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Cerebral amyloid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640874/risk-factors-are-different-for-deep-and-lobar-remote-hemorrhages-after-intravenous-thrombolysis
#1
Luis Prats-Sanchez, Alejandro Martínez-Domeño, Pol Camps-Renom, Raquel Delgado-Mederos, Daniel Guisado-Alonso, Rebeca Marín, Laura Dorado, Salvatore Rudilosso, Alejandra Gómez-González, Francisco Purroy, Manuel Gómez-Choco, David Cánovas, Dolores Cocho, Moises Garces, Sonia Abilleira, Joan Martí-Fàbregas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Remote parenchymal haemorrhage (rPH) after intravenous thrombolysis is defined as hemorrhages that appear in brain regions without visible ischemic damage, remote from the area of ischemia causing the initial stroke symptom. The pathophysiology of rPH is not clear and may be explained by different underlying mechanisms. We hypothesized that rPH may have different risk factors according to the bleeding location. We report the variables that we found associated with deep and lobar rPH after intravenous thrombolysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636345/levels-of-organochlorine-pesticides-are-associated-with-amyloid-aggregation-in-apex-avian-brains
#2
Kelly A Heys, Richard F Shore, M Gloria Pereira, Francis Luke Martin
Organochlorine (OC) pesticides pose a significant environmental risk to wildlife and humans and have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aims to spectroscopically analyse brains from free-flying birds and link the results to OC exposure and consequent amyloid aggregation. As long-lived apex predators, predatory birds represent a sentinel species similar to humans. Therefore, the results have implications for both species and may also add to our understanding of the role OC pesticides play in the development of AD...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624131/studying-arterial-stiffness-using-high-frequency-ultrasound-in-mice-with-alzheimer-disease
#3
Chin-Chia Huang, Hsiang-Fan Cheng, Ben-Peng Zhu, Pei-Yu Chen, Suet Theng Beh, Yu-Min Kuo, Chih-Chung Huang
Alzheimer disease (AD) is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that causes slow loss of memory and thinking skills, normally leading to death in 3-9 y. The etiology of AD is not fully understood but is widely believed to be induced by the production and deposition of amyloid-β peptide in the brain. Recently, a correlation was discovered between amyloid-β deposition and atherosclerosis in the cerebral arteries of postmortem brains, indicating that amyloid-β promotes atherogenesis and that in turn atherosclerosis promotes brain amyloid-β accumulation...
June 14, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623460/spreading-of-pathology-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Zhong-Yue Lv, Chen-Chen Tan, Jin-Tai Yu, Lan Tan
The senile plaques (SPs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are the two major pathological hallmarks of AD, which are composed of β-amyloid protein and Tau protein. So the β-amyloid protein (Aβ) and Tau oligomers (oTau) are the majority in the pathology of AD. Recently, the spreading of Aβ and oTau in the brain of AD patients has received heated value. In this review, we summarize recent research progress and aim to figure out the spreading mechanism of Aβ and Tau in AD via introduction of the formation, release, uptake, diffusion between different brain regions, and the propagation principle of Aβ and Tau...
June 16, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617802/oxidative-stress-affects-processing-of-amyloid-precursor-protein-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#5
Abebe Muche, Thomas Arendt, Reinhard Schliebs
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is thought to be a key player in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been assumed that oxidative stress contributes to the ß-amyloid deposition in cerebral blood vessels. METHODS: In order to prove this hypothesis, we examined the effect of oxidative stress on the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in primary endothelial cells (EC) derived from cerebral cortical tissue of transgenic Tg2576 mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612290/deficiency-of-tyrobp-an-adapter-protein-for-trem2-and-cr3-receptors-is-neuroprotective-in-a-mouse-model-of-early-alzheimer-s-pathology
#6
Jean-Vianney Haure-Mirande, Mickael Audrain, Tomas Fanutza, Soong Ho Kim, William L Klein, Charles Glabe, Ben Readhead, Joel T Dudley, Robert D Blitzer, Minghui Wang, Bin Zhang, Eric E Schadt, Sam Gandy, Michelle E Ehrlich
Conventional genetic approaches and computational strategies have converged on immune-inflammatory pathways as key events in the pathogenesis of late onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Mutations and/or differential expression of microglial specific receptors such as TREM2, CD33, and CR3 have been associated with strong increased risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). DAP12 (DNAX-activating protein 12)/TYROBP, a molecule localized to microglia, is a direct partner/adapter for TREM2, CD33, and CR3...
June 13, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603494/yxqn-reduces-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology-and-cognitive-decline-in-appsweps1de9-transgenic-mice
#7
Xiaowan Wang, Runmin Song, Wenliang Lu, Ziyu Liu, Lichun Wang, Xiaojuan Zhu, Yanjun Liu, Zijie Sun, Jiang Li, Xiaomeng Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the world's most common form of dementia, in which aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) is the hallmark. Unfortunately, few medicines have succeeded to completely cure AD. Yangxue Qingnao (YXQN) is a Chinese traditional medicine, and its pharmacological effect is improving cerebral blood flow. In this study, we firstly demonstrated that YXQN reduced AD-like pathology and cognitive impairment in APPswePS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice with 2 months administration. Our data showed that YXQN substantially ameliorated behavioral defects in 10-month old APP/PS1 mice using Morris Water Maze and Y-maze tests, in which the cognitive ability of YXQN high-dose group approaches to wild type mice...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602012/plasma-levels-of-soluble-amyloid-precursor-protein-%C3%AE-in-symptomatic-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Panagiotis Alexopoulos, Lena-Sophie Gleixner, Lukas Werle, Felix Buhl, Nathalie Thierjung, Evangelia Giourou, Simone M Kagerbauer, Philippos Gourzis, Hubert Kübler, Timo Grimmer, Igor Yakushev, Jan Martin, Alexander Kurz, Robert Perneczky
The established biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) require invasive endeavours or presuppose sophisticated technical equipment. Consequently, new biomarkers are needed. Here, we report that plasma levels of soluble amyloid precursor protein β (sAPPβ), a protein of the initial phase of the amyloid cascade, were significantly lower in patients with symptomatic AD (21 with mild cognitive impairment due to AD and 44 with AD dementia) with AD-typical cerebral hypometabolic pattern compared with 27 cognitively healthy elderly individuals without preclinical AD...
June 10, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599849/the-amyloid-beta-precursor-protein-the-unappreciated-cerebral-anticoagulant
#9
EDITORIAL
Alvin H Schmaier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598849/overexpression-of-ubiquilin-1-alleviates-alzheimer-s-disease-caused-cognitive-and-motor-deficits-and-reduces-amyloid-%C3%AE-accumulation-in-mice
#10
Oludotun O Adegoke, Fangfang Qiao, Yanying Liu, Kirsty Longley, Shelley Feng, Hongmin Wang
Ubiquilin-1 (Ubqln1) is a ubiquitin-like protein that has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether Ubqln1 modulates learning and memory and alters AD-like behavior and/or pathology has not been determined in animal models. To understand the function of Ubqln1 in vivo, we previously generated Ubqln1 transgenic (TG) mice that overexpress mouse Ubqln1. With the model, we here characterized the TG mouse cognitive behaviors and found that Ubqln1 TG mice showed better spatial learning and memory capabilities than their wild-type littermates in both radial arm water maze and Y-maze tests...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588366/neurocognitive-effect-of-nootropic-drug-brahmi-bacopa-monnieri-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Kaustubh S Chaudhari, Nishant R Tiwari, Rakesh R Tiwari, Rohan S Sharma
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the elderly. The rapid increase in its incidence has necessitated development of newer drugs. Ayurvedic herbal medications are increasingly researched due to their biosafety profile and usefulness in cognitive impairment. In this article, we critically reviewed one such Medhya Rasayana (nootropic drug) Brahmi-derived from extract of Bacopa monnieri (EBm). Studies have shown that EBm promotes free radical scavenger mechanisms and protects cells in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum against cytotoxicity and DNA damage implicated in AD...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588301/protective-effects-of-gingerol-on-streptozotocin-induced-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-emphasis-on-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-cox-2-alpha-beta-secretases-and-aph1a
#12
Ali M El Halawany, Nesrine S El Sayed, Hossam M Abdallah, Riham Salah El Dine
Gingerol is a major dietary compound that occurs in several plants belonging to the Zingiberaceae family. In the current study, the protective effect of gingerol on STZ-induced sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) was determined. Gingerol was isolated from the seeds of Aframomum melegueta K. Schum and tested at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kgbwt for its possible effect on the SAD model in mice, using celecoxib (30 mg/kg bwt) as a reference standard. The curative effects of gingerol were assessed through measurement of β-amyloid (Aβ-42), α-, β- secretases, APH1a and COX-2 levels...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583195/effects-of-phosphodiesterase-3a-modulation-on-murine-cerebral-microhemorrhages
#13
Rachita K Sumbria, Vitaly Vasilevko, Mher Mahoney Grigoryan, Annlia Paganini-Hill, Ronald Kim, David H Cribbs, Mark J Fisher
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microbleeds (CMB) are MRI-demonstrable cerebral microhemorrhages (CMH) which commonly coexist with ischemic stroke. This creates a challenging therapeutic milieu, and a strategy that simultaneously protects the vessel wall and provides anti-thrombotic activity is an attractive potential approach. Phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A) inhibition is known to provide cerebral vessel wall protection combined with anti-thrombotic effects. As an initial step in the development of a therapy that simultaneously treats CMB and ischemic stroke, we hypothesized that inhibition of the PDE3A pathway is protective against CMH development...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582450/spontaneous-low-frequency-bold-signal-variations-from-resting-state-fmri-are-decreased-in-alzheimer-disease
#14
Samaneh Kazemifar, Kathryn Y Manning, Nagalingam Rajakumar, Francisco A Gómez, Andrea Soddu, Michael J Borrie, Ravi S Menon, Robert Bartha
Previous studies have demonstrated altered brain activity in Alzheimer's disease using task based functional MRI (fMRI), network based resting-state fMRI, and glucose metabolism from 18F fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (FDG-PET). Our goal was to define a novel indicator of neuronal activity based on a first-order textural feature of the resting state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) signal. Furthermore, we examined the association between this neuronal activity metric and glucose metabolism from 18F FDG-PET. We studied 15 normal elderly controls (NEC) and 15 probable Alzheimer disease (AD) subjects from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578785/alzheimer-disease-scientific-breakthroughs-and-translational-challenges
#15
REVIEW
Richard J Caselli, Thomas G Beach, David S Knopman, Neill R Graff-Radford
Alzheimer disease (AD) was originally conceived as a rare disease that caused presenile dementia but has come to be understood as the most prevalent cause of dementia at any age worldwide. It has an extended preclinical phase characterized by sequential changes in imaging and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers with subtle memory decline beginning more than a decade before the emergence of symptomatic memory loss heralding the beginning of the mild cognitive impairment stage. The apolipoprotein E ε4 allele is a prevalent and potent risk factor for AD that has facilitated research into its preclinical phase...
June 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578514/the-beneficial-effects-of-hmg-coa-reductase-inhibitors-in-the-processes-of-neurodegeneration
#16
REVIEW
Seyed Soheil Saeedi Saravi, Seyed Sobhan Saeedi Saravi, Alireza Arefidoust, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Statins, cholesterol lowering drugs, have been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects in other conditions such as primary and progressing neurodegenerative diseases beyond their original role. Observation that statins ameliorate the neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and cerebral ischemic stroke, the neuroprotective effects of these drugs are thought to be linked to their anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-excitotoxic properties...
June 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575866/catalpol-protects-synaptic-proteins-from-beta-amyloid-induced-neuron-injury-and-improves-cognitive-functions-in-aged-rats
#17
Zhiming Xia, Fengfei Wang, Shuang Zhou, Rui Zhang, Fushun Wang, Jason H Huang, Erxi Wu, Yongfang Zhang, Yaer Hu
Synapse loss is one of the common factors contributing to cognitive disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is manifested by the impairment of basic cognitive functions including memory processing, perception, problem solving, and language. The current therapies for patients with cognitive disorders are mainly palliative; thus, regimens preventing and/or delaying dementia progression are urgently needed. In this study, we evaluated the effects of catalpol, isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Rehmannia glutinosa, on synaptic plasticity in aged rat models...
May 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575149/cerebrovascular-resistance-effects-on-cognitive-decline-cortical-atrophy-and-progression-to-dementia
#18
Belinda Yew, Daniel A Nation
Evidence for vascular contributions to Alzheimer's disease has been increasingly identified, with increased blood pressure and decreased cerebral blood flow both linked to in vivo biomarkers and clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease. We therefore hypothesized that an elevated ratio of blood pressure to cerebral blood flow, indicative of cerebrovascular resistance, would exhibit earlier and more widespread associations with Alzheimer's disease than cerebral blood flow alone. Further, we predicted that increased cerebrovascular resistance and amyloid retention would synergistically influence cognitive performance trajectories, independent of neuronal metabolism...
June 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574875/augmenting-amyloid-pet-interpretations-with-quantitative-information-improves-consistency-of-early-amyloid-detection
#19
Nicholas R Harn, Suzanne L Hunt, Jacqueline Hill, Eric Vidoni, Mark Perry, Jeffrey M Burns
PURPOSE: Establishing reliable methods for interpreting elevated cerebral amyloid-β plaque on PET scans is increasingly important for radiologists, as availability of PET imaging in clinical practice increases. We examined a 3-step method to detect plaque in cognitively normal older adults, focusing on the additive value of quantitative information during the PET scan interpretation process. METHODS: Fifty-five F-florbetapir PET scans were evaluated by 3 experienced raters...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570698/high-prevalence-of-cognitive-impairment-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#20
Mélanie Planton, Laure Saint-Aubert, Nicolas Raposo, Laura Branchu, Aicha Lyoubi, Fabrice Bonneville, Jean-François Albucher, Jean-Marc Olivot, Patrice Péran, Jérémie Pariente
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment seems to be frequent in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) survivors, but remains widely understudied. In this study, we investigated the frequency and patterns of vascular cognitive disorders (VCDs) in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)-related and deep ICH compared to patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD) and healthy controls. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 20 patients with CAA-related lobar ICH, 20 with deep ICH, 20 with MCI-AD and 17 healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
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