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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920974/a-case-report-of-malignant-obesity-hypoventilation-syndrome-a-weighty-problem-in-our-icus
#1
Michael Tatusov, Joshua J Joseph, Brian M Cuneo
INTRODUCTION: The obesity epidemic is reflected by increasing numbers of morbidly obese patients being admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). These are complicated patients whose care involves many diagnostic and treatment challenges. We are presenting a fatal case of super obesity, hypoventilation, and multi-organ failure known as malignant obesity hypoventilation syndrome (MOHS). CASE PRESENTATION: 35 year old African American gentleman with a body mass index (BMI) of 115 kg/m(2) presented to the hospital with respiratory distress...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920723/sex-dependent-anti-stress-effect-of-an-%C3%AE-5-subunit-containing-gabaa-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulator
#2
Sean C Piantadosi, Beverly J French, Michael M Poe, Tamara Timić, Bojan D Marković, Mohan Pabba, Marianne L Seney, Hyunjung Oh, Beverley A Orser, Miroslav M Savić, James M Cook, Etienne Sibille
Rationale: Current first-line treatments for stress-related disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) act on monoaminergic systems and take weeks to achieve a therapeutic effect with poor response and low remission rates. Recent research has implicated the GABAergic system in the pathophysiology of depression, including deficits in interneurons targeting the dendritic compartment of cortical pyramidal cells. Objectives: The present study evaluates whether SH-053-2'F-R-CH3 (denoted "α5-PAM"), a positive allosteric modulator selective for α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors found predominantly on cortical pyramidal cell dendrites, has anti-stress effects...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919932/trends-in-the-incidence-of-hypertensive-emergencies-in-us-emergency-departments-from-2006-to-2013
#3
Alexander T Janke, Candace D McNaughton, Aaron M Brody, Robert D Welch, Phillip D Levy
BACKGROUND: The incidence of hypertensive emergency in US emergency departments (ED) is not well established. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study is a descriptive epidemiological analysis of nationally representative ED visit-level data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample for 2006-2013. Nationwide Emergency Department Sample is a publicly available database maintained by the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. An ED visit was considered to be a hypertensive emergency if it met all the following criteria: diagnosis of acute hypertension, at least 1 diagnosis indicating acute target organ damage, and qualifying disposition (admission to the hospital, death, or transfer to another facility)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919361/adverse-effects-on-insulin-secretion-of-replacing-saturated-fat-with-refined-carbohydrate-but-not-with-monounsaturated-fat-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-centrally-obese-subjects
#4
Lin F Chang, Shireene R Vethakkan, Kalanithi Nesaretnam, Thomas A B Sanders, Kim-Tiu Teng
BACKGROUND: Current dietary guidelines recommend the replacement of saturated fatty acids (SAFAs) with carbohydrates or monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) based on evidence on lipid profile alone, the chronic effects of the mentioned replacements on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity are however unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the chronic effects of the substitution of refined carbohydrate or MUFA for SAFA on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in centrally obese subjects...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918062/harm-aversion-explains-utilitarian-choices-in-moral-decision-making-in-males-but-not-in-females
#5
G Rota, S Palumbo, N Lattanzi, A Manfrinati, M Sarlo, L Lotto, P Pietrini, R Rumiati, S Pellegrini
In recent years, a great deal of research has relied on hypothetical sacrificial dilemmas to investigate decision-making processes involved in pro-social utilitarian choices. Recent evidence, however, has suggested that moral sacrificial choices may actually reflect reduced harm aversion and antisocial dispositions rather than an utilitarian inclination. Here, we used moral dilemmas to confront healthy volunteers with controversial action choices. We measured impulsiveness and venturesomeness personality traits, which have been shown to influence harm aversion, to test their role in utilitarian action and evaluation of moral acceptability...
June 1, 2016: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917891/modular-architecture-and-unique-teichoic-acid-recognition-features-of-choline-binding-protein-l-cbpl-contributing-to-pneumococcal-pathogenesis
#6
Javier Gutiérrez-Fernández, Malek Saleh, Martín Alcorlo, Alejandro Gómez-Mejía, David Pantoja-Uceda, Miguel A Treviño, Franziska Voß, Mohammed R Abdullah, Sergio Galán-Bartual, Jolien Seinen, Pedro A Sánchez-Murcia, Federico Gago, Marta Bruix, Sven Hammerschmidt, Juan A Hermoso
The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is decorated with a special class of surface-proteins known as choline-binding proteins (CBPs) attached to phosphorylcholine (PCho) moieties from cell-wall teichoic acids. By a combination of X-ray crystallography, NMR, molecular dynamics techniques and in vivo virulence and phagocytosis studies, we provide structural information of choline-binding protein L (CbpL) and demonstrate its impact on pneumococcal pathogenesis and immune evasion. CbpL is a very elongated three-module protein composed of (i) an Excalibur Ca(2+)-binding domain -reported in this work for the very first time-, (ii) an unprecedented anchorage module showing alternate disposition of canonical and non-canonical choline-binding sites that allows vine-like binding of fully-PCho-substituted teichoic acids (with two choline moieties per unit), and (iii) a Ltp_Lipoprotein domain...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917284/the-neurobiology-of-dispositional-negativity-and-attentional-biases-to-threat-implications-for-understanding-anxiety-disorders-in-adults-and-youth
#7
Alexander J Shackman, Melissa D Stockbridge, Rachael M Tillman, Claire M Kaplan, Do P M Tromp, Andrew S Fox, Matthias Gamer
When extreme, anxiety can become debilitating. Anxiety disorders, which often first emerge early in development, are common and challenging to treat, yet the neurocognitive mechanisms that confer increased risk have only recently begun to come into focus. Here we review recent work highlighting the importance of neural circuits centered on the amygdala. We begin by describing dispositional negativity, a core dimension of childhood temperament and adult personality and an important risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders and other kinds of stress-sensitive psychopathology...
2016: Journal of Experimental Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916503/riggia-puyensis-n-sp-isopoda-cymothoidae-parasitizing-chaetostoma-breve-and-chaetostoma-microps-siluriformes-loricariidae-from-ecuador
#8
C Rodríguez Haro, M M Montes, P Marcotegui, S R Martorelli
A new isopod was found parasitizing Chaetostoma breve and Chaetostoma microps from the Puyo and Bobonaza rivers. The parasite found belongs to the Cymothoidae family and could be located within the genus Riggia instead of Artystone by the presence of abdominal plates fused with the telson. The specimens found represent a new species, Riggia puyensis n. sp., and could be distinguished from Riggia cryptocularis by the presence of developed eyes. The main difference of the new specie from Riggia nana and Riggia brasiliensis is the size, bigger compared with the first and smaller compared with the last species...
December 1, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914879/what-can-animal-research-tell-us-about-the-link-between-androgens-and-social-competition-in-humans
#9
REVIEW
Matthew J Fuxjager, Brian C Trainor, Catherine A Marler
The relationship between androgenic hormones, like testosterone (T), and aggression is extensively studied in human populations. Yet, while this work has illuminated a variety of principals regarding the behavioral and phenotypic effects of T, it is also hindered by inherent limitations of performing research on people. In these instances, animal research can be used to gain further insight into the complex mechanisms by which T influences aggression. Here, we explore recent studies on T and aggression in numerous vertebrate species, although we focus primarily on males and on a New World rodent called the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus)...
November 30, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914661/statin-discontinuation-and-mortality-in-an-older-adult-population-with-traumatic-brain-injury-a-four-year-multi-centre-observational-cohort-study
#10
Alessandro Orlando, Christine Thomas, Matthew Carrick, D Sue Slone, Charles W Mains, David Bar-Or
INTRODUCTION: Statin discontinuation has been investigated in a wide range of diseases and injuries, but there is a paucity of data in the older adult population with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this study was to re-examine the extent to which early discontinuation of pre-injury statin (PIS) therapy increases the risk of poor patient outcomes in older adult patients suffering a TBI. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational cohort study of adult trauma patients with a blunt TBI across three trauma centres over four years...
November 25, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914357/moving-toward-heutagogical-learning-illuminating-undergraduate-nursing-students-experiences-in-a-flipped-classroom
#11
Rebecca D Green, Maura C Schlairet
BACKGROUND: Nurse educators rely on the tenets of educational theory and evidence-based education to promote the most effective curriculum and facilitate the best outcomes. The flipped classroom model, in which students assume personal responsibility for knowledge acquisition in a highly engaging and interactive environment, supports self-directed learning and the unique needs of clinical education. OBJECTIVE: To understand how students perceived their experiences in the flipped classroom and how students' learning dispositions were affected by the flipped classroom experience...
November 25, 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913103/ontogeny-aging-and-gender-related-changes-in-hepatic-multidrug-resistant-protein-genes-in-rats
#12
Qiong-Ni Zhu, Wei-Yu Hou, Shang-Fu Xu, Yuan-Fu Lu, Jie Liu
: Multidrug resistance proteins (Mrps) are efflux transporters playing important roles in endogenous substances and xenobiotics transport out of the liver. Children, elderly, gender and physio-pathological conditions could influence their expression and result in changes in drug disposition. AIM: This study was aimed to examine the development-, ageing-, and sex-dependent changes in Mrp1-4 and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (Abcg2) gene expressions in livers of rats...
November 29, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912757/the-sydney-triage-to-admission-risk-tool-start-to-predict-emergency-department-disposition-a-derivation-and-internal-validation-study-using-retrospective-state-wide-data-from-new-south-wales-australia
#13
Michael M Dinh, Saartje Berendsen Russell, Kendall J Bein, Kris Rogers, David Muscatello, Richard Paoloni, Jon Hayman, Dane R Chalkley, Rebecca Ivers
BACKGROUND: Disposition decisions are critical to the functioning of Emergency Departments. The objectives of the present study were to derive and internally validate a prediction model for inpatient admission from the Emergency Department to assist with triage, patient flow and clinical decision making. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of State-wide Emergency Department data in New South Wales, Australia. Adult patients (age ≥ 16 years) were included if they presented to a Level five or six (tertiary level) Emergency Department in New South Wales, Australia between 2013 and 2014...
December 3, 2016: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911611/the-influence-of-gh-treatment-on-glucose-homeostasis-in-girls-with-turner-syndrome-a-7-years-study
#14
Federico Baronio, Laura Mazzanti, Ylenia Girtler, Federica Tamburrino, Fiorenzo Lupi, Silvia Longhi, Antonio Fanolla, Giorgio Radetti
CONTEXT: Growth hormone (GH) influences glucose homeostasis mainly by negatively affecting insulin sensitivity. OBJECTIVE: to longitudinally study the insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S), insulin secretion (insulinogenic index - IGI) and capacity of beta cells to adapt to changes in insulin sensitivity (oral disposition index-ODI) in girls affected by Turner syndrome (TS) undergoing GH treatment. DESIGN: a longitudinal retrospective seven years study Setting: a tertiary pediatric endocrine unit and a University pediatric Clinic...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911185/self-regulation-and-social-pressure-reduce-prejudiced-responding-and-increase-motivation-to-be-non-prejudiced
#15
Steven G Buzinski, Michael B Kitchens
Self-regulation constrains the expression of prejudice, but when self-regulation falters, the immediate environment can act as an external source of prejudice regulation. This hypothesis derives from work demonstrating that external controls and internal self-regulation can prompt goal pursuit in the absence of self-imposed controls. Across four studies we found support for this complementary model of prejudice regulation. In Study 1, self-regulatory fatigue resulted in less motivation to be non-prejudiced, compared to a non-fatigued control...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909740/clinical-pharmacokinetics-of-magnesium-sulfate-in-the-treatment-of-children-with-severe-acute-asthma
#16
Joseph E Rower, Xiaoxi Liu, Tian Yu, Michael Mundorff, Catherine M T Sherwin, Michael D Johnson
PURPOSE: Intravenous (IV) magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is used as adjunct therapy to treat acute asthma exacerbations. Despite its clinical use, there is a limited understanding of the disposition of magnesium in children. METHODS: To explore the pharmacokinetics (PK) of IV MgSO4 in this population, we collected retrospective data from 54 children who received IV MgSO4 for treatment of an acute asthma exacerbation at Primary Children's Hospital in Salt Lake City, UT...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909713/age-associated-differences-in-transporter-gene-expression-in-kidneys-of-male-rats
#17
Yong-Ji Xu, Yang Wang, Yuan-Fu Lu, Shang-Fu Xu, Qin Wu, Jie Liu
Kidney transporters are involved in the secretion and reabsorption of endogenous and exogenous molecules. Numerous factors may influence their expression and affect drug disposition, efficacy and toxicity. The present study aimed to examine the development‑ and age‑associated variations in primary renal transporters in rats, including 6 uptake transporters: Organic anion transporter (OAT) 1 and 3, organic cation transporter (OCT) 1, 2 and 3 and organic anion‑transporting polypeptide (OATP) 4C1, and 6 efflux transporters: Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance‑associated protein (MRP) 2 and 4, and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein (MATE) 1 and 2‑K...
November 28, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909404/prefrontal-cortex-activity-is-associated-with-biobehavioral-components-of-the-stress-response
#18
Muriah D Wheelock, Nathaniel G Harnett, Kimberly H Wood, Tyler R Orem, Douglas A Granger, Sylvie Mrug, David C Knight
Contemporary theory suggests that prefrontal cortex (PFC) function is associated with individual variability in the psychobiology of the stress response. Advancing our understanding of this complex biobehavioral pathway has potential to provide insight into processes that determine individual differences in stress susceptibility. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activity during a variation of the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST) in 53 young adults. Salivary cortisol was assessed as an index of the stress response, trait anxiety was assessed as an index of an individual's disposition toward negative affectivity, and self-reported stress was assessed as an index of an individual's subjective psychological experience...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908493/diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-kampala-trauma-score-using-estimated-abbreviated-injury-scale-scores-and-physician-opinion
#19
Andrew Gardner, Paa Kobina Forson, George Oduro, Barclay Stewart, Nkechi Dike, Paul Glover, Ronald F Maio
BACKGROUND: The Kampala Trauma Score (KTS) has been proposed as a triage tool for use in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aimed to examine the diagnostic accuracy of KTS in predicting emergency department outcomes using timely injury estimation with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score and physician opinion to calculate KTS scores. METHODS: This was a diagnostic accuracy study of KTS among injured patients presenting to Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital A&E, Ghana...
November 21, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908333/pitfalls-in-the-treatment-of-sepsis
#20
REVIEW
Lars-Kristofer N Peterson, Karin Chase
Sepsis is a challenging, dynamic, pathophysiology requiring expertise in diagnosis and management. Controversy exists as to the most sensitive early indicators of sepsis and sepsis severity. Patients presenting to the emergency department often lack complete history or clinical data that would point to optimal management. Awareness of these potential knowledge gaps is important for the emergency provider managing the septic patient. Specific areas of management including the initiation and management of mechanical ventilation, the appropriate disposition of the patient, and consideration of transfer to higher levels of care are reviewed...
February 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
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