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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331083/maintenance-of-the-hiv-reservoir-is-antagonized-by-selective-bcl2-inhibition
#1
Nathan W Cummins, Amy M Sainski-Nguyen, Sekar Natesampillai, Fatma Aboulnasr, Scott Kaufmann, Andrew D Badley
Decay of the HIV reservoir is slowed over time in part by expansion of the pool of HIV infected cells. This expansion reflects homeostatic proliferation of infected cells by IL-7 or antigenic stimulation, as well as new rounds of infection of susceptible target cells. As novel therapies are being developed to accelerate the decay of the latent HIV reservoir, it will be important to identify interventions that prevent expansion and/or repopulation of the latent HIV reservoir. Our previous studies showed that HIV protease cleaves the host protein procaspase 8 to generate Casp8p41, which can bind and activate BAK to induce apoptosis of infected cells...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314856/ubc9-is-required-for-positive-selection-and-late-stage-maturation-of-thymocytes
#2
Aibo Wang, Xiao Ding, Maud Demarque, Xindong Liu, Deng Pan, Huawei Xin, Bo Zhong, Xiaohu Wang, Anne Dejean, Wei Jin, Chen Dong
SUMOylation is an important posttranslational modification that regulates protein function in diverse biological processes. However, its role in early T cell development has not been genetically studied. UBC9 is the only E2 enzyme for all SUMOylation. In this study, by selectively deleting Ubc9 gene in T cells, we have investigated the functional roles of SUMOylation in T cell development. Loss of Ubc9 results in a significant reduction of CD4 and CD8 single-positive lymphocytes in both thymus and periphery...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314253/the-role-of-il-7-in-immunity-and-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Jack Lin, Ziwen Zhu, Huaping Xiao, Mark R Wakefield, Vivi A Ding, Qian Bai, Yujiang Fang
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine that has been known since long in immunology, mainly regarding its effects on T-cells and B-cells. IL-7 has been demonstrated to be necessary for both B-cell and T-cell proliferation and lack of IL-7 causes immature immune cell arrest. Interestingly, in recent years, certain studies have strongly suggested that the role of IL-7 is far beyond the field of immunology, it might have direct or indirect effect on cancer. This review aims to summarize the role of IL-7 in immunity and its role in the pathogenesis of neoplasia...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303135/a-human-lin-cd123-cd127-low-population-endowed-with-ilc-features-and-migratory-capabilities-contributes-to-immunopathological-hallmarks-of-psoriasis
#4
Luz María Mora-Velandia, Octavio Castro-Escamilla, Andrés González Méndez, Cristina Aguilar-Flores, Martha Velázquez-Avila, María Isabel Tussié-Luna, Juan Téllez-Sosa, César Maldonado-García, Fermín Jurado-Santacruz, Eduardo Ferat-Osorio, Jesus Martínez-Barnetche, Rosana Pelayo, Laura C Bonifaz
Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are members of a heterogeneous family with a lymphoid origin that mimics the T helper (Th) cytokine profile. ILC are involved in early effector cytokine-mediated responses during infections in peripheral tissues. ILC also play an important role in chronic skin inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis. Although classical ILC express CD127, it has been recently reported that the presence of non-classical CD127(-) ILC populations and an early ILC precursor (EILP) CD127(low). ILC development has predominately been investigated in mouse models...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295230/microvesicles-released-by-apoptotic-human-neutrophils-suppress-proliferation-and-il-2-il-2-receptor-expression-of-resting-t-helper-cells
#5
Guifen Shen, Stefan Krienke, Petra Schiller, Anna Nießen, Susanne Neu, Volker Eckstein, Martin Schiller, Hanns-Martin Lorenz, Lars-Oliver Tykocinski
Membrane-coated microvesicles (MVs) have been identified as important mediators in intercellular communication. During the process of apoptosis, dying cells dynamically release MVs. Neutrophils are the most abundant type of leukocytes in the circulation. Due to their very short lifespan, it is likely that they are the source of large amounts of apoptotic cell-derived MVs. Here, we show that MVs released by apoptotic human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (apoPMN-MVs), but not the apoptotic neutrophils themselves, selectively suppress the proliferation of CD25 (IL-2Rα)(neg) CD127 (IL-7Rα)(pos) Th cells in a dose-dependent manner...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290259/synergistic-attenuation-of-ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss-by-combined-use-of-fish-oil-and-17%C3%AE-oestradiol
#6
Youri Jin, Myoungsook Lee, Yongsoon Park
Oestrogen and n-3 PUFA, especially EPA and DHA, have been reported to have beneficial effects on bone loss. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the synergistic bone-protective mechanism of combined treatments of EPA+DHA supplementation and oestrogen injection in ovariectomised rats. Rats were fed a modified American Institute of Nutrition-93G diet with 0 %, 1 % or 2 % n-3 PUFA (EPA+DHA) relative to the total energy intake for 12 weeks. Rats were surgically ovariectomised at week 8, and after a 1-week recovery period rats were injected with either 17β-oestradiol-3-benzoate (E2) or maize oil for the last 3 weeks...
March 14, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283017/forkhead-box-transcription-factor-1-affects-the-apoptosis-of-natural-regulatory-t-cells-by-controlling-aven-expression
#7
Zhitao Cai, Hong Liu, Xiongfei Wu
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T (Treg) cells play important roles in autoimmune diseases, cancer, and organ transplantation. Forkhead box protein o1 (Foxo1) and IL-7Rα(CD127) are closely related to the homeostasis of Treg cells. However, the mechanism underlying Treg proliferation and activation remains unclear. Here, we evaluated how the over-expression of Foxo1 affects Treg cell proliferation via intracellular signaling. nTreg cells were transfected separately with Foxo1 and Aven small-interfering RNA (siRNA) or over-expression plasmid...
March 10, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281222/gene-silencing-of-selenoprotein-k-induces-inflammatory-response-and-activates-heat-shock-proteins-expression-in-chicken-myoblasts
#8
Ruifeng Fan, Haidong Yao, Changyu Cao, Xia Zhao, Ahmed Khalid, Jinxin Zhao, Ziwei Zhang, Shiwen Xu
In the present study, specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) for selenoprotein K (Selk) gene was designed and transfected into chicken myoblasts. Then, the expressions of inflammatory factors (including induced nitric oxide synthase [iNOS], nuclear factor-kappa B [NF-κB], heme-oxygenase-1 [HO-1], cyclooxygenase-2 [COX-2], and prostaglandin E synthase [PTGEs]), inflammation-related cytokines (including interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-17, and interferon [IFN]-γ), and heat shock proteins (HSPs) (including HSP27, HSP40, HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90) were examined at 24 and 72 h after transfection...
March 9, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280853/murine-th17-cells-utilize-il-2-receptor-gamma-chain-cytokines-but-are-resistant-to-cytokine-withdrawal-induced-apoptosis
#9
Daniel J Neitzke, Jacob S Bowers, Kristina Andrijauskaite, Nathaniel S O'Connell, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, John Wrangle, Zihai Li, Chrystal M Paulos, David J Cole, Mark P Rubinstein
Adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) with the Th17 subset of CD4(+) T cells can cure established melanoma in preclinical models and holds promise for treating human cancer. However, little is known about the growth factors necessary for optimal engraftment and anti-tumor activity of Th17 cells. Due to the central role of IL-2 receptor gamma chain (IL2Rγ-chain) cytokines (IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15) in the activity and persistence of many T cell subsets after adoptive transfer, we hypothesized that these cytokines are important for Th17 cells...
March 9, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279736/il-7%C3%AE-5-protein-is-expressed-in-human-tissues-and-induces-expression-of-the-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-1-olr1-in-cd14-monocytes
#10
Lalit Rane, Sayma Rahman, Isabelle Magalhaes, Aditya Ambati, Jan Andersson, Alimuddin Zumla, Susanna Brighenti, Markus J Maeurer
OBJECTIVES: The 6 exon spanning ́canonical' Interleukin-7 (IL-7c) is a non-redundant cytokine in human T-cell homeostasis that undergoes extensive alternative pre-mRNA splicing. The IL-7 gene variant lacking, exon 5 (IL-7δ5), exhibits agonistic effects as compared to IL-7c. We studied in this report for the first time the protein expression of IL-7δ5 variant in tissues and its role in monocyte activation. METHODS: We visualized the expression of IL-7δ5 protein by immunohistochemistry in both healthy and malignant (human) tissues and investigated the impact of IL-7δ5 stimulation on CD14+ monocytes using gene expression analysis and flow cytometry...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277132/maternal-serum-cytokine-levels-in-pregnancies-complicated-with-threatened-preterm-labour
#11
Alejandra Herrera-Muñoz, Ana M Fernández-Alonso, Natalia Fischer-Suárez, Peter Chedraui, Faustino R Pérez-López
OBJECTIVE: To investigate serum inflammatory markers in singleton gestations complicated with threatened preterm labour (TPL). METHODS: Pregnant women complicated with TPL (n = 61) were recruited to measure maternal serum levels of a panel of cytokines and C-reactive protein and then compared to controls without TPL, matched for gestational age (n = 64) and term pregnancies in the prodromal phase of labour (PPL) (n = 31). In addition, baseline cytokine levels were compared among cases and controls according to the outcome...
February 21, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275672/insulin-use-hormone-receptor-status-and-hematopoietic-cytokines-circulation-in-women-with-diabetes-mellitus-and-breast-cancer
#12
Zachary A P Wintrob, Jeffrey P Hammel, George K Nimako, Dan P Gaile, Alan Forrest, Alice C Ceacareanu
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are cytokines of particular interest in oncology from the perspective of neutropenia management (Mehta et al., 2015 [1]) and also as indirect activators of tumor-associated macrophages and modifiers of tumor microenvironment. Associated with poor breast cancer survival and unfavorable hormone receptor status (Wintrob et al., 2017 [2]), insulin may also influence hematopoiesis, thus interfering with colony stimulating factor production...
April 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275660/dataset-on-granulopoiesis-and-lymphopoiesis-stimulating-cytokine-levels-in-insulin-secretagogue-users-with-incident-breast-cancer
#13
Zachary A P Wintrob, Jeffrey P Hammel, George K Nimako, Dan P Gaile, Alan Forrest, Alice C Ceacareanu
GM-CSF and G-CSF are widely used for their benefit in reducing chemotherapy-associated neutropenia. However, whether GM- or G-CSF administration could have tumorigenic or pro-metastatic effects or whether insulin resistance could negatively impact such effects is not known. Their ability to stimulate monocyte production at the same time with the highly sought after neutrophils' production, enables an enhanced potential for activation of tumor-associated macrophages. At the same time, IL-7 remains the main driver of B and T cell differentiation and maturation, a process linked to the development of insulin resistance and response to diabetes pharmacotherapy...
April 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271056/increasing-jak-stat-signaling-function-of-infant-cd4-t-cells-during-the-first-year-of-life
#14
Myra Grace Dela Peña-Ponce, Jennifer Rodriguez-Nieves, Janice Bernhardt, Ryan Tuck, Neelima Choudhary, Michael Mengual, Katie R Mollan, Michael G Hudgens, Sigal Peter-Wohl, Kristina De Paris
Most infant deaths occur in the first year of life. Yet, our knowledge of immune development during this period is scarce and derived from cord blood (CB) only. To more effectively combat pediatric diseases, a deeper understanding of the kinetics and the factors that regulate the maturation of immune functions in early life is needed. Increased disease susceptibility of infants is generally attributed to T helper 2-biased immune responses. The differentiation of CD4(+) T cells along a specific T helper cell lineage is dependent on the pathogen type, and on costimulatory and cytokine signals provided by antigen-presenting cells...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263097/transcriptional-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-follicular-t-helper-cells-and-their-role-in-autoimmunity
#15
Hong Qiu, Haijing Wu, Vera Chan, Chak-Sing Lau, Qianjin Lu
T-follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a specialized subset of T cells that provide help to B cells and promote the formation of germinal centers (GCs). Tfh cells transmit important signals to B cells that drive class switch recombination, somatic hyper-mutation, the generation of high-affinity antibodies, immunological memory and their differentiation into plasma cells or memory B cells in the GCs. Tfh-cell differentiation is regulated by the coordinated functions of distinct cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-21, IL-12, IL-23, IL-2, IL-7 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), as well as transcription factors, including B-cell lymphoma 6 protein (Bcl-6), Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1, STAT3, STAT4, B-cell activating transcription factor (Batf), interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4), v-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog (C-Maf), T-cell-specific transcription factor 1 (TCF-1) and Achaete-scute homolog 2 (Acl2), which have been shown to form a complex transcriptional network...
March 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259136/therapeutic-effects-of-different-doses-of-polyethylene-glycosylated-porcine-glucagon-like-peptide-2-on-ulcerative-colitis-in-male-rats
#16
Ke-Ke Qi, Jia-Jia Lv, Jie Wu, Zi-Wei Xu
BACKGROUND: Polyethylene glycosylated (PEGylated) porcine glucagon-like peptide-2 (pGLP-2) considerably increases half-life and stability compared with the native pGLP-2, but the effective dose for intestinal damage is still unclear. This study aims to evaluate the available dose of polyethylene glycosylated porcine glucagon-like peptide-2 (PEG-pGLP-2), a modified, long-acting form of pGLP-2 in an experimental rat model of ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Thirty-five male rats were randomly assigned into five groups: control, dextran sodium sulphate (DSS), DSS + PEG-pGLP-2(L), DSS + PEG-pGLP-2(M) and DSS + PEG-pGLP-2(H)...
March 4, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254841/stat5-phosphorylation-in-cd4-t-cells-from-patients-with-sle-is-related-to-changes-in-their-subsets-and-follow-up-disease-severity
#17
Aleš Goropevšek, Maksimiljan Gorenjak, Suzana Gradišnik, Klara Dai, Iztok Holc, Radovan Hojs, Ivan Krajnc, Artur Pahor, Tadej Avčin
Activation of the STAT5 signaling pathway up-regulates antiapoptotic protein Bcl2 and drives proliferation of autoreactive conventional CD4 T cells (Tcons). In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an increased T cell Bcl2 content and perturbed homeostasis of CD45RA(-)FOXP3(hi) activated regulatory T cells (aTregs) were described. We assessed Tcon/Treg subsets and phosphorylation of STAT5 (pSTAT5) in blood T cells from patients with SLE by using conventional and imaging flow cytometry. Forty-one patients with SLE, 33 healthy controls, and 29 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were included...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248727/interleukin-il-1-4-6-7-8-10-appearance-in-congenital-intra-abdominal-adhesions-in-children-under-1-year-of-age
#18
Anna Junga, Māra Pilmane, Zane Ābola, Olafs Volrāts
Several cytokines have been studied for their potential role in adhesion formation. Regulatory role between the cytokine pathways has not yet to be defined. This study was designed to investigate the relation between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in congenital intra-abdominal adhesions. Tissue samples used for research were obtained from abdominal surgery due to obstructive gut malrotation and several additional pathologies (rectal atresia without perforation, omphalocele). All tissue specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and by immunohistochemistry for interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, and IL-10...
February 28, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243900/increased-levels-of-intramuscular-cytokines-in-patients-with-jaw-muscle-pain
#19
S Louca Jounger, N Christidis, P Svensson, T List, M Ernberg
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate cytokine levels in the masseter muscle, their response to experimental tooth-clenching and their relation to pain, fatigue and psychological distress in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) myalgia. METHODS: Forty women, 20 with TMD myalgia (Diagnostic Criteria for TMD) and 20 age-matched healthy controls participated. Intramuscular microdialysis was performed to sample masseter muscle cytokines. After 140 min (baseline), a 20-minute tooth-clenching task was performed (50% of maximal voluntary contraction force)...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196644/re-evaluation-of-epidermodysplasia-verruciformis-reconciling-more-than-90%C3%A2-years-of-debate
#20
REVIEW
Joanna Przybyszewska, Abraham Zlotogorski, Yuval Ramot
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by abnormal susceptibility to cutaneous human beta-papillomavirus infections causing persistent flat warts or pityriasis versicolor-like lesions. This generalized verrucous skin disorder resembles generalized verrucosis, but these 2 conditions are distinguished by differences in clinical manifestation and the human papillomavirus types involved. A breakthrough in our understanding of EV was the discovery that homozygous inactivating mutations in TMC6 (EVER1) and TMC8 (EVER2) determine susceptibility to this disorder; however, they have not solved all EV cases fully...
February 10, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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