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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780472/different-profiles-of-the-mrna-levels-of-dna-repair-genes-in-mcf-7-and-sh-sy5y-cells-after-treatment-with-combination-of-cisplatin-50-hz-electromagnetic-field-and-bleomycin
#1
Fatemeh Sanie-Jahromi, Mostafa Saadat
Neurotoxicity is known to be a major dose-limiting adverse effect of cisplatin (CDDP), alone or in combination with other chemicals. DNA repair capacity serve as a neuroprotective factor against CDDP. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 50-Hz electromagnetic field (EMF) in combination with CDDP and bleomycin (Bleo) on expression of some of DNA repair genes (GADD45A, XRCC1, XRCC4, Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs and LIG4) in MCF-7 (breast cancer) and SH-SY5Y (neuroblastoma) cell lines. MCF-7 and SH-SY5Y cells were pre-treated with CDDP in the presence or absence of EMF and then exposed to different concentration of Bleo...
August 3, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759779/synthetic-lethality-between-murine-dna-repair-factors-xlf-and-dna-pkcs-is-rescued-by-inactivation-of-ku70
#2
Mengtan Xing, Magnar Bjørås, Jeremy A Daniel, Frederick W Alt, Valentyn Oksenych
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are recognized and repaired by the Classical Non-Homologous End-Joining (C-NHEJ) and Homologous Recombination pathways. C-NHEJ includes the core Ku70 and Ku80 (or Ku86) heterodimer that binds DSBs and thus promotes recruitment of accessory downstream NHEJ factors XLF, PAXX, DNA-PKcs, Artemis and other core subunits, XRCC4 and DNA Ligase 4 (Lig4). In the absence of core C-NHEJ factors, DNA repair can be performed by Alternative End-Joining, which likely depends on DNA Ligase 1 and DNA Ligase 3...
July 26, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717247/characterization-of-hiv-1-integrase-interaction-with-human-ku70-protein-and-initial-implications-for-drug-targeting
#3
Andrey N Anisenko, Ekaterina S Knyazhanskaya, Artur O Zalevsky, Julia Yu Agapkina, Aleksander I Sizov, Timofey S Zatsepin, Marina B Gottikh
Human Ku70/Ku80 protein is known to influence HIV-1 replication. One of the possible reasons may be the protection of integrase from proteasomal degradation by Ku70 subunit. We demonstrated that recombinant HIV-1 integrase and Ku70 form a stable complex, while no interaction of Ku70 with integrase from prototype foamy virus was observed. By analyzing protein subdomains we determined two binding sites in the structure of both Ku70 and integrase: the 51-160 a.a. region of integrase interacts with residues 251-438 of Ku70, whereas Ku70 N-terminal domain (1-250 a...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712728/hexim1-and-neat1-long-non-coding-rna-form-a-multi-subunit-complex-that-regulates-dna-mediated-innate-immune-response
#4
Mehdi Morchikh, Alexandra Cribier, Raoul Raffel, Sonia Amraoui, Julien Cau, Dany Severac, Emeric Dubois, Olivier Schwartz, Yamina Bennasser, Monsef Benkirane
The DNA-mediated innate immune response underpins anti-microbial defenses and certain autoimmune diseases. Here we used immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, and RNA sequencing to identify a ribonuclear complex built around HEXIM1 and the long non-coding RNA NEAT1 that we dubbed the HEXIM1-DNA-PK-paraspeckle components-ribonucleoprotein complex (HDP-RNP). The HDP-RNP contains DNA-PK subunits (DNAPKc, Ku70, and Ku80) and paraspeckle proteins (SFPQ, NONO, PSPC1, RBM14, and MATRIN3). We show that binding of HEXIM1 to NEAT1 is required for its assembly...
August 3, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698766/apple-flavonoids-suppress-carcinogen-induced-dna-damage-in-normal-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#5
Vazhappilly Cijo George, H P Vasantha Rupasinghe
SCOPE: Human neoplastic transformation due to DNA damage poses an increasing global healthcare concern. Maintaining genomic integrity is crucial for avoiding tumor initiation and progression. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of an apple flavonoid fraction (AF4) against various carcinogen-induced toxicity in normal human bronchial epithelial cells and its mechanism of DNA damage response and repair processes. METHODS AND RESULTS: AF4-pretreated cells were exposed to nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketones (NNK), NNK acetate (NNK-Ae), methotrexate (MTX), and cisplatin to validate cytotoxicity, total reactive oxygen species, intracellular antioxidants, DNA fragmentation, and DNA tail damage...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668119/dna-pkcs-allostery-and-dna-double-strand-break-repair-defining-the-structure-and-setting-the-stage
#6
Dimitri Y Chirgadze, David B Ascher, Tom L Blundell, Bancinyane L Sibanda
DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is central to the regulation of the DNA damage response and repair through nonhomologous end joining. The structure has proved challenging due to its large size and multiple HEAT repeats. We have recently reported crystals of selenomethionine-labeled DNA-PKcs complexed with native KU80ct194 (KU80 residues 539-732) diffracting to 4.3Å resolution. The novel use of crystals of selenomethionine-labeled protein expressed in HeLa cells has facilitated the use of single anomalous X-ray scattering of this 4128 amino acid, multiple HEAT-repeat structure...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652322/cryo-em-structure-of-the-dna-pk-holoenzyme
#7
Humayun Sharif, Yang Li, Yuanchen Dong, Liyi Dong, Wei Li Wang, Youdong Mao, Hao Wu
DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a large protein complex central to the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA-repair pathway. It comprises the DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and the heterodimer of DNA-binding proteins Ku70 and Ku80. Here, we report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of human DNA-PKcs at 4.4-Å resolution and the DNA-PK holoenzyme at 5.8-Å resolution. The DNA-PKcs structure contains three distinct segments: the N-terminal region with an arm and a bridge, the circular cradle, and the head that includes the kinase domain...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645898/dna-pk-facilitates-piggybac-transposition-by-promoting-paired-end-complex-formation
#8
Yan Jin, Yaohui Chen, Shimin Zhao, Kun-Liang Guan, Yuan Zhuang, Wenhao Zhou, Xiaohui Wu, Tian Xu
The involvement of host factors is critical to our understanding of underlying mechanisms of transposition and the applications of transposon-based technologies. Modified piggyBac (PB) is one of the most potent transposon systems in mammals. However, varying transposition efficiencies of PB among different cell lines have restricted its application. We discovered that the DNA-PK complex facilitates PB transposition by binding to PB transposase (PBase) and promoting paired-end complex formation. Mass spectrometry analysis and coimmunoprecipitation revealed physical interaction between PBase and the DNA-PK components Ku70, Ku80, and DNA-PKcs Overexpression or knockdown of DNA-PK components enhances or suppresses PB transposition in tissue culture cells, respectively...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641126/dna-requirements-for-interaction-of-the-c-terminal-region-of-ku80-with-the-dna-dependent-protein-kinase-catalytic-subunit-dna-pkcs
#9
Sarvan Kumar Radhakrishnan, Susan P Lees-Miller
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the major pathway for the repair of ionizing radiation induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in human cells. Critical to NHEJ is the DNA-dependent interaction of the Ku70/80 heterodimer with the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to form the DNA-PK holoenzyme. However, precisely how Ku recruits DNA-PKcs to DSBs ends to enhance its kinase activity has remained enigmatic, with contradictory findings reported in the literature. Here we address the role of the Ku80 C-terminal region (CTR) in the DNA-dependent interaction of Ku70/80 with DNA-PKcs using purified components and defined DNA structures...
June 9, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550350/recent-advances-in-the-study-of-immunodeficiency-and-dna-damage-response
#10
REVIEW
Tomohiro Morio
DNA breaks can be induced by exogenous stimuli or by endogenous stress, but are also generated during recombination of V, D, and J genes (V(D)J recombination), immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR). Among various DNA breaks generated, DNA double strand break (DSB) is the most deleterious one. DNA damage response (DDR) is initiated when DSBs are detected, leading to DNA break repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The process is critically important for the generation of diversity for foreign antigens; and failure to exert DNA repair leads to immunodeficiency such as severe combined immunodeficiency and hyper-IgM syndrome...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490747/structural-basis-for-importin-%C3%AE-binding-of-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-tat
#11
K M Smith, Z Himiari, S Tsimbalyuk, J K Forwood
HIV-1 has caused 35 million deaths globally, and approximately the same number is currently living with HIV-1. The trans-activator of transcription (Tat) protein of HIV-1 plays an important regulatory function in the virus life cycle, responsible for regulating the reverse transcription of the viral genome RNA. Tat is found in the nucleus of infected cells, but can also invade uninfected neighbouring cells. Regions within Tat responsible for these cellular localisations are overlapping and include a nuclear localisation signal (NLS) spanning (48)GRKKRR, and a cell penetrating peptide (CPP) signal spanning (48)GRKKRRQRRRAPQN...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446302/-telomere-length-expression-of-mre11-and-ku80-in-patients-with-aplastic-anemia-and-their-correlation-with-pathogenesis
#12
Yan Wang, Rui-Rong Xu, Ying-Jun DU, Jing-Yi Wang, Kui Liu, Wei Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To detect the expression levels of MRE11 and Ku80 mRNA, and telomere length in bone marrow mononuclear cells of aplastic anemia(AA) patients, and to explore their correlation with pathogenesis of aplastic anemia. METHODS: Bone marrow mononuclear cells were collected from 40 cases of AA and 20 normal controls for detecting mRNA expression of MRE11 and Ku80 and telomere length by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), then MRE11, Ku80 and telomere length were analyzed for their correlation...
April 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431397/sensitization-of-tamoxifen-resistant-breast-cancer-cells-by-z-ligustilide-through-inhibiting-autophagy-and-accumulating-dna-damages
#13
Hongyi Qi, Zhuyun Jiang, Chengqiang Wang, Yi Yang, Li Li, Hui He, Zanyang Yu
Autophagy plays a pro-survival role in the tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. Herein we found that autophagy was concomitantly induced in tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 (MCF-7TR5) cells through the dissociation of Bcl-2 from Beclin 1 and subsequent enhancement of interaction among the ATG14-Beclin1-PI3KC3 complex. Moreover, higher level of DNA damage was observed in MCF-7TR5 cells with the decreased BRCA1 and RAD51 level and the increased Ku80 level. Interestingly, Nur77 was selectively degraded by autophagy, which causes the release of Ku80 from the Nur77-Ku80 complex, resulting in the increase of the DNA binding of Ku80 and DNA-PKcs...
April 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415827/camptothecin-resistance-is-determined-by-the-regulation-of-topoisomerase-i-degradation-mediated-by-ubiquitin-proteasome-pathway
#14
Koji Ando, Ankur K Shah, Vibhu Sachdev, Benjamin P Kleinstiver, Julian Taylor-Parker, Moira M Welch, Yiheng Hu, Ravi Salgia, Forest M White, Jeffrey D Parvin, Al Ozonoff, Lucia E Rameh, J Keith Joung, Ajit K Bharti
Proteasomal degradation of topoisomerase I (topoI) is one of the most remarkable cellular phenomena observed in response to camptothecin (CPT). Importantly, the rate of topoI degradation is linked to CPT resistance. Formation of the topoI-DNA-CPT cleavable complex inhibits DNA re-ligation resulting in DNA-double strand break (DSB). The degradation of topoI marks the first step in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) dependent DNA damage response (DDR). Here, we show that the Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer binds with topoI, and that the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) phosphorylates topoI on serine 10 (topoI-pS10), which is subsequently ubiquitinated by BRCA1...
July 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399858/ku80-correlates-with-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-resistance-in-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-but-reduces-cisplatin-pemetrexed-induced-apoptosis-in-a549-cells
#15
Bin Shang, Yang Jia, Gang Chen, Zhou Wang
BACKGROUND: Ku80 is a DNA repair protein which involves in cell apoptosis and chemoresistance. However, it is unclear whether Ku80 correlates with the efficiency of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in human lung adenocarcinoma, and modulates cisplatin/pemetrexed-induced lung cancer cell apoptosis in vitro. METHODS: We recruited 110 patients with stage IIIA lung adenocarcinoma, who received 2 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and their lungs were reevaluated by CT scan...
April 11, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329681/sirt6-promotes-dna-end-joining-in-ipscs-derived-from-old-mice
#16
Wen Chen, Nana Liu, Hongxia Zhang, Haiping Zhang, Jing Qiao, Wenwen Jia, Songcheng Zhu, Zhiyong Mao, Jiuhong Kang
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have great potential for treating age-related diseases, but the genome integrity of iPSCs is critically important. Here, we demonstrate that non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), rather than homologous recombination (HR), is less efficient in iPSCs from old mice than young mice. We further find that Sirt6 is downregulated in iPSCs from old mice. Sirt6 directly binds to Ku80 and facilitates the Ku80/DNA-PKcs interaction, thus promoting DNA-PKcs phosphorylation at residue S2056, leading to efficient NHEJ...
March 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289912/production-of-%C3%AE-carotene-by-expressing-a-heterologous-multifunctional-carotene-synthase-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#17
Shuliang Gao, Yangyang Tong, Li Zhu, Mei Ge, Yu Jiang, Daijie Chen, Sheng Yang
OBJECTIVES: To obtain functional expression of a heterologous multifunctional carotene synthase containing phytoene synthase, phytoene dehydrogenase, and lycopene β-cyclase activities encoded by carS from Schizochytrium sp. in order to allow Yarrowia lipolytica to produce β-carotene. RESULTS: To increase the integration efficiency of a 3.8 kb carS under the control of P GPD promoter with a 2 kb selection marker, ura3, along with a geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGS1) expression cassette (~10 kb in total), was inserted into the Y...
March 13, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254786/clinical-impact-of-tumor-dna-repair-expression-and-t-cell-infiltration-in-breast-cancers
#18
Andrew R Green, Mohammed A Aleskandarany, Reem Ali, Eleanor Grace Hodgson, Suha Atabani, Karen De Souza, Emad A Rakha, Ian O Ellis, Srinivasan Madhusudan
Impaired DNA repair drives mutagenicity, which increases neoantigen load and immunogenicity. We investigated the expression of proteins involved in the DNA damage response (ATM, Chk2), double-strand break repair (BRCA1, BLM, WRN, RECQL4, RECQL5, TOPO2A, DNA-PKcs, Ku70/Ku80), nucleotide excision repair (ERCC1), base excision repair (XRCC1, pol β, FEN1, PARP1), and immune responses (CD8, PD-1, PD-L1, FOXP3) in 1,269 breast cancers and validated our findings in an independent estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) cohort (n = 279)...
April 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193772/the-dna-pkcs-structure-suggests-dsb-repair-is-allosterically-regulated
#19
(no author information available yet)
The structure of DNA-PKcs in complex with KU80 suggests KU80 promotes allosteric activation of DNA-PKcs.
February 13, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166612/acute-exercise-activates-p38-mapk-and-increases-the-expression-of-telomere-protective-genes-in-cardiac-muscle
#20
Andrew T Ludlow, Laila Gratidão, Lindsay W Ludlow, Espen E Spangenburg, Stephen M Roth
What is the central question of this study? A positive association between telomere length and exercise training has been shown in cardiac tissue of mice. It is currently unknown how each bout of exercise influences telomere-length-regulating proteins. We sought to determine how a bout of exercise altered the expression of telomere-length-regulating genes and a related signalling pathway in cardiac tissue of mice. What is the main finding and its importance? Acute exercise altered the expression of telomere-length-regulating genes in cardiac tissue and might be related to altered mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling...
April 1, 2017: Experimental Physiology
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