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Cerebral amyloid

Vikas Kotagal, Cathie Spino, Nicolaas I Bohnen, Robert A Koeppe, Roger L Albin
OBJECTIVE: Serotoninergic neurotransmission may modulate beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) metabolism through up-regulation of alpha-secretase. Early Parkinson disease (PD) shows variable serotoninergic denervation, which may impact Aβ deposition. METHODS: We conducted three analyses to explore associations between serotoninergic neurotransmission and cerebral Aβ burden in PD. The first was a cross-sectional imaging study of PD subjects (n=23) using the serotoninergic transporter positron emission tomography (PET) ligand [11 C]DASB and amyloid PET Pittsburgh compound B ([11 C]PiB)...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Liang Wen, Wen-Dong You, Hao Wang, Yuanyuan Meng, Jun-Feng Feng, Xiaofeng Yang
Increasing evidence indicated that activated microglia play an important role in the inflammatory response following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Inhibiting M1 and stimulating M2 activated microglia have demonstrated protective effects in several animal models of central nervous system diseases. However, it is not clear whether the polarization of microglia to M2 attenuates axonal injury following TBI. In this study, we used a lateral fluid percussion injury device to induce axonal injury in mice. Mice were randomly assigned to the sham, TBI, TBI + rosiglitazone (PPAR-γ agonist), and TBI + GW9662 (PPAR-γ antagonist) groups...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Yue-Qin Zeng, Yin-Bo Cui, Juan-Hua Gu, Chen Liang, Xin-Fu Zhou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by excessive accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) within extracellular spaces of the brain. Aggregation of Aβ has been shown to trigger oxidative stress, inflammation, and neurotoxicity resulting in cognitive dysfunction. In this study, we use models of cerebral Aβ amyloidosis to investigate anti-amyloidogenic effects of scutellarin in vitro and in vivo. Our results show that scutellarin, through binding to Aβ42, efficiently inhibits oligomerization as well as fibril formation and reduces Aβ oligomer-induced neuronal toxicity in cell line SH-SY5Y...
April 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Carlos Fernández Viadero, Rosario Verduga Vélez, Dámaso Crespo Santiago
Neuroplasticity lends the brain a strong ability to adapt to changes in the environment that occur during ageing. Animal models have shown alterations in neurotransmission and imbalances in the expression of neural growth factor. Changes at the morphometric level are not constant. Volume loss is related to alterations in neuroplasticity and involvement of the cerebral neuropil. Although there are no conclusive data, physical exercise improves the molecular, biological, functional and behavioural-cognitive changes associated with brain ageing...
June 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
Shihui Xing, Nannan Pan, Wei Xu, Jian Zhang, Jingjing Li, Chao Dang, Gang Liu, Zhong Pei, Jinsheng Zeng
Cerebral infarction causes secondary neurodegeneration and angiogenesis in thalamus, which impacts functional recovery after stroke. Here, we hypothesize that activation of ephrinB2 could stimulate angiogenesis and restore the secondary neurodegeneration in thalamus after cerebral infarction. Focal cerebral infarction was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Secondary damage, angiogenesis, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits, levels of ephrinB2 and receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) in the ipsilateral thalamus were determined by immunofluorescence and immunoblot...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Kang Ko, Min Soo Byun, Dahyun Yi, Jun Ho Lee, Chan Hyung Kim, Dong Young Lee
Background: Although increased cognitive activity (CA), both current and past, is known to be associated with a decreased occurrence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia in older adults, the exact neural mechanisms underlying the association between CA during different stages of life and human dementia remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether CA during different life stages is associated with cerebral amyloid-beta (Aβ) pathology and AD-related neurodegeneration in non-demented older adults. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of data collected between April 2014 and March 2016 from the Korean Brain Aging Study for Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease (KBASE), an ongoing prospective cohort...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Justine Hur, Véronique Mateo, Nicolas Amalric, Mégane Babiak, Gilbert Béréziat, Claire Kanony-Truc, Thierry Clerc, Régis Blaise, Isabelle Limon
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a major contributor to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Like AD, CAA is often accompanied by marked inflammation, aggravating associated vasculopathies. No evidence-based prevention or treatment strategies are available. Here, we evaluate the possible beneficial effect of a diet enriched with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is known to attenuate inflammation in CAA. Tg2576 mice, a transgenic model of AD/CAA, were fed a DHA-enriched diet starting at 2 mo of age and ending at 10, 14, or 18 mo of age...
April 5, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Elissaios Karageorgiou, Georges Naasan, Samuel J Pleasure, Sanda Alexandrescu, Jeffrey M Gelfand, Gautam Tammewar, Bruce L Miller, Gil D Rabinovici, Lea T Grinberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Zhong-Bao Gao, Wei Wang, Xing-Li Zhao, Tong Chen, Li-Ping Fu, Bai-Xuan Xu, Zhen-Fu Wang
Objective Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a common type of neurodegenerative dementia. Molecular neuroimaging using dopamine transporter (DaT), Pittsburgh compound B (PIB), and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has advantages in detecting dopaminergic neuron loss, abnormal amyloid β-protein deposition, and glucose metabolism changes in patients with neurodegenerative disorders. However, the multi-modality molecular imaging features of patients with DLB have rarely been reported...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Yoon Sun Chun, Lijun Zhang, Huan Li, Yurim Park, Sungkwon Chung, Hyun Ok Yang
The critical pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ), the main constituent of amyloid plaques. β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes amyloidogenic cleavage by β- and γ-secretase generating Aβ at endosomes or non-amyloidogenic processing by α-secretase precluding the production of Aβ at the plasma membrane. Recently, several natural products have been widely researched on the prevention of Aβ accumulation for AD treatment. We previously reported that Lycoris chejuensis K...
April 4, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Igor A Iashchishyn, Marina Gruden, Roman Moskalenko, Tatiana Davydova, Chao Wang, Robert D E Sewell, Ludmilla A Morozova-Roche
Amyloid formation and neuroinflammation are major features of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Proinflammatory mediator S100A9 was shown to act as a link between the amyloid and neuroin-flammatory cascades in Alzheimer's disease, leading together with Aβ to plaque formation, neu-ronal loss and memory impairment. In order to examine if S100A9 alone in its native and amy-loid states can induce neuronal stress and memory impairment, we have administered S100A9 species intranasally to aged mice. Single and sequential immunohistochemistry and passive avoidance behavioral test were conducted to evaluate the consequences...
April 4, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Byoung Seok Ye, Hee Jin Kim, Yeo Jin Kim, Na-Yeon Jung, Jin San Lee, Juyoun Lee, Young Kyoung Jang, Jin-Ju Yang, Jong-Min Lee, Jacob W Vogel, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo
We aimed to compare the longitudinal outcome of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients with significant Pittsburgh Compound B uptake [PiB(+) aMCI] and those without [PiB(-) aMCI]. Cerebral β-amyloid was measured in 47 patients with aMCI using PiB-positron emission tomography (PET) (31 PiB(+) aMCI and 16 PiB(-) aMCI). Clinical (N = 47) and neuropsychological follow-up (N = 37), and follow-up with brain magnetic resonance imaging (N = 38) and PiB-PET (N = 30) were performed for three years...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alejandro Ruiz-Riquelme, Heather H C Lau, Erica Stuart, Adrienn N Goczi, Zhilan Wang, Gerold Schmitt-Ulms, Joel C Watts
The amyloid cascade hypothesis posits that the initiating event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the aggregation and deposition of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, which is a proteolytic cleavage product of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Mounting evidence suggests that the formation and spread of prion-like Aβ aggregates during AD may contribute to disease progression. Inoculation of transgenic mice that overexpress APP with pre-formed Aβ aggregates results in the prion-like induction of cerebral Aβ deposition...
April 3, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Heyun Yang, Tingting Hou, Wei Wang, Yumin Luo, Feng Yan, Jianping Jia
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease often coexist. However, it is difficult to determine how chronic cerebral hypoperfusion affects the metabolism of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) in a living patient with AD. Thus, we developed an animal model of this condition, using transgenic mice (PS1V97L) and right common carotid artery ligation to create chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. The metabolic processes associated with amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) were observed and evaluated in this PS1V97L plus hypoperfusion model...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
William Charles Kreisl, Peng Jin, Seonjoo Lee, Ezra R Dayan, Shankar Vallabhajosula, Gregory Pelton, José A Luchsinger, Gnanavalli Pradhaban, D P Devanand
BACKGROUND: Odor identification deficits occur in Alzheimer's disease (AD), as measured by the 40-item University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). OBJECTIVE: To determine if UPSIT scores predict amyloid-β (Aβ) status, determined by 11C-Pittsburgh Compound B PET. We also compared UPSIT scores to Aβ status in predicting future memory decline. METHODS: Subjects were recruited into a longitudinal clinical prediction study...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Dennis M Kamara, Umesh Gangishetti, Marla Gearing, Monica Willis-Parker, Liping Zhao, William T Hu, Lary C Walker
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) of the Aβ type is variably present in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). CAA contributes to cognitive decline and increases the risk of lobar hemorrhage; because both AD-typical dementia and lobar hemorrhage are more common in African-Americans than in Caucasians, we postulated that African-Americans with AD might be particularly susceptible to CAA. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed CAA histopathologically in the large vessels and capillaries of autopsy-derived frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital cortical samples from African-Americans (n = 18) and Caucasians (n = 19) with end-stage AD...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ingmar Skoog, Silke Kern, Henrik Zetterberg, Svante Östling, Anne Börjesson-Hanson, Xinxin Guo, Kaj Blennow
BACKGROUND: Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of Aβ42 may be the earliest manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Knowledge on how CSF Aβ interacts with different brain pathologies early in the disease process is limited. We examined how CSF Aβ markers relate to brain atrophy and white matter lesions (WMLs) in octogenarians with and without dementia to explore the earliest pathogenetic pathways of AD in the oldest old. OBJECTIVE: To study CSF amyloid biomarkers in relation to brain atrophy and WMLs in 85-year-olds with and without dementia...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Anwar M Masoud, Syed W Bihaqi, Bothaina Alansi, Miriam Dash, Gehad M Subaiea, William E Renehan, Nasser H Zawia
Amyloid deposits originating from the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) and aggregates of the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) are the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Animal studies have demonstrated a link between early life exposure to lead (Pb) and latent overexpression of the AβPP and MAPT genes and their products via epigenetic reprogramming. The present study monitored APP gene and epigenetic mediators and transcription factors known to regulate it. Western blot analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used to study the mRNA, miRNA, and proteins levels of AβPP, specificity protein 1 (SP1; a transcriptional regulator of amyloid and tau pathway), and epigenetic intermediates namely: DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1, DNMT3a and Methyl- CpG protein binding 2 (MeCP2) in the cerebral cortex of transgenic mice (Knock-in for human MAPT)...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jun Takeshita, Eiichi Nomura, Makoto Takemaru, Takahiro Himeno, Yutaka Shimoe, Masaru Kuriyama
A 75-year-old man having dementia and lifestyle related diseases developed a lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (LICH) in the left parietal and a small cerebellar infarction in the left occipital lobe. Many micro bleeds (MB) due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in the subcortical areas and multiple vascular stenosis were also found by MRI and MRA. He developed herpes zoster in his buttocks on day 6 of hospitalization and complicated with varicella zoster virus (VZV) meningitis with positive for VZV-DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid...
March 31, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Rohit Sharma, Stephanie Dearaugo, Bernard Infeld, Richard O'Sullivan, Richard P Gerraty
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is an important cause of lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) in the elderly, but has other clinico-radiological manifestations. In the last two decades, certain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, namely gradient-recalled echo imaging and the newer and more sensitive susceptibility-weighted imaging, have been utilised to detect susceptibility-sensitive lesions such as cerebral microbleeds and cortical superficial siderosis. These can be utilised sensitively and specifically by the Modified Boston Criteria to make a diagnosis of CAA without the need for 'gold-standard' histopathology from biopsy...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
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