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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811544/mutations-in-the-promoter-intron-and-cds-of-two-fad2-generate-multiple-alleles-modulating-linoleic-acid-level-in-yellow-mustard
#1
Fangqin Zeng, Vicky Roslinsky, Bifang Cheng
Linoleic acid (C18:2) is an important polyunsaturated fatty acid in the seed oil of many crops. Here, we report that mutations in the promoter, intron and CDS of the FAD2 genes SalFAD2.LIA1 and SalFAD2.LIA2 generate three alleles LIA (1a) , LIA (1b) and lia (1) and two alleles LIA (2) and lia (2), respectively, controlling the C18:2 variation (4.4-32.7%) in yellow mustard. The allelic effect on increasing C18:2 content is LIA (1a)  > LIA (1b)  > lia (1) , LIA (2) > lia (2), and LIA (1a)  > LIA (2)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810257/karyotypes-and-distribution-of-tandem-repeat-sequences-in-brassica-nigra-determined-by-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization
#2
Gui-Xiang Wang, Qun-Yan He, Jiri Macas, Petr Novák, Pavel Neumann, De-Xuan Meng, Hong Zhao, Ning Guo, Shuo Han, Mei Zong, Wei-Wei Jin, Fan Liu
Whole-genome shotgun reads were analyzed to determine the repeat sequence composition in the genome of black mustard, Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. The analysis showed that satellite DNA sequences are very abundant in the black mustard genome. The distribution pattern of 7 new tandem repeats (BnSAT13, BnSAT28, BnSAT68, BnSAT76, BnSAT114, BnSAT180, and BnSAT200) on black mustard chromosomes was visualized using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The FISH signals of BnSAT13 and BnSAT76 provided useful cytogenetic markers; their position and fluorescence intensity allowed for unambiguous identification of all 8 somatic metaphase chromosomes...
August 16, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806172/mobilization-of-line-1-retrotransposons-is-restricted-by-tex19-1-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#3
Marie MacLennan, Marta García-Cañadas, Judith Reichmann, Elena Khazina, Gabriele Wagner, Christopher J Playfoot, Carmen Salvador-Palomeque, Abigail R Mann, Paula Peressini, Laura Sanchez, Karen Dobie, David Read, Chao-Chun Hung, Ragnhild Eskeland, Richard R Meehan, Oliver Weichenrieder, Jose Luis García-Pérez, Ian R Adams
Mobilization of retrotransposons to new genomic locations is a significant driver of mammalian genome evolution, but these mutagenic events can also cause genetic disorders. In humans, retrotransposon mobilization is mediated primarily by proteins encoded by LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons, which mobilize in pluripotent cells early in development. Here we show that TEX19.1, which is induced by developmentally programmed DNA hypomethylation, can directly interact with the L1-encoded protein L1-ORF1p, stimulate its polyubiquitylation and degradation, and restrict L1 mobilization...
August 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803918/modeling-of-trex1-dependent-autoimmune-disease-using-human-stem-cells-highlights-l1-accumulation-as-a-source-of-neuroinflammation
#4
Charles A Thomas, Leon Tejwani, Cleber A Trujillo, Priscilla D Negraes, Roberto H Herai, Pinar Mesci, Angela Macia, Yanick J Crow, Alysson R Muotri
Three-prime repair exonuclease 1 (TREX1) is an anti-viral enzyme that cleaves nucleic acids in the cytosol, preventing accumulation and a subsequent type I interferon-associated inflammatory response. Autoimmune diseases, including Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) and systemic lupus erythematosus, can arise when TREX1 function is compromised. AGS is a neuroinflammatory disorder with severe and persistent intellectual and physical problems. Here we generated a human AGS model that recapitulates disease-relevant phenotypes using pluripotent stem cells lacking TREX1...
August 2, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800766/examining-non-ltr-retrotransposons-in-the-context-of-the-evolving-primate-brain
#5
REVIEW
Sara B Linker, Maria C Marchetto, Iñigo Narvaiza, Ahmet M Denli, Fred H Gage
Researchers have long sought to understand the genetic basis of the cognitive differences between primates, with particular focus on the human brain. Although all mutational types have worked in concert with evolutionary forces to generate the current human brain, in this review we will explore the impact of mobile elements, specifically non-LTR retrotransposons. Non-LTR retrotransposons have contributed coding and regulatory sequences to the genome throughout evolution. During primate evolution there have been multiple waves of LINE retrotransposition as well as the birth of new mobile elements such as the SINEs Alu and SVA and we will explore what kinds of impacts these may have had on the evolving human brain...
August 11, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797643/l1-mosaicism-in-mammals-extent-effects-and-evolution
#6
REVIEW
Geoffrey J Faulkner, Jose L Garcia-Perez
The retrotransposon LINE-1 (long interspersed element 1, L1) is a transposable element that has extensively colonized the mammalian germline. L1 retrotransposition can also occur in somatic cells, causing genomic mosaicism, as well as in cancer. However, the extent of L1-driven mosaicism arising during ontogenesis is unclear. We discuss here recent experimental data which, at a minimum, fully substantiate L1 mosaicism in early embryonic development and neural cells, including post-mitotic neurons. We also consider the possible biological impact of somatic L1 insertions in neurons, the existence of donor L1s that are highly active ('hot') in specific spatiotemporal niches, and the evolutionary selection of donor L1s driving neuronal mosaicism...
August 7, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796162/the-variation-analysis-of-dna-methylation-in-wheat-carrying-gametocidal-chromosome-3c-from-aegilops-triuncialis
#7
Dan Wang, Jieyu Zhao, Yan Bai, You Ao, Changhong Guo
Gametocidal (Gc) chromosomes can ensure their preferential transmission by killing the gametes without themselves through causing chromosome breakage and therefore have been exploited as an effective tool for genetic breeding. However, to date very little is known about the molecular mechanism of Gc action. In this study, we used methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to assess the extent and pattern of cytosine methylation alterations at the whole genome level between two lines of wheat Gc addition line and their common wheat parent...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792463/the-telomeric-response-to-viral-infection
#8
REVIEW
Zhuo Wang, Zhong Deng, Steve Tutton, Paul M Lieberman
The ends of linear genomes, whether viral or cellular, can elicit potent DNA damage and innate immune signals. DNA viruses entering the nucleus share many features with telomeres in their ability to either suppress or co-opt these pathways. Here, we review some of the common mechanisms that viruses and telomeres use to manage the DNA damage and innate immune response pathways. We highlight recent studies on the role of the telomere repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) in response to viral infection. We discuss how TERRA can be activated through a p53-response element embedded in a retrotransposon-like repeat found in human subtelomeres...
August 9, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776161/diversity-distribution-and-dynamics-of-full-length-copia-and-gypsy-ltr-retroelements-in-solanum-lycopersicum
#9
Rosalía Cristina Paz, Melisa Eliana Kozaczek, Hernán Guillermo Rosli, Natalia Pilar Andino, Maria Virginia Sanchez-Puerta
Transposable elements are the most abundant components of plant genomes and can dramatically induce genetic changes and impact genome evolution. In the recently sequenced genome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the estimated fraction of elements corresponding to retrotransposons is nearly 62%. Given that tomato is one of the most important vegetable crop cultivated and consumed worldwide, understanding retrotransposon dynamics can provide insight into its evolution and domestication processes. In this study, we performed a genome-wide in silico search of full-length LTR retroelements in the tomato nuclear genome and annotated 736 full-length Gypsy and Copia retroelements...
August 3, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774882/developmental-restriction-of-retrotransposition-activated-in-arabidopsis-by-environmental-stress
#10
Hervé Gaubert, Diego H Sanchez, Hajk-Georg Drost, Jerzy Paszkowski
Retrotransposons (RTs) may rapidly increase in copy number due to periodic bursts of transposition. Such bursts are mutagenic and thus potentially deleterious. However, certain transposition-induced gain-of-function or regulatory mutations may be of selective advantage. How an optimal balance between these opposing effects arises is not well characterized. Here, we studied transposition bursts of a heat-activated retrotransposon family in Arabidopsis We recorded a high inter- and intra-plant variation in the number and chromosomal position of new insertions, which usually did not affect plant fertility and were equally well transmitted through male and female gametes, even though 90% of them were within active genes...
August 3, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763026/genome-wide-analysis-reveals-extensive-changes-in-lncrnas-during-skeletal-muscle-development-in-hu-sheep
#11
Caifang Ren, Mingtian Deng, Yixuan Fan, Hua Yang, Guomin Zhang, Xu Feng, Fengzhe Li, Dan Wang, Feng Wang, Yanli Zhang
As an important type of noncoding RNA molecules, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) act as versatile players in various biological processes. However, little is known about lncRNA regulators during sheep muscle growth. To explore functional lncRNAs during sheep muscle growth, we systematically investigated lncRNAs using strand-specific Ribo-Zero RNA sequencing at three key developmental stages in Hu sheep. A total of 6924 lncRNAs were obtained, and the differentially expressed lncRNAs and genes were screened from (control vs...
August 1, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753967/drosophila-retrotransposons-making-up-telomeres
#12
REVIEW
Elena Casacuberta
Drosophila and extant species are the best-studied telomerase exception. In this organism, telomere elongation is coupled with targeted retrotransposition of Healing Transposon (HeT-A) and Telomere Associated Retrotransposon (TART) with sporadic additions of Telomere Associated and HeT-A Related (TAHRE), all three specialized non-Long Terminal Repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons. These three very special retroelements transpose in head to tail arrays, always in the same orientation at the end of the chromosomes but never in interior locations...
July 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750672/frequency-of-alu-insertions-within-the-ace-and-pr-loci-in-northwestern-mexicans
#13
Hilda P Navarrete, Linda H Soler, Rosa E Mares, Marco A Ramos
OBJECTIVE: Presently, non-LTR retrotransposons are the most active mobile elements in the human genome. Among these, Alu elements are highly represented in the modern population. Worldwide, distribution of Alu polymorphisms (insertion/deletion; I/D) shows variability between different populations. Two Alu insertion loci, ACE and PR, are significant biomarkers that have served in several genotype-phenotype association studies. In Mexico, studies concerning the frequency of these biomarkers have been conducted mainly in subpopulations from central and southern regions...
July 27, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749988/switching-of-dominant-retrotransposon-silencing-strategies-from-posttranscriptional-to-transcriptional-mechanisms-during-male-germ-cell-development-in-mice
#14
Kota Inoue, Kenji Ichiyanagi, Kei Fukuda, Michael Glinka, Hiroyuki Sasaki
Mammalian genomes harbor millions of retrotransposon copies, some of which are transpositionally active. In mouse prospermatogonia, PIWI-interacting small RNAs (piRNAs) combat retrotransposon activity to maintain the genomic integrity. The piRNA system destroys retrotransposon-derived RNAs and guides de novo DNA methylation at some retrotransposon promoters. However, it remains unclear whether DNA methylation contributes to retrotransposon silencing in prospermatogonia. We have performed comprehensive studies of DNA methylation and polyA(+) RNAs (transcriptome) in developing male germ cells from Pld6/Mitopld and Dnmt3l knockout mice, which are defective in piRNA biogenesis and de novo DNA methylation, respectively...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729554/comparison-of-traditional-and-new-generation-dna-markers-declares-high-genetic-diversity-and-differentiated-population-structure-of-wild-almond-species
#15
Karim Sorkheh, Mehrana Koohi Dehkordi, Sezai Ercisli, Attila Hegedus, Júlia Halász
Wild almond species as sources of genetic variation may have crucial importance in breeding. A total of 389 accessions of 18 species have been analysed using inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP), retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP), sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (S-SAP), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and simple sequence repeats (SSR). Retrotransposon markers indicated the presence and movement of some Ty3-gypsy and Ty1-copia-elements in almond genome...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723946/the-mitochondrial-genome-of-the-terrestrial-carnivorous-plant-utricularia-reniformis-lentibulariaceae-structure-comparative-analysis-and-evolutionary-landmarks
#16
Saura R Silva, Danillo O Alvarenga, Yani Aranguren, Helen A Penha, Camila C Fernandes, Daniel G Pinheiro, Marcos T Oliveira, Todd P Michael, Vitor F O Miranda, Alessandro M Varani
The carnivorous plants of the family Lentibulariaceae have attained recent attention not only because of their interesting lifestyle, but also because of their dynamic nuclear genome size. Lentibulariaceae genomes span an order of magnitude and include species with the smallest genomes in angiosperms, making them a powerful system to study the mechanisms of genome expansion and contraction. However, little is known about mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of this family, and the evolutionary forces that shape this organellar genome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715998/detection-of-active-transposable-elements-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-using-oxford-nanopore-sequencing-technology
#17
Emilie Debladis, Christel Llauro, Marie-Christine Carpentier, Marie Mirouze, Olivier Panaud
BACKGROUND: Transposables elements (TEs) contribute to both structural and functional dynamics of most eukaryotic genomes. Because of their propensity to densely populate plant and animal genomes, the precise estimation of the impact of transposition on genomic diversity has been considered as one of the main challenges of today's genomics. The recent development of NGS (next generation sequencing) technologies has open new perspectives in population genomics by providing new methods for high throughput detection of Transposable Elements-associated Structural Variants (TEASV)...
July 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714502/insights-into-the-rna-binding-mechanism-of-human-l1-orf1p-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#18
Muthukumaran Rajagopalan, Sangeetha Balasubramanian, Amutha Ramaswamy
The recognition and binding of nucleic acids by ORF1p, an L1 retrotransposon protein, have not yet been clearly understood due to the lack of structural knowledge. The present study attempts to identify the probable single-stranded RNA binding pathway of trimeric ORF1p using computational methods like ligand mapping methodology combined with molecular dynamics simulations. Using the ligand mapping methodology, the possible RNA interacting sites on the surface of the trimeric ORF1p were identified. The crystal structure of the ORF1p timer and an RNA molecule of 29 nucleotide bases in length were used to generate the structure of the ORF1p complex based on information on predicted binding sites as well as the functional states of the CTD...
July 17, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700586/systematic-identification-and-characterization-of-regulatory-elements-derived-from-human-endogenous-retroviruses
#19
Jumpei Ito, Ryota Sugimoto, Hirofumi Nakaoka, Shiro Yamada, Tetsuaki Kimura, Takahide Hayano, Ituro Inoue
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and other long terminal repeat (LTR)-type retrotransposons (HERV/LTRs) have regulatory elements that possibly influence the transcription of host genes. We systematically identified and characterized these regulatory elements based on publicly available datasets of ChIP-Seq of 97 transcription factors (TFs) provided by ENCODE and Roadmap Epigenomics projects. We determined transcription factor-binding sites (TFBSs) using the ChIP-Seq datasets and identified TFBSs observed on HERV/LTR sequences (HERV-TFBSs)...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698226/loss-of-dna-methylation-in-zebrafish-embryos-activates-retrotransposons-to-trigger-antiviral-signaling
#20
Yelena Chernyavskaya, Raksha Mudbhary, Chi Zhang, Debra Tokarz, Vinitha Jacob, Smita Gopinath, Xiaochen Sun, Shuang Wang, Elena Magnani, Bhavani P Madakashira, Jeffrey A Yoder, Yujin Hoshida, Kirsten C Sadler
Complex cytoplasmic nucleotide-sensing mechanisms can recognize foreign DNA based on a lack of methylation and initiate an immune response to clear the infection. Zebrafish embryos with global DNA hypomethylation caused by mutations in the ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 1 (uhrf1) or DNA methyltransferase 1 (dnmt1) genes exhibit a robust interferon induction characteristic of the first line of defense against viral infection. We found that this interferon induction occurred in non-immune cells and examined whether intracellular viral sensing pathways in these cells were the trigger...
August 15, 2017: Development
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