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Brain tumors in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889026/imaging-of-the-sella-and-parasellar-region-in-the-pediatric-population
#1
REVIEW
Daniel P Seeburg, Marjolein H G Dremmen, Thierry A G M Huisman
Masses in the sella and parasellar region comprise about 10% of all pediatric brain tumors but type and frequency differs from those in adults. Imaging is critical for diagnosis and characterization of these lesions. By assessing the site of origin, signal and contrast enhancement characteristics, and the presence or absence of characteristic patterns, differential diagnosis can narrow the possibilities. The clinical presentation is often characteristic for lesion type and should be considered. This article summarizes the characteristic imaging features of the most frequent pediatric tumors and tumor-mimicking lesions in children in this region...
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889023/supratentorial-tumors-in-pediatric-patients
#2
REVIEW
Carlos Zamora, Thierry A G M Huisman, Izlem Izbudak
The breadth of tumors that can arise in the supratentorial brain in children is extensive. With the exception of those that result in seizures and the highly malignant histologies, supratentorial tumors may come to medical attention later compared with infratentorial tumors, as they are less commonly associated with ventricular obstruction. This article presents an overview of the neuroimaging characteristics of these entities, with particular attention to relevant features that may aid in narrowing the differential diagnosis, including correlation with demographics and clinical presentation...
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889022/advanced-mr-imaging-in-pediatric-brain-tumors-clinical-applications
#3
REVIEW
Maarten Lequin, Jeroen Hendrikse
Advanced MR imaging techniques, such as spectroscopy, perfusion, diffusion, and functional imaging, have improved the diagnosis of brain tumors in children and also play an important role in defining surgical as well as therapeutic responses in these patients. In addition to the anatomic or structural information gained with conventional MR imaging sequences, advanced MR imaging techniques also provide physiologic information about tumor morphology, metabolism, and hemodynamics. This article reviews the physiology, techniques, and clinical applications of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, perfusion MR imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and functional MR imaging in the setting of neuro-oncology...
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889018/posterior-fossa-tumors
#4
REVIEW
Lara A Brandão, Tina Young Poussaint
Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of death from solid tumors in childhood. The most common posterior fossa tumors in children are medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymoma, and brainstem glioma. Location, and imaging findings on computed tomography (CT) and conventional MR (cMR) imaging may provide important clues to the most likely diagnosis. Moreover, information obtained from advanced MR imaging techniques increase diagnostic confidence and help distinguish between different histologic tumor types...
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878779/total-estimated-effective-doses-from-radiologic-imaging-modalities-of-children-with-cancer-a-single-center-experience
#5
Derya Özyörük, Suna Emir, Hacı Ahmet Demir, Gülşah Bayram Kabaçam, Bahattin Tunç
BACKGROUND: Recently, awareness of the cumulative radiation exposure for pediatric oncology patients has been increasing, together with increased survival rates and longer life expectancy. The aim of our study was to quantify the amount of ionising radiation from imaging modalities of pediatric oncology patients. METHODS: Eighty-eight patients who were diagnosed with childhood cancer and followed up for 5 years between 2004-2014 in our center were included in the study...
November 23, 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876089/rapid-onset-obesity-hypoventilation-hypothalamic-dysfunction-autonomic-dysregulation-and-neuroendocrine-tumor-syndrome-with-a-homogenous-enlargement-of-the-pituitary-gland-a-case-report
#6
Lama Aljabban, Lina Kassab, Nour Alhuda Bakoura, Mohammad Fayez Alsalka, Ismaeil Maksoud
BACKGROUND: Rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome is a rare pediatric disorder with a variable sequence of clinical presentations, undefined etiology, and high risk of mortality. Our patient presented an unusual course of the disease accompanied by a homogenous mild enlargement of her pituitary gland with an intact pituitary-endocrine axis which, to the best of our knowledge, represents a new finding in rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867930/a-case-of-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-located-at-brain-stem-in-a-child
#7
Jinho Kim, Young Zoon Kim
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an extranodal Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is confined to the brain, eyes, and/or leptomeninges without evidence of a systemic primary tumor. Although the tumor can affect all age groups, it is rare in childhood; thus, its incidence and prognosis in children have not been well defined and the best treatment strategy remains unclear. A nine-year old presented at our department with complaints of diplopia, dizziness, dysarthria, and right side hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance image suggested a diffuse brain stem glioma with infiltration into the right cerebellar peduncle...
October 2016: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866569/computed-tomography-in-germany
#8
Roman Pokora, Lucian Krille, Steffen Dreger, Choonsik Lee, Christian Günster, Hajo Zeeb, Maria Blettner
BACKGROUND: In 2001, calculations in models based on atomic bomb survivors indicated that children exposed to ionizing radiation by computed tomography (CT) would be expected to have an increased risk of cancer. This led to the issuance of new recommendations in Germany concerning CT in children. METHODS: We analyzed data from the German pediatric CT cohort study together with data on children from a large general statutory health insurance provider (AOK) in order to characterize the secular trend in the use of CT in Germany...
October 28, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861763/assessment-of-the-treatment-approach-and-survival-outcomes-in-a-modern-cohort-of-patients-with-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumors-using-the-national-cancer-database
#9
Benjamin W Fischer-Valuck, Ishita Chen, Amar J Srivastava, John M Floberg, Yuan James Rao, Allison A King, Eric T Shinohara, Stephanie M Perkins
BACKGROUND: Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) are rare brain tumors that occur primarily in children under the age of 3 years. This report evaluates the treatment approach and survival outcomes in a large cohort of patients treated in the United States. METHODS: Using the National Cancer Database, the analysis included all ATRT patients aged 0 to 18 years who were diagnosed between 2004 and 2012 and had complete treatment data. RESULTS: Three hundred sixty-one ATRT patients were evaluated...
November 2, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836863/checkpoint-proteins-in-pediatric-brain-and-extracranial-solid-tumors-opportunities-for-immunotherapy
#10
Eric K Ring, James M Markert, G Yancey Gillespie, Gregory K Friedman
Pediatric brain and extracranial solid tumors are a diverse group of malignancies that represent almost half of pediatric cancers. Standard therapy includes various combinations of surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation, which can be very harmful to a developing child, and survivors carry a substantial burden of long term morbidities. While these therapies have improved survival rates for children with solid tumors, outcomes still remain extremely poor for subsets of patients. Recently, immunosuppressive checkpoint molecules that negatively regulate immune cell function have been described...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834469/the-expression-of-fat1-is-associated-with-overall-survival-in-children-with-medulloblastoma
#11
Jianzhong Yu, Hao Li
PURPOSE: The FAT1 gene is involved in some cancers; however, its role in medulloblastoma is less clear. This study investigated the effects of FAT1 expression on the prognosis of medulloblastoma patients. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was undertaken in 40 medulloblastoma patient samples. FAT1 mRNA and protein expression levels in normal and brain tumor tissues were determined by fluorescence quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The association of FAT1 expression with overall survival (OS) was examined by Kaplan-Meier curve analysis with a log-rank test...
November 8, 2016: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816346/-neuro-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#12
Loïc Le Guennec, Nadine Martin-Duverneuil, Karima Mokhtari, Maria Santiago-Ribeiro, Eléonore Bayen, Antoine Del Cul, Daniel Delgadillo, Aurélie Kas, Carine Courtillot, Julien Haroche, Fleur Cohen, Jean Donadieu, Khê Hoang-Xuan, Ahmed Idbaih
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare multisystemic disease. LCH is characterized by proliferation of myeloid progenitors with altered differentiation program and similar phenotypic features to epidermal dendritic cells termed Langerhans cell. LCH cells express CD1a+ and langerin and exhibit BRAF V600E mutation in ∼50% of cases. Neurological involvement or neuro-LCH is observed in 5 to 10% of cases. Three subtypes of neuro-LCH are individualized. The tumor type, accounting for 45% of neuro-LCH, affect mainly young adults...
November 2, 2016: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815398/optic-pathway-glioma-volume-predicts-retinal-axon-degeneration-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#13
Robert A Avery, Awais Mansoor, Rabia Idrees, Carmelina Trimboli-Heidler, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Roger J Packer, Marius George Linguraru
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether tumor size is associated with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, a measure of axonal degeneration and an established biomarker of visual impairment in children with optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) secondary to neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). METHODS: Children with NF1-OPGs involving the optic nerve (extension into the chiasm and tracts permitted) who underwent both volumetric MRI analysis and optical coherence tomography (OCT) within 2 weeks of each other were included...
November 4, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815224/minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-children-with-chronic-liver-disease-prevalence-pathogenesis-and-magnetic-resonance-based-diagnosis
#14
Anshu Srivastava, Saurabh Chaturvedi, Rakesh Kumar Gupta, Rohan Malik, Amrita Mathias, Naranamangalam R Jagannathan, Sunil Jain, Chandra Mani Pandey, Surender Kumar Yachha, Ram Kishor Singh Rathore
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Data on minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in children is scanty. We evaluated children with chronic liver disease (CLD) to determine prevalence of MHE, its correlation with changes in brain metabolites by magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)HMRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived metrics, blood ammonia (BA) and inflammatory cytokines and the accuracy of MR based investigations for diagnosis METHODS: 67(38 boys; age 13[7-18] years) CLD and 37 healthy children were evaluated with neuropsychological tests (NPT), BA, interleukin-6 [IL6], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα], magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),(1)HMRS and DTI...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813458/a-systematic-review-of-overall-survival-in-pediatric-primary-glioblastoma-multiforme-of-the-spinal-cord
#15
Subhas K Konar, Shyamal C Bir, Tanmoy K Maiti, Anil Nanda
OBJECTIVE The incidence of primary spinal cord glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in the pediatric age group is very rare. Only a few case series and case reports have been published in the literature; therefore, overall survival (OS) outcome and the as-yet poorly defined management options are not discussed in detail. The authors performed a cumulative survival analysis of all reported cases of pediatric spinal cord GBM to identify the predictive factors related to final survival outcome. METHODS A comprehensive search for relevant articles was performed on PubMed's electronic database MEDLINE for the period from 1950 to 2015 using the search words "malignant spinal cord tumor" and "spinal glioblastoma multiforme...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810072/a-new-nfia-raf1-fusion-activating-the-mapk-pathway-in-pilocytic-astrocytoma
#16
Christina Westmose Yde, Astrid Sehested, Àngels Mateu-Regué, Olga Østrup, David Scheie, Karsten Nysom, Finn Cilius Nielsen, Maria Rossing
Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is one of the most common brain cancers among children and activation of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathway is considered the hallmark. In the majority of cases, oncogenic BRAF fusions or BRAF V600E mutations are observed, while RAF1 or NF1 alterations are more rarely found. However, in some cases, no apparent cancer driver events can be identified. Here, we describe a novel fusion between the transcription factor nuclear factor 1A (NFIA) and Raf-1 proto-oncogene (RAF1) in a 5-year old boy with PA...
October 2016: Cancer Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804208/birth-weight-and-subsequent-risk-of-childhood-primary-brain-tumors-an-updated-meta-analysis
#17
Anne Dahlhaus, Peggy Prengel, Logan Spector, Dawid Pieper
BACKGROUND: Primary brain tumors are common in childhood, but the etiology is largely unclear. As studies on birth weight as a risk factor for the occurrence of histologically specified tumors have been inconclusive, we decided to update a 2008 meta-analysis on the subject. METHODS: A search strategy was performed in Medline and EMBASE for the period 2007-2016. We included six new studies and performed further subgroup analyses for medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs)...
November 2, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787875/posterior-fossa-syndrome-review-of-the-behavioral-and-emotional-aspects-in-pediatric-cancer-patients
#18
REVIEW
Jane C Lanier, Annah N Abrams
Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood, occurs in the posterior fossa, the part of the intracranial cavity that contains the brainstem and the cerebellum. The cerebellum is involved in many complex aspects of human behavior and function, and when it is disrupted or insulted, this can lead to significant sequelae in children with posterior fossa tumors. A constellation of impairing and distressing symptoms, including mutism, ataxia/hypotonia, and emotional lability, develops in approximately 25% of children after the surgical resection of posterior fossa tumors...
October 27, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783941/mek-inhibitors-reverse-growth-of-embryonal-brain-tumors-derived-from-oligoneural-precursor-cells
#19
Katarzyna Modzelewska, Elena F Boer, Timothy L Mosbruger, Daniel Picard, Daniela Anderson, Rodney R Miles, Mitchell Kroll, William Oslund, Theodore J Pysher, Joshua D Schiffman, Randy Jensen, Cicely A Jette, Annie Huang, Rodney A Stewart
Malignant brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in children. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the CNS (CNS-PNETs) are particularly aggressive embryonal tumors of unknown cellular origin. Recent genomic studies have classified CNS-PNETs into molecularly distinct subgroups that promise to improve diagnosis and treatment; however, the lack of cell- or animal-based models for these subgroups prevents testing of rationally designed therapies. Here, we show that a subset of CNS-PNETs co-express oligoneural precursor cell (OPC) markers OLIG2 and SOX10 with coincident activation of the RAS/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782927/patterns-of-diagnosis-and-misdiagnosis-in-pediatric-cancer-and-relationship-to-survival
#20
Jing Chen, Craig A Mullen
BACKGROUND: Pediatric cancer is rare and its symptoms are often ambiguous. The aims of this study were to investigate the time needed to make a diagnosis, assess the frequency of misdiagnosis, and to determine whether these factors affected survival. METHODS: A review of records of 364 pediatric patients diagnosed with cancer at the University of Rochester Golisano Children's Hospital between 2004 and 2012 was conducted. Data were extracted on patient and health care system-related factors and clinical outcomes...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
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