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Laura Miller, Gerardo J Pacheco, Jud C Janak, Rose C Grimm, Nicole A Dierschke, Janice Baker, Jean A Orman
Background: Military working dogs (MWDs) are a major asset in the theater of operations. Their unique abilities make them ideal for tasks such as tracking, patrol, and scent detection. MWDs deployed to a war zone are exposed to harsh environments and battlefield dangers that increase their risk of disease, injuries, and death. Although canines have been used extensively in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), no published studies have reported detailed causes of death among MWDs deployed to these conflicts...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Víviam Vargas Barros, Emérita Sátiro Opaleye, Marcelo Demarzo, Sarah Bowen, Daniela Fernández Curado, Helena Hachul, Ana Regina Noto
INTRODUCTION: Dispositional mindfulness can be described as the mental ability to pay attention to the present moment, non-judgmentally. There is evidence of inverse relation between dispositional mindfulness and insomnia and substance use, but as of yet, no studies evaluating the specific association between dispositional mindfulness and the components of hypnotic use disorder. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between dispositional mindfulness and the components of dependence among female chronic hypnotic users...
2018: PloS One
Emily K Compton, Karen Gildemeyer, Tina M Mason, Susan R Hartranft, Steven K Sutton
BACKGROUND: Duffy's Quality-Caring Model guides nursing practice at the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute in Tampa, FL. No published studies using this model in oncology were found. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to determine patients' perceptions of nurse caring behaviors at the time of discharge after surgery. METHODS: A descriptive correlational design was used. Data were collected using Duffy's Caring Assessment Tool (CAT)...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Nicholette D Palmer, Hayrettin Okut, Fang-Chi Hsu, Maggie C Y Ng, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Mark O Goodarzi, Kent D Taylor, Jill M Norris, Carlos Lorenzo, Jerome I Rotter, Richard N Bergman, Carl D Langefeld, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Donald W Bowden
Context: Metabolomics provides a biochemical fingerprint which, when coupled with clinical phenotypes, can provide insight into physiological processes and disease. Objective: Survey metabolites associated with dynamic and basal measures of glucose homeostasis. Design: Analysis of 733 serum metabolites from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. Setting: Community-based. Participants: 1111 Mexican Americans...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Luke MacMillan, Garrett Tingley, Sara K Young, Kathy A Clow, Edward W Randell, Margaret E Brosnan, John T Brosnan
Background: Formate is produced in mitochondria via the catabolism of serine, glycine, dimethylglycine, and sarcosine. Formate produced by mitochondria may be incorporated into the cytosolic folate pool where it can be used for important biosynthetic reactions. Previous studies from our lab have shown that cobalamin deficiency results in increased plasma formate concentrations. Objective: Our goal was to determine the basis for elevated formate in vitamin B-12 deficiency...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Z Y Jia, L B Zhao, D H Lee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Segmental intracranial dolichoectasia of the distal ICA is a feature of PHACE syndrome or a sporadic phenomenon. We evaluated the relationship between intracranial dolichoectasia of the distal ICA and PHACE syndrome and illustrated the characteristic radiologic findings of the lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intracranial dolichoectasia of the distal ICA was identified in 20 patients at our institution from 2005 to 2016 through a review of diagnostic cerebral angiography results...
March 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
William J Meurer, Bradley Barth, Michael Abraham, Jerome Hoffman, Gary M Vilke, Gerard DeMers
BACKGROUND: Stroke treatment is a continuum that begins with the rapid identification of symptoms and treatment with transition to successful rehabilitation. Therapies for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) may vary based on anatomic location, interval from symptom onset, and coexisting health conditions. Successful therapy requires a seamless systematic approach with coordination from prehospital environment through acute management at medical facilities to disposition and long-term care of the patient...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
John K Fallon, Nicole Houvig, Catherine L Booth-Genthe, Philip C Smith
Information is needed on the expression of transporters in lung to inform drug development and therapeutic decisions. Much of the information currently available is from semiquantitative gene expression or immunometric densitometry studies reported in the literature. NanoLC-MS/MS (MRM mode) isotope dilution targeted quantitative proteomics was used here to quantify twelve selected transporters in fresh human lung membrane fraction samples and in the membrane fraction of selected immortalized human lung epithelial cell line samples...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Kei Ouchi, Guruprasad D Jambaulikar, Samuel Hohmann, Naomi R George, Emily L Aaronson, Rebecca Sudore, Mara A Schonberg, James A Tulsky, Jeremiah D Schuur, Daniel J Pallin
OBJECTIVES: To inform the shared decision-making process between clinicians and older adults and their surrogates regarding emergency intubation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Multicenter, emergency department (ED)-based cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 65 and older intubated in the ED from 2008 to 2015 from 262 hospitals across the United States (>95% of U.S. nonprofit academic medical centers). MEASUREMENTS: Our primary outcome was age-specific in-hospital mortality...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Dongfen Yuan, Frederik Rode, Yanguang Cao
We proposed here a minimal physiologically based pharmacokinetic (mPBPK) model for a group of novel engineered antibodies in mice and humans. These antibodies are designed with altered binding properties of their Fc domain with neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) or the Fab domain with their cognate targets (recycling antibodies) in acidic endosomes. To enable simulations of such binding features in the change of antibody pharmacokinetics and its target suppression, we nested an endothelial endosome compartment in parallel with plasma compartment based on our previously established mPBPK model...
March 14, 2018: AAPS Journal
Tristan J Coulter, Clifford J Mallett, Jefferson A Singer
The current study adopted McAdams' multilayer framework as the basis to develop a psychological portrait of an elite athlete who was identified as being particularly 'mentally tough'. The aim was to use this single case as an exemplar to demonstrate the utility of McAdams' framework for understanding the complexity of sport performers across three domains of personality: dispositional traits, characteristic adaptations, and narrative identity. We operationalised these domains through the development of specific research questions and, subsequently, the collection and integration of the participant's Big Five traits, personal strivings, coping strategies, and response to a life story interview...
January 2018: European Journal of Personality
Paul I Musey, John A Lee, Cassandra A Hall, Jeffrey A Kline
BACKGROUND: Approximately 80% of patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) with chest pain do not have any true cardiopulmonary emergency such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, psychological contributors such as anxiety are thought to be present in up to 58%, but often remain undiagnosed leading to chronic chest pain and ED recidivism. METHODS: To evaluate ED provider beliefs and their usual practices regarding the approach and disposition of patients with low risk chest pain associated with anxiety, we constructed a 22-item survey using a modified Delphi technique...
March 14, 2018: BMC Emergency Medicine
Michael Matthew McClay, Stephen S O'Connor, Brittany Nicole Groh, Marissa Baudino, Lisa Venanzi, Angela Shields, Jo Ellen Wilson, John Bone, Stephen Nicolson
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that suicide attempts by self-inflicted gunshot wound (GSW) are underreported and may in turn affect disposition following hospitalization. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and use of services among individuals who do not disclose suicidal intent following a self-inflicted GSW. METHODS: Electronic medical record data from 128 survivors of self-inflicted GSWs at a level 1 trauma center were analyzed to identify factors associated with nondisclosure of a suicide attempt to medical staff...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Hanh Ngo, Roberto Forero, David Mountain, Daniel Fatovich, Wing Nicola Man, Peter Sprivulis, Mohammed Mohsin, Sam Toloo, Antonio Celenza, Gerard Fitzgerald, Sally McCarthy, Ken Hillman
BACKGROUND: In 2009, the Western Australian (WA) Government introduced the Four-Hour Rule (FHR) program. The policy stated that most patients presenting to Emergency Departments (EDs) were to be seen and either admitted, transferred, or discharged within 4 hours. This study utilised de-identified data from five participating hospitals, before and after FHR implementation, to assess the impact of the FHR on several areas of ED functioning. METHODS: A state (WA) population-based intervention study design, using longitudinal data obtained from administrative health databases via record linkage methodology, and interrupted time series analysis technique...
2018: PloS One
Khondoker Alam, Alexandra Crowe, Xueying Wang, Pengyue Zhang, Kai Ding, Lang Li, Wei Yue
Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1 and OATP1B3 are important hepatic transporters that mediate the uptake of many clinically important drugs, including statins from the blood into the liver. Reduced transport function of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 can lead to clinically relevant drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Considering the importance of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 in hepatic drug disposition, substantial efforts have been given on evaluating OATP1B1/1B3-mediated DDIs in order to avoid unwanted adverse effects of drugs that are OATP substrates due to their altered pharmacokinetics...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Meghan Gilley, Jeffrey Brent, Diane P Calello, Paul Wax, Yaron Finkelstein
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical picture and management of synthetic cannabinoid exposure in a cohort of adolescents. METHODS: Using the 45 participating sites of the Toxicology Investigators Consortium Registry, a North American database, we conducted an observational study of a prospectively collected cohort. We identified all adolescent (12-19 years) cases of synthetic cannabinoid exposure who have received medical toxicology consultation between January 2012 and December 2016...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Grace E Martin, Heng He, Amy T Makley, Timothy A Pritts, Joel B Elterman, Jay A Johannigman, Michael D Goodman
BACKGROUND: Penetrating injuries to the extremity proximal to the elbow or knee are anatomic criteria for full trauma team activation by the American College of Surgeon's Committee on Trauma standards. This criterion lacks objective evidence-based support. Overtriage of trauma team activation may result in excessive costs and resource burden at trauma centers. We hypothesized that full trauma team activation for penetrating injuries to the proximal extremities by anatomic criteria alone may lead to significant overtriage...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Tyler Sheetz, Cheryl T Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the population ages, urologic oncologists are caring for older and more vulnerable patients that must withstand complex surgical treatments. Our healthcare environment emphasizes surgical quality, reductions in length of hospital stay, reduced readmission rates, and high patient satisfaction. So those who manage urologic malignancies must be able to optimize their patients. Understanding the concept of frailty, how to diagnose it in a timely and reliable manner, appreciate its perioperative impact, and consider interventions to reduce its effects may improve surgical outcomes...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
Xinlei Wang, Xiaoqin Zhao, Ranran Zhou, Yunjuan Gu, Xiaohui Zhu, Zhuqi Tang, Xinlu Yuan, Wei Chen, Rongping Zhang, Chen Qian, Shiwei Cui
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that glucose peak time during oral glucose tolerance test varies in type 2 diabetes; however, characteristics of this heterogeneity remain unclear. This research aimed to investigate the characteristics of delayed glucose peak time in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 178 subjects who underwent oral glucose tolerance test were divided into five groups according to glucose peak time. RESULTS: Twenty-five subjects with normal glucose tolerance had a glucose peak at 30 min...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Marco Innamorati, Laura Parolin, Angela Tagini, Alessandra Santona, Andrea Bosco, Pietro De Carli, Giovanni L Palmisano, Filippo Pergola, Diego Sarracino
In this study, bullying is examined in light of the "prosocial security hypothesis"- i.e., the hypothesis that insecure attachment, with temperamental dispositions such as sensation seeking, may foster individualistic, competitive value orientations and problem behaviors. A group of 375 Italian students (53% female; Mean age = 12.58, SD = 1.08) completed anonymous questionnaires regarding attachment security, social values, sensation seeking, and bullying behaviors. Path analysis showed that attachment to mother was negatively associated with bullying of others, both directly and through the mediating role of conservative socially oriented values, while attachment to father was directly associated with victimization...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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