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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635986/optimism-symptom-distress-illness-appraisal-and-coping-in-patients-with-advanced-stage-cancer-diagnoses-undergoing-chemotherapy-treatment
#1
Catherine Sumpio, Sangchoon Jeon, Laurel L Northouse, M Tish Knobf
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationships between optimism, self-efficacy, symptom distress, treatment complexity, illness appraisal, coping, and mood disturbance in patients with advanced-stage cancer.
. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
. SETTING: Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale New Haven in Connecticut, an outpatient comprehensive cancer center.
. SAMPLE: A convenience sample of 121 adult patients with stages III-IV cancer undergoing active chemotherapy...
May 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634491/more-favorable-metabolic-impact-of-three-times-weekly-versus-daily-growth-hormone-treatment-in-na%C3%A3-ve-gh-deficient-children
#2
Alessandro Ciresi, Floriana Cicciò, Stefano Radellini, Valentina Guarnotta, Anna Maria Calcaterra, Carla Giordano
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether two different regimens of weekly injections could lead to similar auxological and metabolic effects in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: 32 GHD children (25 males, mean age 10.5 ± 2.2 yr) were randomly assigned to receive daily (group A, 16 patients) or TIW (group B, 16 patients) GHT for 12 months. METHODS: Auxological parameters, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), glucose and insulin during OGTT, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, the oral disposition index (DIo), the homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance (Homa-IR), and the insulin sensitivity index (ISI)...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634139/ocular-disposition-of-ciprofloxacin-from-topical-pegylated-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-effect-of-molecular-weight-and-density-of-poly-ethylene-glycol
#3
Sai Prachetan Balguri, Goutham R Adelli, Karthik Yadav Janga, Prakash Bhagav, Soumyajit Majumdar
Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is an antibacterial agent prescribed for the treatment of ocular infections. The objective of the present project is to investigate the effect of surface PEG functionalization of the Nano structured lipid carriers (NLCs) on formulation stability, ocular penetration and distribution. CIP NLCs were tested with different molecular weight (poly ethylene glycol) PEGs ranging from (2K to 20K) grafted onto the phospholipid and with different chain lengths (14-18 carbons) of phospholipids derivatized with PEG-2K...
June 17, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631514/pharmacokinetics-and-dosing-requirements-of-digoxin-in-pregnant-women-treated-for-fetal-supraventricular-tachycardia
#4
Ana Martin-Suarez, Jose German Sanchez-Hernandez, Fabiola Medina-Barajas, Jonas Samuel Perez Blanco, Jose M Lanao, Luisa Garcia-Cuenllas Alvarez, M Victoria Calvo
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of digoxin in pregnant women and its potential implications for drug dosing. METHODS: Serum digoxin concentrations (SDCs) obtained in pregnant women treated for fetal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) was retrospectively collected. PK analysis was comparatively performed using a two-stage approach (PKS™) and a Population PK approach (NONMEM™). As clinical outcome the fetal heart rate was recorded...
June 20, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630324/trust-is-heritable-whereas-distrust-is-not
#5
Martin Reimann, Oliver Schilke, Karen S Cook
Why do people distrust others in social exchange? To what degree, if at all, is distrust subject to genetic influences, and thus possibly heritable, and to what degree is it nurtured by families and immediate peers who encourage young people to be vigilant and suspicious of others? Answering these questions could provide fundamental clues about the sources of individual differences in the disposition to distrust, including how they may differ from the sources of individual differences in the disposition to trust...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629906/can-bundled-payments-be-successful-in-the-medicaid-population-for-primary-joint-arthroplasty
#6
P Maxwell Courtney, Tori Edmiston, Brian Batko, Brett R Levine
BACKGROUND: Although some bundled payment models have had success in total joint arthroplasty, concerns exist about access to care for higher cost patients who use more resources. The purpose of this study is to determine whether Medicaid patients have increased hospital costs and more resource utilization in a 90-day episode of care than Medicare or privately insured patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of 7268 primary hip and knee arthroplasty patients at a single institution...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629856/ethnic-differences-in-glucose-effectiveness-and-disposition-index-in-overweight-obese-african-american-and-white-women-with-prediabetes-a-study-of-compensatory-mechanisms
#7
Kwame Osei, Trudy Gaillard
OBJECTIVE: Prediabetes, a major precursor of type 2 diabetes, varies among ethnic populations. Therefore, we compared the pathophysiologic mechanisms of prediabetes in overweight/obese African American (AA) and White American (WA) women. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We recruited 95 women (67 AA, 28 WA) with prediabetes. Standard OGTT and FSIVGTT were performed in each subject. Insulin sensitivity (Si), glucose effectiveness (Sg), beta cell function (acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) and disposition index (DI: Si×AIRg) were calculated using Bergman's Minmod...
March 14, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627777/cation-driven-self-assembly-of-a-gold-i-based-metallo-tweezer
#8
Eduardo Victor Peris, Susana Ibañez, Macarena Poyatos
A combination of self-complementary pi-pi-stacking interactions and metallophilic interactions triggers the self-assembly of a new di-gold(I) metallotweezer in the presence of several M+ ions. Titrations by fluorescence spectroscopy allowed determining the association constants of the resulting inclusion duplex complexes. The quasi-orthogonal disposition of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at the tether (anthracene), and at the NHC ligand (pyrene), together with the presence of the Au(I) centers, affords the self-complementarity needed for the formation of self-assembled structures with a cavity capable of recognizing metal cations and establishing M-Au metallophilic interactions...
June 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627565/a-stable-gold-i-enyne-species-obtained-by-alkyne-carboauration-in-a-complex-rearrangement
#9
Jéssica Cámara, M Carmen Blanco, Antonio Laguna, Panče Naumov, M Concepción Gimeno
An unprecedented tetranuclear gold derivative with unusual gold-enyne moieties is prepared by a mild and neat rearrangement of a dinuclear gold complex with a bridging bis(diphenylphosphino)alkyne and terminal alkynyl ligands. The complex originates as a consequence of an intramolecular addition of the AuC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CTol fragment to the internal diphosphine triple bond Ph2PC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPPh2. The crystal structure of the tetranuclear complex shows a dinuclear metallacycle with a very short AuAu bond interaction and bridging phosphino-enyne ligands...
June 19, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626411/dissociated-crossed-speech-areas-in-a-tumour-patient
#10
Jörg Mauler, Irene Neuner, Georg Neuloh, Bruno Fimm, Frank Boers, Martin Wiesmann, Hans Clusmann, Karl-Josef Langen, N Jon Shah
In the past, the eloquent areas could be deliberately localised by the invasive Wada test. The very rare cases of dissociated crossed speech areas were accidentally found based on the clinical symptomatology. Today functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based imaging can be employed to non-invasively localise the eloquent areas in brain tumour patients for therapy planning. A 41-year-old, left-handed man with a low-grade glioma in the left frontal operculum extending to the insular cortex, tension headaches, and anomic aphasia over 5 months underwent a pre-operative speech area localisation fMRI measurement, which revealed the evidence of the transhemispheric disposition, where the dominant Wernicke speech area is located on the left and the Broca's area is strongly lateralised to the right hemisphere...
May 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626274/associations-of-intelligence-across-the-life-course-with-optimism-and-pessimism-in-older-age
#11
Adele M Taylor, Stuart J Ritchie, Ian J Deary
Maintaining good cognitive function is important for successful aging, and it has been suggested recently that having and optimistic outlook may also be valuable. However few have studied the relationship between cognitive ability and dispositional optimism and pessimism in older age. It is unclear whether associations found previously between cognitive ability and pessimism in older age, are evident across the life course, and are consistent at different points in older age. In the present study we examined associations between dispositional optimism and pessimism measured in the eighth and ninth decade of life and childhood and older age cognitive ability, and lifetime change in cognitive ability...
May 2017: Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625198/determining-the-clinical-significance-of-errors-in-pediatric-radiograph-interpretation-between-emergency-physicians-and-radiologists
#12
Jonathan Taves, Steve Skitch, Rahim Valani
OBJECTIVES: Emergency physicians (EPs) interpret plain radiographs for management and disposition of patients. Radiologists subsequently conduct their own interpretations, which may differ. The purposes of this study were to review the rate and nature of discrepancies between radiographs interpreted by EPs and those of radiologists in the pediatric emergency department, and to determine their clinical significance. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of discrepant radiology reports from a single-site pediatric emergency department from October 2012 to December 2014...
June 19, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625173/return-visits-to-the-pediatric-emergency-department-a-multicentre-retrospective-cohort-study
#13
Colin B Meyer-Macaulay, Mimi Truong, Garth D Meckler, Quynh H Doan
OBJECTIVE: Return visits to the emergency department (RTED) for the same clinical complaint occur in 2.7% to 8.1% of children presenting to pediatric emergency departments (PEDs). Most studies examining RTEDs have focused solely on PEDs and do not capture children returning to other local emergency departments (EDs). Our objective was to measure the frequency and characterize the directional pattern of RTED to any of 18 EDs serving a large geographic area for children initially evaluated at a PED...
June 19, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624888/steady-state-pharmacokinetics-of-mycophenolic-acid-in-renal-transplant-patients-exploratory-analysis-of-the-effects-of-cyclosporine-recipients-and-donors-abcc2-gene-variants-and-their-interactions
#14
N Božina, Z Lalić, S Nađ-Škegro, A Borić-Bilušić, T Božina, Ž Kaštelan, V Trkulja
PURPOSE: The study aims to evaluate the impact of recipients' and donors' polymorphisms in multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) gene ABCC2 -24C>T and 1249G>A on disposition of mycophenolic acid (MPA) and their interaction with cyclosporine (CsA) (compared to tacrolimus, TAC) in stable de novo adult renal transplant patients of Croatian origin. METHODS: A total of 68 recipient-donor pairs were genotyped. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of MPA was assessed by the model-independent method...
June 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623508/clinical-pharmacokinetic-characteristics-of-cebranopadol-a-novel-first-in-class-analgesic
#15
Elke Kleideiter, Chiara Piana, Shaonan Wang, Robert Nemeth, Michael Gautrois
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cebranopadol is a novel first-in-class analgesic acting as a nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide and opioid peptide receptor agonist with central analgesic activity. It is currently in clinical development for the treatment of chronic pain conditions. This trial focuses on the clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of cebranopadol after oral single- and multiple-dose administration. METHODS: The basic PK properties of cebranopadol were assessed by means of noncompartmental methods in six phase I clinical trials in healthy subjects and patients...
June 16, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623449/differential-effects-of-thiopurine-methyltransferase-tpmt-and-multidrug-resistance-associated-protein-gene-4-mrp4-on-mercaptopurine-toxicity
#16
Chengcheng Liu, Laura J Janke, Jun J Yang, William E Evans, John D Schuetz, Mary V Relling
PURPOSE: Mercaptopurine plays a pivotal role in treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and autoimmune diseases, and inter-individual variability in mercaptopurine tolerance can influence treatment outcome. Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) and multi-drug resistant Protein 4 (MRP4) have both been associated with mercaptopurine toxicity in clinical studies, but their relative contributions remain unclear. METHODS: We studied the metabolism of and tolerance to mercaptopurine in murine knockout models of Tpmt, Mrp4, and both genes simultaneously...
June 16, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622951/population-approach-to-efavirenz-therapy
#17
Hélder Duarte, João Paulo Cruz, Natália Aniceto, Ana Clara Ribeiro, Ana Fernandes, Paulo Paixão, Francisco Antunes, José Morais
Efavirenz (EFV) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor commonly used as first line therapy in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus, with a narrow therapeutic range and a high between-subject variability which can lead to central nervous system toxicity or therapeutic failure. To characterize the sources of variability and better predict EFV steady state plasma concentrations, a population pharmacokinetic model was developed form 96 HIV positive individuals, using a nonlinear mixed effect method with Monolix® software...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622731/navigating-tissue-chips-from-development-to-dissemination-a-pharmaceutical-industry-perspective
#18
Lorna Ewart, Kristin Fabre, Ananthsrinivas Chakilam, Yvonne Dragan, David B Duignan, Jeetu Eswaraka, Jinping Gan, Peggy Guzzie-Peck, Monicah Otieno, Claire G Jeong, Douglas A Keller, Sonia M de Morais, Jonathan A Phillips, William Proctor, Radhakrishna Sura, Terry Van Vleet, David Watson, Yvonne Will, Danilo Tagle, Brian Berridge
Tissue chips are poised to deliver a paradigm shift in drug discovery. By emulating human physiology, these chips have the potential to increase the predictive power of preclinical modeling, which in turn will move the pharmaceutical industry closer to its aspiration of clinically relevant and ultimately animal-free drug discovery. Despite the tremendous science and innovation invested in these tissue chips, significant challenges remain to be addressed to enable their routine adoption into the industrial laboratory...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621952/gastrointestinal-and-systemic-disposition-of-diclofenac-under-fasted-and-fed-state-conditions-supporting-the-evaluation-of-in-vitro-predictive-tools
#19
Jens Van Den Abeele, Ronald Schilderink, FElix Schneider, Raf Mols, Mans Minekus, Werner Weitschies, Joachim Brouwers, Jan Tack, Patrick Augustijns
This study aimed to gain further insight into the gastrointestinal disposition of the weakly acidic BCS Class II drug diclofenac and the implications for systemic drug exposure in humans under fasted and fed state conditions. For this purpose, gastrointestinal and blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers after oral intake of a commercially available tablet of the potassium salt of diclofenac (i.e. Cataflam®) in different prandial states. Subsequently, these in vivo data served as a reference for the evaluation of in vitro tools with different levels of complexity, i...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621799/clinical-guideline-for-the-management-of-odontogenic-infections-in-the-tertiary-setting
#20
Sushma Vytla, Dieter Gebauer
BACKGROUND: Odontogenic infections are a common presentation to Emergency Departments of Australian hospitals. Due to the limited training in diagnosis and treatment of dental conditions, these patients can present a challenge for the medical practitioner. The objective of this study was to provide an evidence-based approach to the management of odontogenic infections in adults presenting to Royal Perth Hospital. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify evidence based guidelines for the management of odontogenic infections in the tertiary hospital setting...
June 16, 2017: Australian Dental Journal
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