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non-homologous end-joining

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223136/allele-exchange-at-the-epsps-locus-confers-glyphosate-tolerance-in-cassava
#1
Aaron W Hummel, Raj Deepika Chauhan, Tomas Cermak, Andrew M Mutka, Anupama Vijayaraghavan, Adam Boyher, Colby G Starker, Rebecca Bart, Daniel F Voytas, Nigel J Taylor
Effective weed control can protect yields of cassava (Manihot esculenta) storage roots (Doll and Piedrahita Cañola, 1978). Farmers could benefit from using herbicide with a tolerant cultivar. We applied traditional transgenesis and gene editing to generate robust glyphosate tolerance in cassava. By comparing promoters regulating expression of transformed 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) genes with various paired amino acid substitutions, we found that strong constitutive expression is required to achieve glyphosate tolerance during in vitro selection and in whole cassava plants...
December 9, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222170/imprecision-and-dna-break-repair-biased-towards-incompatible-end-joining-in-leukemia
#2
Franz Josef Gassner, Maria Schubert, Stefan Rebhandl, Karina Spandl, Nadja Zaborsky, Kemal Catakovic, Stephanie Blaimer, Daniel Hebenstreit, Richard Greil, Roland Geisberger
Cancer is a genetic disease caused by mutations and chromosomal abnormalities which contribute to uncontrolled cell growth. In addition, cancer cells can rapidly respond to conventional and targeted therapies by accumulating novel and often specific genetic lesions leading to acquired drug resistance and relapsing disease. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), however, diverse chromosomal aberrations often occur. In many cases, improper repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) is a major source for genomic abnormalities...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217771/rad52-is-required-for-rna-templated-recombination-repair-in-post-mitotic-neurons
#3
Starr Welty, Yaqun Teng, Zhuobin Liang, Weixing Zhao, Laurie Sanders, J Timothy Greenamyre, Maria Eulalia Rubio, Amantha Thathiah, Ravindra Kodali, Ronald Wetzel, Arthur S Levine, Li Lan
It has been long assumed that post-mitotic neurons only utilize the error-prone non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway to repair double strand breaks (DSBs) associated with oxidative damage to DNA, given the inability of non-replicating neuronal DNA to utilize a sister chromatid template in the less error-prone homologous recombination (HR) repair pathway. However, we and others recently have found that active transcription triggers a replication-independent recombinational repair mechanism in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215093/two-large-deletions-extending-beyond-either-end-of-the-rhd-gene-and-their-red-cell-phenotypes
#4
Kshitij Srivastava, David Alan Stiles, Franz Friedrich Wagner, Willy Albert Flegel
Only two partial deletions longer than 655 nucleotides had been reported for the RHD gene, constrained within the gene and causing DEL phenotypes. Using a combination of quantitative PCR and long-range PCR, we examined three distinct deletions affecting parts of the RHD gene in three blood donors. Their RHD nucleotide sequences and exact boundaries of the breakpoint regions were determined. DEL phenotypes were caused by a novel 18.4 kb deletion and a previously published 5.4 kb deletion of the RHD gene; a D-negative phenotype was caused by a novel 7...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215009/the-end-joining-factor-ku-acts-in-the-end-resection-of-double-strand-break-free-arrested-replication-forks
#5
Ana Teixeira-Silva, Anissia Ait Saada, Julien Hardy, Ismail Iraqui, Marina Charlotte Nocente, Karine Fréon, Sarah A E Lambert
Replication requires homologous recombination (HR) to stabilize and restart terminally arrested forks. HR-mediated fork processing requires single stranded DNA (ssDNA) gaps and not necessarily double strand breaks. We used genetic and molecular assays to investigate fork-resection and restart at dysfunctional, unbroken forks in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we report that fork-resection is a two-step process regulated by the non-homologous end joining factor Ku. An initial resection mediated by MRN-Ctp1 removes Ku from terminally arrested forks, generating ~110 bp sized gaps obligatory for subsequent Exo1-mediated long-range resection and replication restart...
December 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214031/parp-inhibitors-as-potential-therapeutic-agents-for-various-cancers-focus-on-niraparib-and-its-first-global-approval-for-maintenance-therapy-of-gynecologic-cancers
#6
REVIEW
Mekonnen Sisay, Dumessa Edessa
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are an important family of nucleoproteins highly implicated in DNA damage repair. Among the PARP families, the most studied are PARP1, PARP2 and PARP 3. PARP1 is found to be the most abundant nuclear enzyme under the PARP series. These enzymes are primarily involved in base excision repair as one of the major single strand break (SSB) repair mechanisms. Being double stranded, DNA engages itself in reparation of a sub-lethal SSB with the aid of PARP. Moreover, by having a sister chromatid, DNA can also repair double strand breaks with either error-free homologous recombination or error-prone non-homologous end-joining...
2017: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212151/dna-non-homologous-end-joining-enters-the-resection-arena
#7
EDITORIAL
Penny A Jeggo, Markus Löbrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210569/modulating-dna-repair-pathways-to-improve-precision-genome-engineering
#8
Katherine S Pawelczak, Navnath S Gavande, Pamela S VanderVere-Carozza, John J Turchi
Programmable nucleases like the popular CRISPR/Cas9 system allow for precision genome engineering by inducing a site-specific DNA double strand break (DSB) within a genome. The DSB is repaired by endogenous DNA repair pathways, either non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homology directed repair (HDR). The predominant and error-prone NHEJ pathway often results in small nucleotide insertions or deletions that can be used to construct knockout alleles. Alternatively, HDR activity can result in precise modification incorporating exogenous DNA fragments into the cut site...
December 6, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204698/fumarase-is-involved-in-dna-double-strand-break-resection-through-a-functional-interaction-with-sae2
#9
Michael Leshets, Dharanidharan Ramamurthy, Michael Lisby, Norbert Lehming, Ophry Pines
One of the most severe forms of DNA damage is the double-strand break (DSB). Failure to properly repair the damage can cause mutation, gross chromosomal rearrangements and lead to the development of cancer. In eukaryotes, homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) are the main DSB repair pathways. Fumarase is a mitochondrial enzyme which functions in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Intriguingly, the enzyme can be readily detected in the cytosolic compartment of all organisms examined, and we have shown that cytosolic fumarase participates in the DNA damage response towards DSBs...
December 4, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202710/parallel-loss-of-introns-in-the-abcb1-gene-in-angiosperms
#10
Rajiv K Parvathaneni, Victoria L DeLeo, John J Spiekerman, Debkanta Chakraborty, Katrien M Devos
BACKGROUND: The presence of non-coding introns is a characteristic feature of most eukaryotic genes. While the size of the introns, number of introns per gene and the number of intron-containing genes can vary greatly between sequenced eukaryotic genomes, the structure of a gene with reference to intron presence and positions is typically conserved in closely related species. Unexpectedly, the ABCB1 (ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily B Member 1) gene which encodes a P-glycoprotein and underlies dwarfing traits in maize (br2), sorghum (dw3) and pearl millet (d2) displayed considerable variation in intron composition...
December 4, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196656/development-of-a-plasmid-free-crispr-cas9-system-for-the-genetic-modification-of-mucor-circinelloides
#11
Gábor Nagy, Csilla Szebenyi, Árpád Csernetics, Amanda Grace Vaz, Eszter Judit Tóth, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Tamás Papp
Mucor circinelloides and other members of Mucorales are filamentous fungi, widely used as model organisms in basic and applied studies. Although genetic manipulation methods have been described for some Mucoral fungi, construction of stable integrative transformants by homologous recombination has remained a great challenge in these organisms. In the present study, a plasmid free CRISPR-Cas9 system was firstly developed for the genetic modification of a Mucoral fungus. The described method offers a rapid but robust tool to obtain mitotically stable mutants of M...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191918/pml-nuclear-body-disruption-cooperates-in-apl-pathogenesis-and-impairs-dna-damage-repair-pathways-in-mice
#12
Edwige Voisset, Eva Moravcsik, Eva W Stratford, Amie Jaye, Christopher J Palgrave, Robert K Hills, Paolo Salomoni, Scott C Kogan, Ellen Solomon, David Grimwade
A hallmark of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is altered nuclear architecture, with disruption of PML nuclear bodies (NBs) mediated by the PML-RARα oncoprotein. To address whether this phenomenon plays a role in disease pathogenesis, we generated a knock-in mouse model with NB disruption mediated by two point mutations (C62A/C65A) in the Pml RING domain. While no leukemias developed in PmlC62A/C65A mice, these transgenic mice also expressing RARα linked to a dimerization domain (p50-RARα model) exhibited a doubling in the rate of leukemia, with a reduced latency period...
November 30, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190394/acetylation-of-53bp1-dictates-the-dna-double-strand-break-repair-pathway
#13
Xiang Guo, Yongtai Bai, Meimei Zhao, Mei Zhou, Qinjian Shen, Cai-Hong Yun, Hongquan Zhang, Wei-Guo Zhu, Jiadong Wang
P53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) plays critical roles in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair by promoting non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), and loss of 53BP1 abolishes PARPi sensitivity in BRCA1-deficient cells by restoring homologous recombination (HR). 53BP1 is one of the proteins initially recruited to sites of DSBs via recognition of H4K20me2 through the Tudor-UDR domain and H2AK15ub through the UDR motif. Although extensive studies have been conducted, it remains unclear how the post-translational modification of 53BP1 affects DSB repair pathway choice...
November 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188477/crispr-cas9-mediated-efficient-editing-in-phytoene-desaturase-pds-demonstrates-precise-manipulation-in-banana-cv-rasthali-genome
#14
Navneet Kaur, Anshu Alok, Shivani, Navjot Kaur, Pankaj Pandey, Praveen Awasthi, Siddharth Tiwari
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) has been reported for precise genome modification in many plants. In the current study, we demonstrate a successful mutation in phytoene desaturase (RAS-PDS) of banana cv. Rasthali using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Two PDS genes were isolated from Rasthali (RAS-PDS1 and RAS-PDS2), and their protein sequence analysis confirmed that both PDS comprises conserved motifs for enzyme activity. Phylogenetic analysis of RAS-PDS1 and RAS-PDS2 revealed a close evolutionary relationship with other monocot species...
November 29, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182755/meta-analysis-of-dna-double-strand-break-response-kinetics
#15
Jakub A Kochan, Emilie C B Desclos, Ruben Bosch, Luna Meister, Lianne E M Vriend, Haico V Attikum, Przemek M Krawczyk
Most proteins involved in the DNA double-strand break response (DSBR) accumulate at the damage sites, where they perform functions related to damage signaling, chromatin remodeling and repair. Over the last two decades, studying the accumulation of many DSBR proteins provided information about their functionality and underlying mechanisms of action. However, comparison and systemic interpretation of these data is challenging due to their scattered nature and differing experimental approaches. Here, we extracted, analyzed and compared the available results describing accumulation of 79 DSBR proteins at sites of DNA damage, which can be further explored using Cumulus (http://www...
November 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179998/ell2-regulates-dna-non-homologous-end-joining-nhej-repair-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#16
Yachen Zang, Laura E Pascal, Yibin Zhou, Xiaonan Qiu, Leizhen Wei, Junkui Ai, Joel B Nelson, Mingming Zhong, Boxin Xue, Shaoxiong Wang, Dongrong Yang, Li Lan, Yuxi Shan, Zhou Wang
ELL2 is an androgen-responsive gene that is expressed by prostate epithelial cells and is frequently down-regulated in prostate cancer. Deletion of Ell2 in the murine prostate induced murine prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and ELL2 knockdown enhanced proliferation and migration in C4-2 prostate cancer cells. Here, knockdown of ELL2 sensitized prostate cancer cells to DNA damage and overexpression of ELL2 protected prostate cancer cells from DNA damage. Knockdown of ELL2 impaired non-homologous end joining repair but not homologous recombination repair...
November 24, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176980/iragu-a-novel-inducible-and-reversible-mouse-model-for-ubiquitous-recombinase-activity
#17
Marie Bonnet, Leonor Morais Sarmento, Ana C Martins, Daniel Sobral, Joana Silva, Jocelyne Demengeot
Developing lymphocytes express the recombination activating genes (RAGs) 1 and 2 products that form a site specific recombinase complex (RAG), introducing double strand DNA breaks (DSBs) at recombination signal sequences (RSSs) flanking the V, D, and J gene segments in the antigen receptor loci. The subsequent steps in the reaction consist in the ligation of DSBs by ubiquitous enzymes of the non-homologous end joining DNA repair pathway. This mutagenesis process is responsible for the generation of the very large clonal diversity of T and B lymphocytes, itself allowing the recognition of a virtually open-ended antigenic universe...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176614/inhibition-of-53bp1-favors-homology-dependent-dna-repair-and-increases-crispr-cas9-genome-editing-efficiency
#18
Marella D Canny, Nathalie Moatti, Leo C K Wan, Amélie Fradet-Turcotte, Danielle Krasner, Pedro A Mateos-Gomez, Michal Zimmermann, Alexandre Orthwein, Yu-Chi Juang, Wei Zhang, Sylvie M Noordermeer, Eduardo Seclen, Marcus D Wilson, Andrew Vorobyov, Meagan Munro, Andreas Ernst, Timothy F Ng, Tiffany Cho, Paula M Cannon, Sachdev S Sidhu, Frank Sicheri, Daniel Durocher
Programmable nucleases, such as Cas9, are used for precise genome editing by homology-dependent repair (HDR). However, HDR efficiency is constrained by competition from other double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways, including non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). We report the discovery of a genetically encoded inhibitor of 53BP1 that increases the efficiency of HDR-dependent genome editing in human and mouse cells. 53BP1 is a key regulator of DSB repair pathway choice in eukaryotic cells and functions to favor NHEJ over HDR by suppressing end resection, which is the rate-limiting step in the initiation of HDR...
November 27, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171825/guardians-of-the-mycobacterial-genome-a-review-on-dna-repair-systems-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#19
Amandeep Singh
The genomic integrity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is continuously threatened by the harsh survival conditions inside host macrophages, due to immune and antibiotic stresses. Faithful genome maintenance and repair must be accomplished under stress for the bacillus to survive in the host, necessitating a robust DNA repair system. The importance of DNA repair systems in pathogenesis is well established. Previous examination of the M. tuberculosis genome revealed homologues of almost all the major DNA repair systems, i...
November 24, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171189/synthetic-lethality-in-dna-repair-network-a-novel-avenue-in-targeted-cancer-therapy-and-combination-therapeutics
#20
REVIEW
Sonali Bhattacharjee, Saikat Nandi
Synthetic lethality refers to a lethal phenotype that results from the simultaneous disruptions of two genes, while the disruption of either gene alone is viable. Many DNA double strand break repair (DSBR) genes have synthetic lethal relationships with oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, which can be exploited for targeted cancer therapy, an approach referred to as combination therapy. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most toxic lesions to a cell and can be repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR)...
December 2017: IUBMB Life
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