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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918570/mathematical-description-of-drug-target-interactions-application-to-biologics-that-bind-to-targets-with-two-binding-sites
#1
Leonid Gibiansky, Ekaterina Gibiansky
The emerging discipline of mathematical pharmacology occupies the space between advanced pharmacometrics and systems biology. A characteristic feature of the approach is application of advance mathematical methods to study the behavior of biological systems as described by mathematical (most often differential) equations. One of the early application of mathematical pharmacology (that was not called this name at the time) was formulation and investigation of the target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) model and its approximations...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918470/assessment-of-glucose-regulation-in-pregnancy-after-gastric-bypass-surgery
#2
Christian S Göbl, Latife Bozkurt, Andrea Tura, Michael Leutner, Laura Andrei, Lukas Fahr, Peter Husslein, Wolfgang Eppel, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is characterised by glycaemic variability. Prospective studies of glucose metabolism in pregnancy after RYGB are not available, therefore this study aimed to evaluate physiological alterations in glucose metabolism in pregnancy following RYGB. METHODS: Sixty-three pregnant women (25 who underwent RYGB, 19 non-operated obese control women and 19 normal weight control women) were included. Frequently sampled 3 h OGTTs and 1 h IVGTTs were performed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation and, in a subgroup, were repeated at 3-6 months after delivery...
September 16, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917174/potential-effects-of-changes-in-climate-and-emissions-on-distribution-and-fate-of-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-in-the-bohai-rim-china
#3
Chao Su, Shuai Song, Yonglong Lu, Shijie Liu, John P Giesy, Deliang Chen, Alan Jenkins, Andrew J Sweetman, Baninla Yvette
Climate change and emissions rates of contaminants are expected to affect distribution and fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the environment, however, studies on these combined factors are rare. In this study, Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) is used as an example to assess how those two factors synthetically affect fate and disposition of POPs in the Bohai Rim of China by using the Berkeley-Trent-Urban-Rural (BETR-Urban-Rural) model. We set up three climate change scenarios and four emission scenarios to conduct the simulations...
September 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916482/disposition-of-treosulfan-and-its-active-monoepoxide-in-a-bone-marrow-liver-lungs-brain-and-muscle-studies-in-a-rat-model-with-clinical-relevance
#4
Michał Romański, Anna Kasprzyk, Mateusz Walczak, Agnieszka Ziółkowska, Franciszek Główka
For the recent years, the application of treosulfan (TREO)-based conditioning prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been increasing as an alternative to busulfan-based therapy, especially for patients presenting high risk of developing hepato-, pulmo-, and neurotoxicity. So far, the penetration of TREO and its epoxy-derivatives into central nervous system and aqueous humor of the eye has been investigated. However, lacking knowledge on the compounds distribution into the other key tissues precludes comprehensive understanding and assessment of TREO clinical efficacy and toxicity...
September 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916259/what-we-see-when-we-read-visualization-and-vividness-in-reading-fictional-narratives
#5
REVIEW
Renate Brosch
Visualization is defined as the production of mental images in the process of reading (Esrock 2005: 633). This article is concerned with varieties of visualization during an absorbing reading of a fictional narrative, the mental images that range from an indistinct and largely automatic default visualization to the much more vivid images that occur at significant stages in the narrative. Neuroscientific studies of vision have collected a large and impressively varied body of experimental evidence for two major processing streams - the dorsal and the ventral-specialized for vision-for-action and vision for-perception respectively...
August 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915854/medical-therapy-following-hospitalization-for-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-and-association-with-discharge-to-long-term-care-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-regards-population
#6
Emily B Levitan, Melissa K Van Dyke, Ligong Chen, Raegan W Durant, Todd M Brown, J David Rhodes, Olusola Olubowale, Oluwole Muyiwa Adegbala, Meredith L Kilgore, Justin Blackburn, Karen C Albright, Monika M Safford
BACKGROUND: Less intensive treatment for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) may be appropriate for patients in long-term care settings because of limited life expectancy, frailty, comorbidities, and emphasis on quality of life. METHODS: We compared treatment patterns between REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study participants discharged to long-term care versus home following HFrEF hospitalizations. We examined medical records and Medicare pharmacy claims for 147 HFrEF hospitalizations among 80 participants to obtain information about discharge disposition and medication prescriptions and fills...
September 16, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915823/patients-with-acute-poisoning-presenting-to-an-urban-emergency-department-of-a-tertiary-hospital-in-tanzania
#7
Ghaniya S Mbarouk, Hendry R Sawe, Juma A Mfinanga, John Stein, Shankar Levin, Victor Mwafongo, Michael S Runyon, Teri A Reynolds, Kent R Olson
BACKGROUND: Poisoning is a major public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting patients of all age groups. Poisoned patients often present to the emergency department (ED) and prompt evaluation and appropriate management are imperative to ensure optimal outcomes. Unfortunately, little is known about the specific presentations of poisoned patients in East Africa. We describe the clinical and epidemiological features of patients presenting to the Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) ED with suspected toxicological syndromes...
September 16, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915026/supercubes-supersquares-and-superrods-of-face-centered-cubes-fcc-atomic-and-electronic-requirements-of-mm-sr-l-pr-3-8-q-nanoclusters-m-coinage-metals-and-their-implications-with-respect-to-nucleation-and-growth-of-fcc-metals
#8
Boon K Teo, Huayan Yang, Juanzhu Yan, Nanfeng Zheng
Understanding the nucleation and growth pathways of nanocrystallites allows precise control of the size and shape of functional crystalline nanomaterials of importance in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the stereochemical and electronic requirements of three series of nanoclusters based on face-centered cubes (fcc) as the basic building blocks, namely, 1-, 2-, and 3-D assemblages of fcc to form superrods (n), supersquares (n(2)), and supercubes (n(3)). The generating functions for calculating the numbers (and arrangements) of surface and interior metal atoms, as well as the number and dispositions of the ligands, for these particular sequences of fcc metal clusters of the general formula [Mm(SR)l(PR'3)8](q) (where M = coinage metals; SR = thiolates (or group XI ligands), and PR'3 = phosphines) are presented...
September 15, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914459/testing-a-biopsychosocial-model-of-the-basic-birth-beliefs
#9
Heidi Preis, Rony Chen, Michal Eisner, Joseph Pardo, Yoav Peled, Arnon Wiznitzer, Yael Benyamini
BACKGROUND: Women perceive what birth is even before they are pregnant for the first time. Part of this conceptualization is the basic belief about birth as a medical and natural process. These two separate beliefs are pivotal in the decision-making process about labor and birth. Adapting Engel's biopsychosocial framework, we explored the importance of a wide range of factors which may contribute to these beliefs among first-time mothers. METHOD: This observational study included 413 primiparae ≥24 weeks' gestation, recruited in medical centers and in natural birth communities in Israel...
September 15, 2017: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914141/higher-usa-state-resident-neuroticism-is-associated-with-lower-state-volunteering-rates
#10
Stewart J H McCann
Highly neurotic persons have dispositional characteristics that tend to precipitate social anxiety that discourages formal volunteering. With the 50 American states as analytical units, Study 1 found that state resident neuroticism correlated highly ( r = -.55) with state volunteering rates and accounted for another 26.8% of the volunteering rate variance with selected state demographics controlled. Study 2 replicated Study 1 during another period and extended the association to college student, senior, secular, and religious volunteering rates...
August 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914140/the-faces-of-group-members-share-physical-resemblance
#11
Eric Hehman, Jessica K Flake, Jonathan B Freeman
Perceivers form strong inferences of disposition from others' facial appearance, and these inferences guide a wide variety of important behaviors. The current research examines the possibility that similar-looking individuals are more likely to form groups with one another. We do so by testing a necessary downstream consequence of this process, examining whether the faces of individuals within groups more physically resemble one another than those in other groups. Across six studies, we demonstrate that individuals' group membership can be accurately classified both from ratings of members' faces, and from direct measurement of members' faces...
August 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913001/methamphetamine-use-and-emergency-department-utilization-20-years-later
#12
John R Richards, Sheiva Hamidi, Connor D Grant, Colin G Wang, Nabil Tabish, Samuel D Turnipseed, Robert W Derlet
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (MAP) users present to the emergency department (ED) for myriad reasons, including trauma, chest pain, and psychosis. The purpose of this study is to determine how their prevalence, demographics, and resource utilization have changed. METHODS: Retrospective review of MAP patients over 3 months in 2016. Demographics, mode of arrival, presenting complaints, disposition, and concomitant cocaine/ethanol use were compared to a 1996 study at the same ED...
2017: Journal of Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912619/what-moral-character-is-and-is-not
#13
Marie I George
Louise Mitchell discusses character in "Integrity and virtue: The forming of good character" (The Linacre Quarterly 82, no. 2: 149-169). I argue that she is mistaken in identifying character as a potency and that it is rather the sum of one's moral habits and dispositions. I establish this by showing that if one correctly applies the division Aristotle presents in the text that Mitchell relies on, it follows that character belongs in the category of habit. I further support this conclusion by considering how people commonly speak of moral character...
August 2017: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910874/-expression-of-c3d-in-normal-human-liver-tissues-with-non-immunologic-osmostic-mechanism
#14
H J Huang, C Y Feng, Z Y Zheng
Objective: To observe the deposition of complement C3d at different development stages in human normal organs and tissues, and investigate the significance of its deposition. Methods: Using immunohistochemical methods, the deposition of C3d was detected at different development stages of 60 normal human organs and tissue specimens and double staining was performed in some specimens. Ninty-five cases of other organs or tissues were collected as control group. Results: In 50 of 60 livers, it was observed the deposition of C3d in Glisson's capsule and periportal sheath, with irregular linear network-like disposition surrounding the portal sheath...
September 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910492/p53-mediated-regulation-of-bile-acid-disposition-attenuates-cholic-acid-induced-cholestasis-in-mice
#15
Pan Chen, Dongshun Li, Yixin Chen, Jiahong Sun, Kaili Fu, Lihuan Guan, Huizhen Zhang, Yiming Jiang, Xi Li, Xuezhen Zeng, Xiao Chen, Min Huang, Huichang Bi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tumor suppressor p53 is traditionally recognized as a surveillance molecule to preserve genome integrity. Recent studies have emerged on discovering its functions in metabolic diseases. Here we investigated the role of p53 in the regulation bile acid disposition and cholestasis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Bile acid disposition related gene expression profile altered by p53 activation was assessed in mouse primary hepatocytes with p53 depletion and in Trp53-null mice...
September 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910351/lab-meets-real-life-a-laboratory-assessment-of-spontaneous-thought-and-its-ecological-validity
#16
Christine Kuehner, Annett Welz, Iris Reinhard, Georg W Alpers
People's minds frequently wander towards self-generated thoughts, which are unrelated to external stimuli or demands. These phenomena, referred to as "spontaneous thought" (ST) and "mind wandering" (MW), have previously been linked with both costs and benefits. Current assessments of ST and MW have predominantly been conducted in the laboratory, whereas studies on the ecological validity of such lab-related constructs and their interrelations are rare. The current study examined the stability of ST dimensions assessed in the lab and their predictive value with respect to MW, repetitive negative thought (uncontrollable rumination, RUM), and affect in daily life...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910217/substance-and-evaluation-in-personality-disorder-diagnoses
#17
Daniel Leising, Stefan Scherbaum, Pia Packmohr, Johannes Zimmermann
Like person judgments in everyday life, diagnoses of personality disorders (PDs) reflect at least two influences: first, the actual characteristics of the target person (substance), and second, the more positive or negative view that the perceiver has of the target person (evaluation). In this article, we present a systematic account of substance and evaluation in PD diagnoses, using a modified version of Brunswik's (1956) lens model. An empirical study shows that the items of the alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorders (AMPD) are in fact saturated with evaluation, that this evaluation is largely the same as "social desirability," and that the two mandatory components of the AMPD (criterion A and B) are not easily distinguishable from one another in that regard...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904260/impaired-%C3%AE-cell-function-and-decreased-insulin-sensitivity-in-subjects-with-normal-oral-glucose-tolerance-but-isolated-high-glycosylated-hemoglobin
#18
Qi Fu, Min Sun, Zhixiao Wang, Wei He, Yu Duan, Tao Yang
The pathophysiology is distinct in various state of glucose metabolism abnormalities. As the defect of individuals with normal oral glucose tolerance (NGT) but isolated high glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), i.e. iHH, was ambiguous, we aimed to investigate the insulin sensitivity and β-cell function of iHH. According to the ADA criteria of HbA1c cut-off point (5.7%), 3,517 subjects with NGT screened from a total of 7,855 middle-aged and elderly Chinese without known diabetes were divided into two groups, 1,877 subjects with HbA1c < 5...
September 13, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903706/cross-situational-self-consistency-in-nine-cultures-the-importance-of-separating-influences-of-social-norms-and-distinctive-dispositions
#19
Kenneth D Locke, A Timothy Church, Khairul A Mastor, Guy J Curtis, Pamela Sadler, Kelly McDonald, José de Jesús Vargas-Flores, Joselina Ibáñez-Reyes, Hiroaki Morio, Jose Alberto S Reyes, Helena F Cabrera, Rina Mazuera Arias, Brigida Carolina Rincon, Neida Coromoto Albornoz Arias, Arturo Muñoz, Fernando A Ortiz
We assessed self-consistency (expressing similar traits in different situations) by having undergraduates in the United States ( n = 230), Australia ( n = 220), Canada ( n = 240), Ecuador ( n = 101), Mexico ( n = 209), Venezuela ( n = 209), Japan ( n = 178), Malaysia ( n = 254), and the Philippines ( n = 241) report the traits they expressed in four different social situations. Self-consistency was positively associated with age, well-being, living in Latin America, and not living in Japan; however, each of these variables showed a unique pattern of associations with various psychologically distinct sources of raw self-consistency, including cross-situationally consistent social norms and injunctions...
July 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903671/humor-use-moderates-the-relation-of-stressful-life-events-with-psychological-distress
#20
Heidi L Fritz, Leslie N Russek, Melissa M Dillon
Three studies examined humor and adjustment to stressful events. In Study 1, patients with fibromyalgia syndrome ( N = 22) reported on mental and physical adjustment, social interaction, and reappraisal of their illness. Dispositional humor was associated with reduced distress and fewer physical symptoms. Study 2 ( N = 109) examined undergraduates' reports of stressful events. Dispositional, self-enhancing, affiliative, and self-defeating humor showed direct effects on distress, which were mediated by social interaction and reappraisal...
June 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
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