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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088350/the-emotive-nature-of-conflict-monitoring-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#1
Blair Saunders, Hause Lin, Marina Milyavskaya, Michael Inzlicht
The detection of conflict between incompatible impulses, thoughts, and actions is a ubiquitous source of motivation across theories of goal-directed action. In this overview, we explore the hypothesis that conflict is emotive, integrating perspectives from affective science and cognitive neuroscience. Initially, we review evidence suggesting that the mental and biological processes that monitor for information processing conflict-particularly those generated by the anterior midcingulate cortex-track the affective significance of conflict and use this signal to motivate increased control...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079717/-out-of-care-hiv-case-investigations-a-collaborative-analysis-across-6-states-in-the-northwest-us
#2
Julia C Dombrowski, Joanna Bove, James C Roscoe, Jessica Harvill, Caislin L Firth, Shireen Khormooji, Jason Carr, Peter Choi, Courtney Smith, Sean D Schafer, Matthew R Golden
BACKGROUND: HIV care continuum estimates derived from laboratory surveillance typically assume that persons without recently reported CD4 count or viral load results are out of care. METHODS: We conducted a multistate project (Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming) to ascertain the status of HIV cases that appeared to be out of care during a 12-month period. We used laboratory surveillance to identify cases in all states but Idaho, where viral load reporting is not mandatory, requiring us to rely on clinic records...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078977/emotion-cognition-interaction-in-nonhuman-primatescognitive-avoidance-of-negative-stimuli-in-baboons-papio-papio
#3
Isabelle Blanchette, Yousri Marzouki, Nicolas Claidière, Julie Gullstrand, Joël Fagot
It is well established that emotion and cognition interact in humans, but such an interaction has not been extensively studied in nonhuman primates. We investigated whether emotional value can affect nonhuman primates' processing of stimuli that are only mentally represented, not visually available. In a short-term memory task, baboons memorized the location of two target squares of the same color, which were presented with a distractor of a different color. Through prior long-term conditioning, one of the two colors had acquired a negative valence...
January 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078356/-marketability-of-food-supplements-criteria-for-the-legal-assessment
#4
Evelyn Breitweg-Lehmann
To be placed on the market legally, food supplements have to meet national and European food law regulations. This is true for all substances used as well as for the labeling on the packaging of and the advertising for food supplements. The food business operator is responsible for its compliance with all regulations. Therefore, in this article, a concise step-by-step assessment is presented, covering all necessary legal requirements to market food supplements. Additionally, all steps are visualized in a flow chart...
January 11, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074615/a-database-of-optimized-proteomic-quantitative-methods-for-284-human-drug-disposition-related-proteins-for-applications-in-pbpk-modeling
#5
Marc Vrana, Dale Whittington, Vivek Nautiyal, Bhagwat Prasad
The aim of this study was to create an open access repository of validated LC-MS/MS (MRM) methods for quantifying 284 important proteins associated with drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME). Various in silico and experimental approaches were used to select surrogate peptides and optimize instrument parameters for LC-MS/MS quantification of the selected proteins. The final methods were uploaded to an online public database (ADME QPrOmics(TM); www.qpromics.uw.edu/qpromics/assay/) which provides essential information for facile method development in triple quadrupole MS instruments...
January 11, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074467/systems-pharmacology-modeling-of-drug-induced-hyperbilirubinemia-differentiating-hepatotoxicity-and-inhibition-of-enzymes-transporters
#6
Kyunghee Yang, Christina Battista, Jeffrey L Woodhead, Simone H Stahl, Jerome T Mettetal, Paul B Watkins, Scott Q Siler, Brett A Howell
Elevations in serum bilirubin during drug treatment may indicate global liver dysfunction and a high risk of liver failure. However, drugs also can increase serum bilirubin in the absence of hepatic injury by inhibiting specific enzymes/transporters. We constructed a mechanistic model of bilirubin disposition based on known functional polymorphisms in bilirubin metabolism/transport. Using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model-predicted drug exposure and enzyme/transporter inhibition constants determined in vitro, our model correctly predicted indinavir-mediated hyperbilirubinemia in humans and rats...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074396/target-mediated-drug-disposition-with-drug-drug-interaction-part-ii-competitive-and-uncompetitive-cases
#7
Gilbert Koch, William J Jusko, Johannes Schropp
We present competitive and uncompetitive drug-drug interaction (DDI) with target mediated drug disposition (TMDD) equations and investigate their pharmacokinetic DDI properties. For application of TMDD models, quasi-equilibrium (QE) or quasi-steady state (QSS) approximations are necessary to reduce the number of parameters. To realize those approximations of DDI TMDD models, we derive an ordinary differential equation (ODE) representation formulated in free concentration and free receptor variables. This ODE formulation can be straightforward implemented in typical PKPD software without solving any non-linear equation system arising from the QE or QSS approximation of the rapid binding assumptions...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074395/target-mediated-drug-disposition-with-drug-drug-interaction-part-i-single-drug-case-in-alternative-formulations
#8
Gilbert Koch, William J Jusko, Johannes Schropp
Target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) describes drug binding with high affinity to a target such as a receptor. In application TMDD models are often over-parameterized and quasi-equilibrium (QE) or quasi-steady state (QSS) approximations are essential to reduce the number of parameters. However, implementation of such approximations becomes difficult for TMDD models with drug-drug interaction (DDI) mechanisms. Hence, alternative but equivalent formulations are necessary for QE or QSS approximations. To introduce and develop such formulations, the single drug case is reanalyzed...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072872/population-pharmacokinetic-properties-of-piperaquine-in-falciparum-malaria-an-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis
#9
Richard M Hoglund, Lesley Workman, Michael D Edstein, Nguyen Xuan Thanh, Nguyen Ngoc Quang, Issaka Zongo, Jean Bosco Ouedraogo, Steffen Borrmann, Leah Mwai, Christian Nsanzabana, Ric N Price, Prabin Dahal, Nancy C Sambol, Sunil Parikh, Francois Nosten, Elizabeth A Ashley, Aung Pyae Phyo, Khin Maung Lwin, Rose McGready, Nicholas P J Day, Philippe J Guerin, Nicholas J White, Karen I Barnes, Joel Tarning
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the mainstay of the current treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but ACT resistance is spreading across Southeast Asia. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is one of the five ACTs currently recommended by the World Health Organization. Previous studies suggest that young children (<5 y) with malaria are under-dosed. This study utilised a population-based pharmacokinetic approach to optimise the antimalarial treatment regimen for piperaquine...
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072679/correlation-between-critical-thinking-disposition-and-mental-self-supporting-ability-in-nursing-undergraduates-a-cross-sectional-descriptive-study
#10
Defang Wu, Yang Luo, Xinyu Liao
BACKGROUND: There is universal agreement on the essential role of critical thinking in nursing practice. Most studies into this topic have provided descriptive statistical information and insights on related external factors such as educational environment and teaching strategies. However, there has been limited research into the psychological factors that may predict the disposition of students toward critical thinking. PURPOSE: This study explored the relationship between the disposition of nursing students toward critical thinking and their mental self-supporting ability to obtain a profile and determine the psychological predictors of critical thinking...
February 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072666/outcomes-from-referrals-and-unscheduled-visits-from-community-emergency-departments-to-a-regional-pediatric-emergency-department-in-canada
#11
Ethan Reiner, Ardalan Ahmadi, Eric Grafstein, Quynh Doan
OBJECTIVES: Existing pediatric literature describing repeat visits to the emergency department (ED) for the same medical complaint has yet to report on patient flow patterns from general EDs (GEDs) to a pediatric ED (PED). We sought to characterize the population of patients who are treated in a GED and subsequently present to a PED for further care. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study reviewing all pediatric visits (age < 17 y) at 5 GEDs in Vancouver...
January 9, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072044/predicting-nonsuicidal-self-injury-in-borderline-personality-disorder-using-ecological-momentary-assessment
#12
Brooke A Ammerman, Thomas M Olino, Emil F Coccaro, Michael S McCloskey
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a highly comorbid disorder, and these comorbidities increase the impairment associated with BPD. For example, depression, which occurs in the majority of individuals with BPD, increases the likelihood of an individual with BPD to engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Little research, however, has investigated potential mechanisms of NSSI engagement in this population. The current study aimed to fill this gap by examining momentary experiences, levels of distress tolerance, and NSSI among 51 individuals meeting current diagnostic criteria for BPD and a comorbid depressive disorder...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071865/the-impact-of-evidence-based-sepsis-guidelines-on-emergency-department-clinical-practice-a-pre-post-medical-record-audit
#13
Bernadine Romero, Margaret Fry, Michael Roche
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the number of patients presenting with sepsis before and after guideline implementation; the impact of sepsis guidelines on triage assessment, Emergency Department management and time to antibiotics. BACKGROUND: Sepsis remains one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity within hospitals. Globally, strategies have been implemented to reduce morbidity and mortality rates, which rely on the early recognition and management of sepsis...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068631/microrna-202-3p-regulates-scleroderma-fibrosis-by-targeting-matrix-metalloproteinase-1
#14
Bin Zhou, Honglin Zhu, Hui Luo, Siming Gao, Xiaodan Dai, Yisha Li, Xiaoxia Zuo
The leading cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is the uncontrolled fibrosis in multiple organs. The exact mechanism of fibrosis is not fully clear. Our previous studies using miRNA array analysis indicated that miR-202-3p was increased in SSc lesion skin tissues. Bioinformatics analysis suggested matrix metallopeptidase (MMP) 1 is the target gene of miR-202-3p. Here we confirmed that miR-202-3p was upregulated, and the mRNA and protein expression of MMP1 were significantly decreased in SSc skin tissues and primary fibroblast compared with normal skin...
January 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068408/pharmacokinetics-of-lidocaine-hydrochloride-administered-with-or-without-adrenaline-for-the-paravertebral-brachial-plexus-block-in-dogs
#15
Amélie Choquette, Eric Troncy, Martin Guillot, France Varin, Jérôme R E Del Castillo
Adrenaline is known to prolong the duration of local anesthesia but its effects on the pharmacokinetic processes of local anesthetic drugs are not fully understood. Our objective was to develop a compartmental model for quantification of adrenaline's impact on the pharmacokinetics of perineurally-injected lidocaine in the dog. Dogs were subjected to paravertebral brachial plexus block using lidocaine alone or adrenalinated lidocaine. Data was collected through a prospective, randomised, blinded crossover protocol performed over three periods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068114/he-never-willed-to-have-the-will-he-has-historicist-narratives-civilized-blame-and-the-need-to-distinguish-two-notions-of-free-will
#16
Michael J Gill, Stephanie C Cerce
Harsh blame can be socially destructive. This article examines how harsh blame can be "civilized." A core construct here is the historicist narrative, which is a story-like account of how a person came to be the sort of person she is. We argue that historicist narratives regarding immoral actors can temper blame and that this happens via a novel mechanism. To illuminate that mechanism, we offer a novel theoretical perspective on lay beliefs about free will. We distinguish 2 senses of free will: (a) Freedom of action, which portrays the will as a dynamic choice-making mechanism and concerns whether the actor can exert volitional control via that mechanism at the time of action, and (b) Control of self-formation, which portrays the will as an enduring disposition (e...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068080/effect-of-the-southeast-asian-ovalocytosis-deletion-on-the-conformational-dynamics-of-the-signal-anchor-transmembrane-segment-1-of-the-red-cell-anion-exchanger-1-ae1-band-3-slc4a1
#17
Philip W Fowler, Mark S P Sansom, Reinhart A F Reithmeier
The first transmembrane (TM1) helix in the red cell anion exchanger (AE1, Band 3, SLC4A1) acts as an internal signal anchor that binds the signal recognition particle and directs the nascent polypeptide chain to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane where it moves from the translocon laterally into the lipid bilayer. The sequence N-terminal to TM1 forms an amphipathic helix that lies at the membrane interface connected to TM1 by a bend at Pro403. Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO) is a red cell abnormality caused by a nine-amino acid deletion (Ala400-Ala408) at the N-terminus of TM1...
January 9, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066502/a-correlated-binary-model-for-ignorable-missing-data-application-to-rheumatoid-arthritis-clinical-data
#18
Francis Erebholo, Victor Apprey, Paul Bezandry, John Kwagyan
Incomplete data are common phenomenon in research that adopts the longitudinal design approach. If incomplete observations are present in the longitudinal data structure, ignoring it could lead to bias in statistical inference and interpretation. We adopt the disposition model and extend it to the analysis of longitudinal binary outcomes in the presence of monotone incomplete data. The response variable is modeled using a conditional logistic regression model. The nonresponse mechanism is assumed ignorable and developed as a combination of Markov's transition and logistic regression model...
April 2016: Journal of Data Science: JDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064509/acute-salicylate-poisoning-risk-factors-for-severe-outcome
#19
Rachel M Shively, Robert S Hoffman, Alex F Manini
CONTEXT: Salicylate poisoning remains a significant public health threat with more than 20,000 exposures reported annually in the United States. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to establish early predictors of severe in-hospital outcomes in Emergency Department patients presenting with acute salicylate poisoning. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis of adult salicylate overdoses from a prospective cohort study of acute drug overdoses at two urban university teaching hospitals from 2009 to 2013...
January 9, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063903/distinct-biodistribution-of-doxorubicin-and-the-altered-dispositions-mediated-by-different-liposomal-formulations
#20
Ruijuan Luo, Yan Li, Miao He, Huixia Zhang, Hebao Yuan, Mark Johnson, Maria Palmisano, Simon Zhou, Duxin Sun
The liposomal formulations of doxorubicin produced distinct efficacy and toxicity profiles compared to doxorubicin solution in cancer patients. This study aims to investigate the drug tissue distribution and the driving force for tissue distribution from doxorubicin solution and two liposomal delivery systems, Doxil and Myocet. These three formulations were intravenously administered to mice at a single dose of 5mg/kg. Eleven organs, plasma and blood were collected at different time points. Total doxorubicin concentrations in each specimen were measured with LC-MS/MS...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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