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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793194/simultaneous-determination-of-18-psychoactive-agents-and-6-metabolites-in-plasma-using-lc-ms-ms-and-application-to-actual-plasma-samples-from-conscription-candidates
#1
Dongeun Park, Hyeyoung Choi, Moonhee Jang, Hyejin Chang, Sanghee Woo, Wonkyung Yang
In Korea, an increasing number of people attempt to evade military conscription by posing as mental health patients. To verify the authenticity of mental illness, there is a need to detect wide range of psychoactive agents in biological specimens of conscription candidates. In this study, we developed and validated a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of 18 psychoactive agents and 6 metabolites in human plasma. The method was characterized by the use of a simple, fast and cheap protein precipitation as sample preparation, a rapid run time (11min) and a low volume of plasma sample (200μL)...
April 22, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792523/personality-homophily-and-geographic-distance-in-facebook
#2
Nyala Noë, Roger M Whitaker, Stuart M Allen
Personality homophily remains an understudied aspect of social networks, with the traditional focus concerning sociodemographic variables as the basis for assortativity, rather than psychological dispositions. We consider the effect of personality homophily on one of the biggest constraints to human social networks: geographic distance. We use the Big five model of personality to make predictions for each of the five facets: Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism...
May 24, 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791723/functional-and-morphological-recovery-is-incomplete-after-acute-and-acute-recurrent-pancreatitis-in-children
#3
Srikanth Puttaiah Kadyada, Babu Ram Thapa, Karanvir Kaushal, Rama Walia, S V Rana, Narendra Dhaka, Sadhna B Lal, Rajendra Prasad, Subhamoy Das, Rajini Thakur, Kishore Kamal
OBJECTIVE: There is lack of data on functional and morphological recovery after an attack of acute pancreatitis (AP) or acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) in children. This study aims to evaluate the functional impairment and morphological changes in the pancreas after recovery. METHODS: All consecutive patients presenting with AP (n=61) or ARP (n=35), as per standard diagnostic criteria were enrolled. After 2 months of pancreatitis, fecal elastase-1(μg/g) and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test to calculate oral disposition index (DIo )mmol/L-1 (beta cell function) were done...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791691/evaluation-of-miniscrew-angulation-in-the-posterior-maxilla-using-cone-beam-computed-tomographic-image
#4
Henrique M Villela, Mario Vedovello Filho, Heloísa C Valdrighi, Milton Santamaria-Jr, Carolina Carmo de Menezes, Silvia A S Vedovello
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at evaluating whether changes in the insertion angle is a determining factor in the positioning of the miniscrews body in a region with larger interradicular space in the posterior maxilla. METHODS: Analysis of 60 posterior maxillary quadrants were made using images obtained by means of cone-beam computed tomographic image (CBCT), with 0.076-mm voxel, which presented a real miniscrew inserted in the mesial region of the maxillary first molars, serving as reference point for the placement of the virtual miniscrews...
January 2018: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791014/interaction-between-abcg2-421c-a-polymorphism-and-valproate-in-their-effects-on-steady-state-disposition-of-lamotrigine-in-adults-with-epilepsy
#5
Iva Klarica Domjanović, Mila Lovrić, Vladimir Trkulja, Željka Petelin-Gadže, Lana Ganoci, Ivana Čajić, Nada Božina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790616/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-metabolic-profiles-of-fasiglifam-by-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-combined-with-q-exactive-orbitrap-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#6
Jin-Qi Li, Jia-Feng Wang, Jie Li, Shu-Han Zhang, Dan He, Rong-Sheng Tong, Shu-Ya She
RATIONALE: Fasiglifam is an orally available and selective partial agonist of hGPR40 receptor, which was unexpectedly terminated at phase III clinical trials due to its severe hepatotoxicity. To fully understand its mechanism of action, it is necessary to investigate the in vitro and in vivo metabolic profiles of fasiglifam. METHODS: For in vitro metabolism, fasiglifam was incubated with rat or human liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH, GSH and UDPGA for 60 min...
May 23, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789798/the-relation-between-sarcopenia-and-mortality-in-patients-at-intensive-care-unit
#7
Mehmet Toptas, Mazhar Yalcin, İbrahim Akkoc, Eren Demir, Cagatay Metin, Yildiray Savas, Muhsin Kalyoncuoglu, Mehmet Mustafa Can
Background and Aim: Psoas muscle area (PMA) can reflect the status of skeletal muscle in the whole body. It has been also reported that decreased PMA was associated with postoperative mortality or morbidity after several surgical procedures. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relation between PMA and mortality in all age groups in intensive care unit (UNIT). Materials and Method: The study consists of 362 consecutive patients. The demographic characteristics of patients, indications for ICU hospitalization, laboratory parameters, and clinical parameters consist of mortality and length of stay, and surgery history was obtained from intensive care archive records...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789474/design-of-a-novel-mems-microgripper-with-rotatory-electrostatic-comb-drive-actuators-for-biomedical-applications
#8
Luis A Velosa-Moncada, Luz Antonio Aguilera-Cortés, Max A González-Palacios, Jean-Pierre Raskin, Agustin L Herrera-May
Primary tumors of patients can release circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to flow inside of their blood. The CTCs have different mechanical properties in comparison with red and white blood cells, and their detection may be employed to study the efficiency of medical treatments against cancer. We present the design of a novel MEMS microgripper with rotatory electrostatic comb-drive actuators for mechanical properties characterization of cells. The microgripper has a compact structural configuration of four polysilicon layers and a simple performance that control the opening and closing displacements of the microgripper tips...
May 22, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788839/phenobarbital-pharmacokinetics-in-neonates-and-infants-during-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#9
Pavla Pokorná, Martin Šíma, Václav Vobruba, Dick Tibboel, Ondřej Slanař
INTRODUCTION: The disposition of drugs is potentially changed due to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in neonates and infants. METHODS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the individual pharmacokinetics (PK) of phenobarbital and the effect of PK covariates in neonates and infants undergoing ECMO. Sixteen patients (7 neonates, 9 infants) treated with phenobarbital during ECMO (centrifugal-flow pump circuits) were enrolled in the PK study. Phenobarbital serum concentrations were measured using a fluorescence polarization immunoassay...
May 2018: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788192/initial-assessment-of-the-risk-assessment-and-prediction-tool-in-a-heterogeneous-neurosurgical-patient-population
#10
Matthew Piazza, Nikhil Sharma, Benjamin Osiemo, Scott McClintock, Emily Missimer, Diana Gardiner, Eileen Maloney, Danielle Callahan, J Lachlan Smith, William Welch, James Schuster, M Sean Grady, Neil R Malhotra
BACKGROUND: Bundled care payments are increasingly being explored for neurosurgical interventions. In this setting, skilled nursing facility (SNF) is less desirable from a cost perspective than discharge to home, underscoring the need for better preoperative prediction of postoperative disposition. OBJECTIVE: To assess the capability of the Risk Assessment and Prediction Tool (RAPT) and other preoperative variables to determine expected disposition prior to surgery in a heterogeneous neurosurgical cohort, through observational study...
May 21, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786965/l-and-d-threo-ethylphenidate-concentrations-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-in-horses
#11
Heather K Knych, Dan S McKemie, Kelsey Seminoff, Petra Hartmann, Lynn Hovda, Dionne Benson
Ethylphenidate is a psychostimulant and analogue of the commonly prescribed compound, methylphenidate (Ritalin®). There are a limited number of studies describing the disposition and pharmacologic/toxicological effects of ethylphenidate in any species. The abuse potential in equine athletes along with the limited data available regarding administration in horses necessitates further study. The objectives of the current study were to describe drug concentrations, develop an analytical method that could be used to regulate its use and describe the pharmacodynamic effects of ethylphenidate in horses...
May 22, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785772/getting-the-picture-visual-interpretation-in-ophthalmology-residency-training
#12
Adam D Baim
OBJECTIVES: Visual interpretation is essential in many fields of health care. Although diagnostic competency can be measured as an educational outcome, few accounts have addressed tacit aspects of visual interpretation in clinical training; these include the disciplining of the trainee's attentions and the trainee's acculturation into expected styles of communicating visual interpretations to others. This paper describes values and dispositions that are taught to ophthalmology trainees as they learn to reason through visual information, and explores how these qualities are evaluated during residency training...
May 21, 2018: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785748/the-relation-of-respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-to-later-shyness-moderation-by-neighborhood-quality
#13
Hui Zhang, Tracy L Spinrad, Nancy Eisenberg, Linlin Zhang
The purpose of the study was to predict young children's shyness from both internal/biological (i.e., resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA) and external (i.e., neighborhood quality) factors. Participants were 180 children at 42 (Time 1; T1), 72 (T2), and 84 (T3) months of age. RSA data were obtained at T1 during a neutral film in the laboratory. Mothers reported perceived neighborhood quality at T2 and children's dispositional shyness at T1 and T3. Path analyses indicated that resting RSA interacted with neighborhood quality to predict T3 shyness, even after controlling for earlier family income and T1 shyness...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785262/evaluation-of-the-relevance-of-dili-predictive-hypotheses-in-early-drug-development-review-of-in-vitro-methodologies-vs-bddcs-classification
#14
Rosa Chan, Leslie Z Benet
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major safety concern; it occurs frequently; it is idiosyncratic; it cannot be adequately predicted; and a multitude of underlying mechanisms has been postulated. A number of experimental approaches to predict human DILI have been proposed utilizing in vitro screening such as inhibition of mitochondrial function, hepatobiliary transporter inhibition, reactive metabolite formation with and without covalent binding, and cellular health, but they have achieved only minimal success...
May 8, 2018: Toxicology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782651/pharmacokinetic-and-metabolism-studies-of-bavachinin-through-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#15
Jun Qian, Fan Xie, Yanhong Shi, Jinhang Li, Liuqiang Zhang, Yiming Li, Fujiang Guo, Rui Wang
Bavachinin (BVC), one of the main bioactive prenylated flavonoids derived from Psoralea corylifolia Linn, has a wide variety of pharmacological effects, such as antiangiogenic, antitumour, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities, especially as a pan-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) agonist. A rapid and sensitive method for quantifying BVC in rat plasma was developed and validated through ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry...
May 21, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782202/extraversion-and-openness-to-experience-moderate-the-relationship-between-orthodontic-treatment-need-and-oral-health-related-quality-of-life-in-adolescents-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Cihan Aydoğan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of personality traits to moderate the relationships between orthodontic treatment need and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed that included 230 subjects (125 girls and 105 boys) aged 11-14 years. Orthodontic treatment need was measured using the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON). The Child Perceptions Questionnaire, the Basic Personality Traits Inventory (BPTI), and the Revised Life Orientation Test were used to assess the OHRQoL, basic personality dimensions, and dispositional optimism respectively...
May 22, 2018: Angle Orthodontist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780338/better-cognitive-performance-is-associated-with-the-combination-of-high-trait-mindfulness-and-low-trait-anxiety
#17
Satish Jaiswal, Shao-Yang Tsai, Chi-Hung Juan, Wei-Kuang Liang, Neil G Muggleton
There are several ways in which cognitive and neurophysiological parameters have been consistently used to explain the variability in cognitive ability between people. However, little has been done to explore how such cognitive abilities are influenced by differences in personality traits. Dispositional mindfulness and anxiety are two inversely linked traits that have been independently attributed to a range of cognitive functions. The current study investigated these two traits in combination along with measures of the attentional network, cognitive inhibition, and visual working memory (VWM) capacity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780320/cloning-and-transcriptional-activity-analysis-of-the-porcine-abcb1-gene-promoter-transcription-factor-sp1-regulates-the-expression-of-porcine-abcb1
#18
Tingting Guo, Jinhu Huang, Changchao Huan, Fang He, Yujuan Zhang, Zohaib A Bhutto, Liping Wang
P-Glycoprotein (P-gp, Abcb1) plays a crucial role in drug disposition and functions by hydrolyzing ATP. However, little is known about the regulatory elements governing the transcription of the porcine Abcb1 gene. In this study, the transcription start site of the pig Abcb1 gene was identified by 5'-RACE. A 1.9-kb fragment of the 5'-flanking region of the Abcb1 gene was cloned from pig genomic DNA and sequenced. The region critical for its promoter activity was investigated via progressive deletions. Further, using mutation assays, two proximal Sp1 binding sites within the 5'-flanking region of Abcb1 were proven to be important cis- regulatory elements involved in regulating the constitutive expression of porcine Abcb1 ...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778659/sepsis-3-septic-shock-criteria-and-associated-mortality-among-infected-hospitalized-patients-assessed-by-a-rapid-response-team
#19
Shannon M Fernando, Peter M Reardon, Bram Rochwerg, Nathan I Shapiro, Donald M Yealy, Andrew J E Seely, Jeffrey J Perry, Douglas P Barnaby, Kyle Murphy, Peter Tanuseputro, Kwadwo Kyeremanteng
BACKGROUND: Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) respond to deteriorating hospitalized patients, and help determine subsequent management, including Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. In such patients with sepsis and septic shock, the Sepsis-3 clinical criteria have a potential role in detection, risk-stratification, and prognostication, though their accuracy in comparison to the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)-based septic shock criteria are unknown. We sought to evaluate prognostic accuracy of the Sepsis-3 criteria for in-hospital mortality among infected hospitalized patients with acute deterioration...
May 17, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777745/serum-adiponectin-ferritin-ratio-in-relation-to-the-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-and-insulin-sensitivity
#20
Alex Aregbesola, Vanessa D F de Mello, Jaana Lindström, Sari Voutilainen, Jyrki K Virtanen, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Uusitupa Matti
AIMS: Body iron inhibits the metabolism of adiponectin, an insulin sensitizing adipokine. We investigated the relationships of baseline and average of 4-year change in values of serum adiponectin (sA), serum ferritin (sF) and sA/sF ratio on type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk and insulin sensitivity (Matsuda ISI) and secretion (disposition index; DI30 ). METHODS: Prospective analyses were conducted in participants with impaired glucose tolerance of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (n=516) recruited in 1993-1998...
May 16, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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