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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664568/the-role-of-cytokines-in-t-cell-memory-in-health-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Miro E Raeber, Yves Zurbuchen, Daniela Impellizzieri, Onur Boyman
Upon stimulation with their cognate antigen, naive T cells undergo proliferation and differentiation into effector cells, followed by apoptosis or survival as precursors of long-lived memory cells. These phases of a T-cell response and the ensuing maintenance of memory T cells are shaped by cytokines, most notably interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-7, and IL-15 that share the common γ chain (γc ) cytokine receptor. Steady-state production of IL-7 and IL-15 is necessary for background proliferation and homeostatic survival of CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663382/effects-of-interleukin-7-interleukin-7-receptor-on-rankl-mediated-osteoclast-differentiation-and-ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss-by-regulating-c-fos-c-jun-pathway
#2
Ji-Jun Zhao, Zhao-Feng Wu, Ying-Hao Yu, Ling Wang, Li Cheng
To explore the effects of IL-7/IL-7R on the RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in vitro and OVX-induced bone loss in vivo. BMMs and RAW264.7 were transfected with IL-7, IL-7R siRNA, c-Fos siRNA, and c-jun siRNA and later stimulated by RANKL. TRAP and toluidine blue staining were used to observe osteoclast formation and bone resorption, respectively. HE and TRAP staining were used to detect trabecular bone microstructure and osteoclasts of mice, respectively. qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis were used to examine expression...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656317/inflammatory-response-of-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-exposed-to-oxidative-and-biophysical-stress
#3
Joanna Costa, Yan Zhu, Timothy Cox, Paul Fawcett, Thomas Shaffer, Deepthi Alapati
Pulmonary hypertension in the neonate requires treatment with oxygen and positive pressure ventilation, both known to induce lung injury. The direct response of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, the most abundant cells in the artery wall, to the stress of positive pressure and hyperoxia has not been previously studied. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells were cultured in temperature- and pressure-controlled air-tight chambers under conditions of positive pressure or hyperoxia for 24 h. Control cells were cultured in room air under atmospheric pressure...
April 14, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655570/interleukin-7-enhances-anti-tumor-activity-of-cd8-t-cells-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
Dengke Teng, Lei Ding, Bo Cai, Qiang Luo, Hui Wang
Interleukin (IL)-7 stimulation improves virus- and tumor-specific CD8+ T cell responses. However, the role of IL-7 in modulation of dysfunctional CD8+ T cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was not completely understood. In this study, a total of 37 HLA-A2 restricted patients with HCC and 16 healthy individuals were enrolled. IL-7 expression and its receptor α chain CD127 level was measured. The regulatory activity of IL-7 to peripheral and liver-resident CD8+ T cells was investigated in co-culture systems which were directly or indirectly contacted with HCC cell line HepG2 in vitro...
April 11, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642398/novel-nanoparticulate-and-ionic-titanium-antigens-for-hypersensitivity-testing
#5
Paul Johan Høl, Einar K Kristoffersen, Nils Roar Gjerdet, Amanda S Pellowe
Titanium is used in a wide variety of materials ranging from medical devices to materials used in everyday life. Adverse biological reactions that could occur in patients, consumers, and workers should be monitored and prevented. There is a lack of available agents to test and predict titanium-related hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to develop two bioavailable titanium substances in ionic and nanoparticulate form to serve as antigens for hypersensitivity testing in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 20 test subjects were stimulated with the antigens and secretion of monocytic and lymphatic cytokines and chemokines were measured by a multiplex bead assay...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615515/a-hierarchy-of-affinities-between-cytokine-receptors-and-the-common-gamma-chain-leads-to-pathway-cross-talk
#6
Pauline Gonnord, Bastian R Angermann, Kaitlyn Sadtler, Erin Gombos, Pascal Chappert, Martin Meier-Schellersheim, Rajat Varma
Cytokines belonging to the common gamma chain (γc ) family depend on the shared γc receptor subunit for signaling. We report the existence of a fast, cytokine-induced pathway cross-talk acting at the receptor level, resulting from a limiting amount of γc on the surface of T cells. We found that this limited abundance of γc reduced interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-21 responses after IL-7 preexposure but not vice versa. Computational modeling combined with quantitative experimental assays indicated that the asymmetric cross-talk resulted from the ability of the "private" IL-7 receptor subunits (IL-7Rα) to bind to many of the γc molecules even before stimulation with cytokine...
April 3, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581031/il-7-induced-phosphorylation-of-the-adaptor-crk-like-and-other-targets
#7
Francesca B Aiello, Tad Guszczynski, Wenqing Li, Qiong Jiang, Deborah L Hodg, Tania Massignan, Chiara Di Lisio, Anand Merchand, Antonio D Procopio, Valentina Bonetto, Scott K Durum
IL-7 is required for T cell differentiation and mature T cell homeostasis and promotes pro-B cell proliferation and survival. Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a central role in IL-7 signaling. We identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by anti-phosphotyrosine immunoblotting and mass spectrometry sixteen tyrosine phosphorylated proteins from the IL-7-dependent cell line D1. IL-7 stimulation induced the phosphorylation of the proteins STI1, ATIC and hnRNPH, involved in pathways related to survival, proliferation and gene expression, respectively, and increased the phosphorylation of CrkL, a member of a family of adaptors including the highly homologous Crk isoforms CrkII and CrkI, important in multiple signaling pathways...
March 23, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566311/il-7-suppresses-macrophage-autophagy-and-promotes-liver-pathology-in-schistosoma-japonicum-infected-mice
#8
Jifeng Zhu, Weiwei Zhang, Lina Zhang, Lei Xu, Xiaojun Chen, Sha Zhou, Zhipeng Xu, Ming Xiao, Hui Bai, Feng Liu, Chuan Su
In schistosomiasis japonica and mansoni, parasite eggs trapped in host liver elicit severe liver granulomatous inflammation that subsequently leads to periportal fibrosis, portal hypertension, haemorrhage or even death. Macrophages are critical for granuloma formation and the development of liver fibrosis during schistosomiasis. However, whether the aberrant regulation of macrophage autophagy has an effect on the development of liver immunopathology in schistosomiasis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we showed that Schistosoma japonicum (S...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564420/irf4-modulates-cd8-t-cell-sensitivity-to-il-2-family-cytokines
#9
Su Huang, Yingjia Shen, Duy Pham, Li Jiang, Zheng Wang, Mark H Kaplan, Guangjun Zhang, Jie Sun
IFN regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is a key transcription factor that promotes effector CD8+ T cell differentiation and expansion. The roles of IRF4 in regulating the CD8+ T cell response to cytokines have not been explored. In this article, we show that IL-2 and IL-15 signaling and STAT5 activation regulate IRF4 expression in CD8+ T cells. Gene-expression profile analysis has also revealed that IRF4 is required for expression of the receptors of IL-2 family cytokines CD122 and CD127. We found that IRF4 binds directly to CD122 and CD127 gene loci, indicating that it may directly promote CD122 and CD127 gene transcription...
August 1, 2017: ImmunoHorizons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554938/improving-cancer-detection-through-combinations-of-cancer-and-immune-biomarkers-a-modelling-approach
#10
Raluca Eftimie, Esraa Hassanein
BACKGROUND: Early cancer diagnosis is one of the most important challenges of cancer research, since in many cancers it can lead to cure for patients with early stage diseases. For epithelial ovarian cancer (which is the leading cause of death among gynaecologic malignancies) the classical detection approach is based on measurements of CA-125 biomarker. However, the poor sensitivity and specificity of this biomarker impacts the detection of early-stage cancers. METHODS: Here we use a computational approach to investigate the effect of combining multiple biomarkers for ovarian cancer (e...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554572/cytokine-and-soluble-adhesion-molecule-profiles-and-biomarkers-for-treatment-monitoring-in-re-treated-smear-positive-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#11
Xue-Juan Bai, Hong-Min Li, You-Rong Yang, Jun-Xian Zhang, Yan Liang, Xue-Qiong Wu
Relapse of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is associated with a failure of the host immune system to control the invading Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Severe immunodeficiency or immune disorders may be the main reason for TB recurrence. This study aimed to quantify serum inflammatory cytokine and soluble adhesion molecule levels in Re-treated smear-positive PTB patients before and after re-anti-TB drug therapy. Serum samples were collected from 30 healthy controls and 215 Treated active PTB patients at baseline and 2, 4, and 6 months post-re-treatment...
March 16, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550278/tslp-activated-dendritic-cells-induce-t-helper-type-2-inflammation-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-keratitis
#12
Lin Sun, Chen Chen, Jiayin Wu, Chenyang Dai, Xinyi Wu
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an IL-7-like cytokine, which is secreted by epithelial cells under the stimulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. Dendritic cells (DCs) which express the thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor (TSLPR) can be activated by TSLP. Mature DCs can express the OX40 ligand, which has the ability to combine with OX40 on the surface of T cells to stimulate T cell proliferation. TSLP secreted by corneal epithelial cells can engage in the process of T helper type 2 (Th2) inflammation in Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis, but the mechanism remains unclear...
March 14, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543654/il-7-treatment-supports-cd8-mucosa-associated-invariant-t-cell-restoration-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#13
Ornella Sortino, Elizabeth Richards, Joana Dias, Edwin Leeansyah, Johan K Sandberg, Irini Sereti
: Chronic HIV-1 infection is associated with lower frequencies and functional impairment of mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. We evaluated IL-7 treatment to restore MAIT cells in peripheral blood of chronically HIV-1-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy. IL-7 led to increased relative and absolute levels of MAIT cells, and this expansion occurred primarily in the CD8 subset. These results suggest that IL-7 may represent a therapeutic intervention for the restoration of MAIT cells in chronic HIV-1 infection...
March 27, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531854/the-systemic-immune-response-to-pediatric-thermal-injury
#14
REVIEW
Racheal A Devine, Zachary Diltz, Mark W Hall, Rajan K Thakkar
BACKGROUND: The immune response to critical injury, including thermal injury, can heavily influence the recovery and long term prognosis for patients suffering such insults. A growing body of evidence supports that a suppressed immunologic state following critical injury can lead to adverse outcomes for adult and pediatric patients. METHODS: A Pubmed literature search was conducted to review areas of the immune system that are impaired after thermal injury and identify key immune players that are potential targets for therapeutic intervention...
2018: International Journal of Burns and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525610/arctigenin-protects-against-steatosis-in-wrl68-hepatocytes-through-activation-of-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-protein-kinase-b-and-amp-activated-protein-kinase-pathways
#15
Kung-Yen Chen, Jui-An Lin, Han-Yun Yao, An-Chih Hsu, Yu-Ting Tai, Jui-Tai Chen, Mao-Chih Hsieh, Tang-Long Shen, Ren-Yi Hsu, Hong-Tan Wu, Guey Horng Wang, Bing-Ying Ho, Yu-Pei Chen
Arctigenin (ATG), a lignin extracted from Arctium lappa (L.), exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We hypothesized that ATG exerts a protective effect on hepatocytes by preventing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression associated with lipid oxidation-associated lipotoxicity and inflammation. We established an in vitro NAFLD cell model by using normal WRL68 hepatocytes to investigate oleic acid (OA) accumulation and the potential bioactive role of ATG. The results revealed that ATG inhibited OA-induced lipid accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation in WRL68 hepatocytes, as determined using Oil Red O staining, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay, and inflammation antibody array assays...
February 11, 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520864/complex-association-patterns-for-inflammatory-mediators-in-induced-sputum-from-subjects-with-asthma
#16
A T Hastie, C Steele, C W Dunaway, W C Moore, B M Rector, E Ampleford, H Li, L C Denlinger, N Jarjour, D A Meyers, E R Bleecker
BACKGROUND: The release of various inflammatory mediators into the bronchial lumen is thought to reflect both the type and degree of airway inflammation, eosinophilic Th2, and Th9, or neutrophilic Th1, and Th17, in patients with asthma. AIMS: We investigated whether cytokines and chemokines differed in sputum from subjects with more severe compared with milder asthma, and if unbiased factor analysis of cytokine and chemokine groupings indicates specific inflammatory pathways...
March 9, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517845/major-features-of-immunesenescence-including-reduced-thymic-output-are-ameliorated-by-high-levels-of-physical-activity-in-adulthood
#17
Niharika Arora Duggal, Ross D Pollock, Norman R Lazarus, Stephen Harridge, Janet M Lord
It is widely accepted that aging is accompanied by remodelling of the immune system including thymic atrophy and increased frequency of senescent T cells, leading to immune compromise. However, physical activity, which influences immunity but declines dramatically with age, is not considered in this literature. We assessed immune profiles in 125 adults (55-79 years) who had maintained a high level of physical activity (cycling) for much of their adult lives, 75 age-matched older adults and 55 young adults not involved in regular exercise...
March 8, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515037/interleukin-7-restores-lymphocytes-in-septic-shock-the-iris-7-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
Bruno Francois, Robin Jeannet, Thomas Daix, Andrew H Walton, Matthew S Shotwell, Jacqueline Unsinger, Guillaume Monneret, Thomas Rimmelé, Teresa Blood, Michel Morre, Anne Gregoire, Gail A Mayo, Jane Blood, Scott K Durum, Edward R Sherwood, Richard S Hotchkiss
BACKGROUND: A defining pathophysiologic feature of sepsis is profound apoptosis-induced death and depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is an antiapoptotic common γ-chain cytokine that is essential for lymphocyte proliferation and survival. Clinical trials of IL-7 in over 390 oncologic and lymphopenic patients showed that IL-7 was safe, invariably increased CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte counts, and improved immunity. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of recombinant human IL-7 (CYT107) in patients with septic shock and severe lymphopenia...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506985/detection-and-characterization-of-cd8-autoreactive-memory-stem-t-cells-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#19
Debora Vignali, Elisa Cantarelli, Carlotta Bordignon, Adriana Canu, Antonio Citro, Andrea Annoni, Lorenzo Piemonti, Paolo Monti
Stem memory T cells (Tscm) constitute the earliest developmental stage of memory T cells, displaying stem cell-like properties such as self-renewal capacity. Their superior immune reconstitution potential has sparked interest in cancer immune-therapy, vaccine development and immune reconstitution, whereas their role in autoimmunity is largely unexplored. Here we show that autoreactive CD8+ Tscm specific for β cell antigens GAD65, insulin and IGRP are present in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). In vitro, generation of autoreactive Tscm from naïve precursors required the presence of the homeostatic cytokine interleukin-7 (IL-7)...
March 5, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506153/il-7-unveils-pathogen-specific-t-cells-by-enhancing-antigen-recall-responses
#20
Nadia Terrazzini, Paola Mantegani, Florian Kern, Claudio Fortis, Anna Mondino, Stefano Caserta
Background: IL-7 promotes the generation, expansion and survival of memory T cells. Previous mouse and human studies showed that IL-7 can support immune cell reconstitution in lymphopenic conditions, expand tumor-reactive T cells for adoptive immunotherapy and enhance effector cytokine expression by autoreactive T cells. Whether pathogen-reactive T cells also benefit from IL-7 exposure remains unknown. Methods: Here we investigated this issue in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from patients infected with various endemic pathogens...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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