homeostasis but also potential causative or contributing factors for many pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the central nervous system (CNS), numerous ABC transporters are present throughout the brain parenchyma and especially at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). AD is a neurodegenerative disorder mainly characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and intracellular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated forms of tau protein...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168672/acute-diffusion-weighted-imaging-lesions-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-related-convexal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#17
Markus Beitzke, Christian Enzinger, Alexander Pichler, Gerit Wünsch, Franz Fazekas
Small acute diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesions can accompany intracerebral hemorrhage due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). We therefore examined the occurrence of such lesions in the context of CAA-related convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) both in a cross-sectional and longitudinal manner. DWI lesions were noted in 14/29 (48%) patients at their index cSAH and 12/21 patients (57%) showed acute small DWI lesions at follow-up MRI. Forty-four of 71 (62%) DWI lesions were spatially related to areas of cortical superficial siderosis...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167486/distinctive-clinical-effects-of-haemorrhagic-markers-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#18
Young Kyoung Jang, Hee Jin Kim, Jin San Lee, Yeo Jin Kim, Ko Woon Kim, Yeshin Kim, Hyemin Jang, Juyoun Lee, Jong Min Lee, Seung-Joo Kim, Kyung-Ho Yu, Andreas Charidimou, David J Werring, Sung Tae Kim, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo
Restricted lobar cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and cortical superficial siderosis (CSS) are the characteristic markers of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). However, their effects on clinical features has not been evaluated well. The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical implication of these markers in clinical-radiologically diagnosed CAA. A total of 372 patients with possible or probable CAA who met the modified Boston criteria were recruited in a memory clinic setting. Cortical thickness was measured using surface based methods...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164115/cross-sectional-associations-of-fatigue-with-cerebral-%C3%AE-amyloid-in-older-adults-at-risk-of-dementia
#19
Claudie Hooper, Philipe De Souto Barreto, Nicola Coley, Matteo Cesari, Pierre Payoux, Anne Sophie Salabert, Sandrine Andrieu, Bruno Vellas
Fatigue is a common symptom in the elderly and has also been associated with impaired cognition in older adults. Hence, we sought to explore the cross-sectional relationship between fatigue and cerebral β-amyloid (Aβ) in 269 elderly individuals reporting subjective memory complaints from the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial. Standard uptake value ratios (SUVRs) were generated by [(18)F] florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) using the cerebellum as a reference. Cortical-to-cerebellar SUVRs (cortical-SUVRs) were obtained using the mean signal from the frontal cortex, temporal cortex, parietal cortex, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and posterior cingulate...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163142/low-serum-phosphorus-correlates-with-cerebral-a%C3%AE-deposition-in-cognitively-impaired-subjects-results-from-the-kbase-study
#20
Jong-Chan Park, Sun-Ho Han, Min S Byun, Dahyun Yi, Jun Ho Lee, Kyua Park, Dong Young Lee, Inhee Mook-Jung
Alzheimer's disease (AD), characterized by progressive cognitive decline, is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in the elderly. Cerebral β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition is the major pathological hallmark of AD. Recent studies also have shown that the serum level of phosphorus correlates to the risk of incident dementia. To date, the linkage between cerebral Aβ deposition and the serum phosphorus level remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed the levels of serum phosphorus in 109 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 73 AD dementia (ADD) subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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