keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

break-induced replication

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453550/selective-mitochondrial-dna-degradation-following-double-strand-breaks
#1
Amandine Moretton, Frédéric Morel, Bertil Macao, Philippe Lachaume, Layal Ishak, Mathilde Lefebvre, Isabelle Garreau-Balandier, Patrick Vernet, Maria Falkenberg, Géraldine Farge
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can undergo double-strand breaks (DSBs), caused by defective replication, or by various endogenous or exogenous sources, such as reactive oxygen species, chemotherapeutic agents or ionizing radiations. MtDNA encodes for proteins involved in ATP production, and maintenance of genome integrity following DSBs is thus of crucial importance. However, the mechanisms involved in mtDNA maintenance after DSBs remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the consequences of the production of mtDNA DSBs using a human inducible cell system expressing the restriction enzyme PstI targeted to mitochondria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453412/identification-and-characterization-of-citrus-tristeza-virus-isolates-breaking-resistance-in-trifoliate-orange-in-california
#2
Raymond K Yokomi, Vijayanandraj Selvaraj, Yogita Maheshwari, Maria Saponari, Annalisa Giampetruzzi, Michela Chiumenti, Subhas Hajeri
Most Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates in California are biologically mild and symptomless in commercial cultivars on CTV tolerant rootstocks. However, to better define California CTV isolates showing divergent serological and genetic profiles, selected isolates were subjected to deep sequencing of small RNAs. Full-length sequences were assembled, annotated and trifoliate orange resistance-breaking (RB) isolates of CTV were identified. Phylogenetic relationships based on their full genomes placed three isolates in the RB clade: CA-RB-115, CA-RB-AT25, and CA-RB-AT35...
April 28, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448050/single-molecule-analysis-of-laser-localized-psoralen-adducts
#3
Jing Huang, Himabindu Gali, Julia Gichimu, Marina A Bellani, Durga Pokharel, Manikandan Paramasivam, Michael M Seidman
The DNA Damage Response (DDR) has been extensively characterized in studies of double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by laser micro beam irradiation in live cells. The DDR to helix distorting covalent DNA modifications, including interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs), is not as well defined. We have studied the DDR stimulated by ICLs, localized by laser photoactivation of immunotagged psoralens, in the nuclei of live cells. In order to address fundamental questions about adduct distribution and replication fork encounters, we combined laser localization with two other technologies...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436335/localization-of-the-werner-protein-together-with-h2ax-in-%C3%AE-irradiation-induced-neoplastic-transformed-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
Nedime Serakinci, Tufan Cankaya, Steen Kølvraa
The H2A histone family, member X (H2AX), and Werner (WRN) are important proteins for genome and telomere maintenance. WRN has a major role in genome stability, particularly during DNA replication, transcription, recombination, and repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) via base excision repair, homologous recombination, or nonhomologous end joining. H2AX plays a part in the rapid, sensitive, cellular response to the ionizing radiation or DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents that cause DSBs. This occurs when radiation-induced DSBs trigger the activation of H2AX and begin the damage-repair process...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427283/break-induced-replication-in-eukaryotes-mechanisms-functions-and-consequences
#5
Cynthia J Sakofsky, Anna Malkova
Break-induced replication (BIR) is an important pathway specializing in repair of one-ended double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). This type of DSB break typically arises at collapsed replication forks or at eroded telomeres. BIR initiates by invasion of a broken DNA end into a homologous template followed by initiation of DNA synthesis that can proceed for hundreds of kilobases. This synthesis is drastically different from S-phase replication in that instead of a replication fork, BIR proceeds via a migrating bubble and is associated with conservative inheritance of newly synthesized DNA...
April 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418813/radiation-induced-deletions-in-mouse-spermatogonia-are-usually-large-over-200-kb-and-contain-little-sequence-similarity-at-the-junctions
#6
Mieko Kodaira, Jun-Ichi Asakawa, Nori Nakamura
Ionizing radiation can induce mutations, and the majority of radiation-induced mutations in mammalian cells are deletions. The most critical types of radiation-induced DNA damage are DNA double-strand breaks, and these breaks are repaired by either the homologous recombination (HR) pathway or the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. The HR pathway is not as mutagenic as the NHEJ pathway, and it is expected that radiation-induced deletions would usually have little sequence similarity around the deletion junction points...
April 18, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416484/ssrp1-cooperates-with-parp-and-xrcc1-to-facilitate-single-strand-dna-break-repair-by-chromatin-priming
#7
Ying Gao, Changling Li, Leizhen Wei, Yaqun Teng, Satoshi Nakajima, Xiukai Chen, Jianquan Xu, Brittany Leger, Hongqiang Ma, Stephen Spagnol, Yong Wan, Kris Dahl, Yang Liu, Arthur Levine, Li Lan
DNA single strand breaks (SSB) are the most common form of DNA damage, requiring repair processes that to initiate must overcome chromatin barriers. The FACT complex comprised of the SSRP1 and SPT16 proteins are important for maintaining chromatin integrity, with SSRP1 acting as an histone H2A/H2B chaperone in chromatin disassembly during DNA transcription, replication and repair. In this study, we show that SSRP1 but not SPT16 is critical for cell survival after ionizing radiation or methyl methanesulfonate-induced single-strand DNA damage...
April 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415353/noise-induced-symmetry-breaking-far-from-equilibrium-and-the-emergence-of-biological-homochirality
#8
Farshid Jafarpour, Tommaso Biancalani, Nigel Goldenfeld
The origin of homochirality, the observed single-handedness of biological amino acids and sugars, has long been attributed to autocatalysis, a frequently assumed precursor for early life self-replication. However, the stability of homochiral states in deterministic autocatalytic systems relies on cross-inhibition of the two chiral states, an unlikely scenario for early life self-replicators. Here we present a theory for a stochastic individual-level model of autocatalytic prebiotic self-replicators that are maintained out of thermal equilibrium...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414320/inhibition-of-dna2-nuclease-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-targeting-replication-stress-in-cancer-cells
#9
S Kumar, X Peng, J Daley, L Yang, J Shen, N Nguyen, G Bae, H Niu, Y Peng, H-J Hsieh, L Wang, C Rao, C C Stephan, P Sung, G Ira, G Peng
Replication stress is a characteristic feature of cancer cells, which is resulted from sustained proliferative signaling induced by activation of oncogenes or loss of tumor suppressors. In cancer cells, oncogene-induced replication stress manifests as replication-associated lesions, predominantly double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). An essential mechanism utilized by cells to repair replication-associated DSBs is homologous recombination (HR). In order to overcome replication stress and survive, cancer cells often require enhanced HR repair capacity...
April 17, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411389/the-comet-assay-in-folsomia-candida-a-suitable-approach-to-assess-genotoxicity-in-collembolans
#10
Diogo N Cardoso, Ana Rita R Silva, Andreia Cruz, Joana Lourenço, Joana Neves, Catarina Malheiro, Sónia Mendo, Amadeu M V M Soares, Susana Loureiro
The present study shows the comet assay technique being successfully applied for the first time to one of the most widely used soil organisms in standardized ecotoxicological tests, Folsomia candida, providing a step forward in assessing the genotoxicity induced by xenobiotics. Because collembolans have a high content of chitin, a new methodology was developed in which the heads of the collembolans were separated from the rest of the body, allowing the hemolymph to leak out. This procedure allows the cells to be released, and after lysis the genetic material is available for the comet assay...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405019/rad51-mediated-double-strand-break-repair-and-mismatch-correction-of-divergent-substrates
#11
Ranjith Anand, Annette Beach, Kevin Li, James Haber
The Rad51 (also known as RecA) family of recombinases executes the critical step in homologous recombination: the search for homologous DNA to serve as a template during the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Although budding yeast Rad51 has been extensively characterized in vitro, the stringency of its search and sensitivity to mismatched sequences in vivo remain poorly defined. Here, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we analysed Rad51-dependent break-induced replication in which the invading DSB end and its donor template share a 108-base-pair homology region and the donor carries different densities of single-base-pair mismatches...
April 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363014/chromosomal-aberrations-in-large-japanese-field-mice-apodemus-speciosus-captured-near-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plant
#12
Taiki Kawagoshi, Naoko Shiomi, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Yoshito Watanabe, Shoichi Fuma, Kazutaka Doi, Isao Kawaguchi, Masanari Aoki, Masahide Kubota, Yoshiaki Furuhata, Yusaku Shigemura, Masahiko Mizoguchi, Fumio Yamada, Morihiko Tomozawa, Shinsuke H Sakamoto, Satoshi Yoshida, Yoshihisa Kubota
Since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiation effects on nonhuman biota in the contaminated areas have been a major concern. Here, we analyzed the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations (translocations and dicentrics) in the splenic lymphocytes of large Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus) inhabiting Fukushima Prefecture. A. speciosus chromosomes 1, 2, and 5 were flow-sorted in order to develop A. speciosus chromosome-specific painting probes, and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) was performed using these painting probes to detect the translocations and dicentrics...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336515/the-motor-activity-of-dna2-functions-as-an-ssdna-translocase-to-promote-dna-end-resection
#13
Maryna Levikova, Cosimo Pinto, Petr Cejka
DNA2 nuclease-helicase functions in DNA replication and recombination. This requires the nuclease of DNA2, while, in contrast, the role of the helicase activity has been unclear. We now show that the motor activity of both recombinant yeast and human DNA2 promotes efficient degradation of long stretches of ssDNA, particularly in the presence of the replication protein A. This degradation is further stimulated by a direct interaction with a cognate RecQ family helicase, which functions with DNA2 in DNA end resection to initiate homologous recombination...
March 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335590/roles-of-budding-yeast-hrr25-in-recombination-and-sporulation
#14
Min-Su Lee, Jeong Hwan Joo, Keunpil Kim
Hrr25, a casein kinase 1 δ/ε homolog in budding yeast, is essential to set up mono-orientation of sister kinetochores during meiosis. Hrr25 kinase activity coordinates sister chromatid cohesion via cohesin phosphorylation. Here, we investigated the prophase roles of Hrr25 using the auxin-inducible degron system and by ectopic expression of Hrr25 during yeast meiosis. Hrr25 mediates nuclear division in meiosis I but does not affect DNA replication. We also found that initiation of meiotic double-strand breaks as well as joint molecule formation were normal in HRR25-deficient cells...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327192/dna-double-strand-breaks-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-reprogramming-and-long-term-in-vitro-culturing
#15
Pavel Simara, Lenka Tesarova, Daniela Rehakova, Pavel Matula, Stanislav Stejskal, Ales Hampl, Irena Koutna
BACKGROUND: Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) play roles in both disease modelling and regenerative medicine. It is critical that the genomic integrity of the cells remains intact and that the DNA repair systems are fully functional. In this article, we focused on the detection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by phosphorylated histone H2AX (known as γH2AX) and p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) in three distinct lines of hiPSCs, their source cells, and one line of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)...
March 21, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325102/building-up-and-breaking-down-mechanisms-controlling-recombination-during-replication
#16
Dana Branzei, Barnabas Szakal
The complete and faithful duplication of the genome is an essential prerequisite for proliferating cells to maintain genome integrity. This objective is greatly challenged by DNA damage encountered during replication, which causes fork stalling and in certain cases, fork breakage. DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathways mitigate the effects on fork stability induced by replication fork stalling by mediating damage-bypass and replication fork restart. These DDT mechanisms, largely relying on homologous recombination (HR) and specialized polymerases, can however contribute to genome rearrangements and mutagenesis...
March 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324505/probing-the-telomere-damage-response
#17
Rekha Rai, Sandy Chang
Telomere dysfunctions, rendered through replicative attrition of telomeric DNA or due to the removal of shelterin components, are recognized as DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) by the DNA damage repair (DDR) pathway. This leads to the activation of DNA damage checkpoint sensors, including the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex, γ-H2AX and 53BP1, the ATM and ATR signal-transducing kinases, and downstream effectors, including Chk1, Chk2, and p53. Robust DNA damage response signals at dysfunctional telomeres, achieved by the complete deletion of TRF2 or by expressing dominant-negative mutant TPP1ΔRD, can be detected by their association with γ-H2AX and 53BP1 forming "telomere dysfunction induced foci (TIFs)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319884/sodium-chlorate-induces-dna-damage-and-dna-protein-cross-linking-in-rat-intestine-a-dose-dependent-study
#18
Shaikh Nisar Ali, Fariheen Aisha Ansari, Hussain Arif, Riaz Mahmood
Sodium chlorate (NaClO3) is widely used in paper and pulp industries and as a non-selective herbicide. It is also a major by-product generated upon disinfection of drinking water by chlorine dioxide. In this study, we have investigated the genotoxicity of NaClO3 on the small intestine of rats. Adult male rats were divided into 5 groups: one control and four NaClO3 treated groups. The NaClO3 treated groups were given a single acute oral dose of NaClO3 (100, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight) and sacrificed 24 h later...
March 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300827/simvastatin-and-atorvastatin-inhibit-dna-replication-licensing-factor-mcm7-and-effectively-suppress-rb-deficient-tumors-growth
#19
Juan Li, Jie Liu, Zheyong Liang, Fang He, Lu Yang, Pingping Li, Yina Jiang, Bo Wang, Can Zhou, Yaochun Wang, Yu Ren, Jin Yang, Jianmin Zhang, Zhijun Luo, Cyrus Vaziri, Peijun Liu
Loss or dysfunction of tumor suppressor retinoblastoma (RB) is a common feature in various tumors, and contributes to cancer cell stemness and drug resistance to cancer therapy. However, the strategy to suppress or eliminate Rb-deficient tumor cells remains unclear. In the present study, we accidentally found that reduction of DNA replication licensing factor MCM7 induced more apoptosis in RB-deficient tumor cells than in control tumor cells. Moreover, after a drug screening and further studies, we demonstrated that statin drug Simvastatin and Atorvastatin were able to inhibit MCM7 and RB expressions...
March 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278048/brca1-recruitment-to-damaged-dna-sites-is-dependent-on-cdk9
#20
Thales C Nepomuceno, Vanessa C Fernandes, Thiago T Gomes, Renato S Carvalho, Guilherme Suarez-Kurtz, Alvaro N Monteiro, Marcelo A Carvalho
Double strand break lesions, the most toxic type of DNA damage, are repaired primarily through 2 distinct pathways: homology-directed recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). BRCA1 and 53BP1, 2 proteins containing the BRCT modular domain, play an important role in DNA damage response (DDR) by orchestrating the decision between HR and NHEJ, but the precise mechanisms regarding both pathways are not entirely understood. Previously, our group identified a putative interaction between BRCA1 and BARD1 (BRCA1-associated RING domain 1) and the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK9)...
April 3, 2017: Cell Cycle
keyword
keyword
56273
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"