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Brain tumors in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776650/signaling-pathway-deregulation-and-molecular-alterations-across-pediatric-medulloblastomas
#1
REVIEW
B Lhermitte, A F Blandin, A Coca, E Guerin, A Durand, N Entz-Werlé
Medulloblastomas (MBs) account for 15% of brain tumors in children under the age of 15. To date, the overall 5-year survival rate for all children is only around 60%. Recent advances in cancer genomics have led to a fundamental change in medulloblastoma classification and is evolving along with the genomic discoveries, allowing to regularly reclassify this disease. The previous molecular classification defined 4 groups (WNT-activated MB, SHH-activated MB and the groups 3 and 4 characterized partially by NMYC and MYC driven MBs)...
May 15, 2018: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773567/balanced-steady-state-free-precession-sequence-ciss-fiesta-3d-driven-equilibrium-radiofrequency-reset-pulse-increases-the-diagnostic-yield-for-spinal-drop-metastases-in-children-with-brain-tumors
#2
K Buch, P Caruso, D Ebb, S Rincon
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Identification of spinal drop metastases is important in the staging and management of pediatric patients with primary brain tumors. Our aim was to assess the diagnostic utility of the balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) sequence (CISS/FIESTA/3D driven equilibrium radiofrequency reset pulse) for the detection of spinal drop metastases in pediatric patients with primary intracranial tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 44 pediatric patients with primary intracranial tumors undergoing MR imaging spine evaluation for drop metastases before radiation treatment...
May 17, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771176/potential-use-of-cxcl12-cxcr4-and-sonic-hedgehog-pathways-as-therapeutic-targets-in-medulloblastoma
#3
Marla Karine Amarante, Glauco Akelinghton Freire Vitiello, Marcos Henrique Rosa, Igor Alves Mancilla, Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe
Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor occurring in children, and although high long-term survival rates have been reached with current therapeutic protocols, several neurological injuries are still observed among survivors. It has been shown that the development of MB is highly dependent on the microenvironment surrounding it and that the CXCL12 chemokine and its receptor, CXCR4 and the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway are crucial for cerebellar development, coordinating proliferation and migration of embryonic cells and malfunctions in these axes can lead to MB development...
May 17, 2018: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768334/a-case-report-of-b-lymphoblastic-lymphoma-with-brain-metastases-clinical-and-pathological-significance-of-head-trauma-misdiagnosis
#4
Jian Shi, Jale Manzo, Yiwu Zhou, Peter Agovino, Song Wu
INTRODUCTION: B lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL) is a rare type of lymphoma that originates from precursor lymphocytes. B-BLB in adults with brain metastases is extremely rare as the disease mainly affects children and adults. Therefore, such a seldom-seen case can easily trigger a dispute regarding clinical diagnosis and treatment.This paper reports the case of a 22-year-old man hospitalized for a head injury that resulted from a physical altercation. Upon admission to the hospital, the patient was diagnosed with a diffuse axonal injury (DAI)...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768295/requirement-for-head-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-children-who-present-to-the-emergency-department-with-acute-nontraumatic-visual-disturbance
#5
Jeong-Yong Lee, Jung-Heon Kim, Hyung-Rae Cho, Jong-Seung Lee, Jeong-Min Ryu, Mi-Sun Yum, Tae-Sung Ko
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the clinical features and head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in children who presented to the emergency department with acute nontraumatic visual disturbance and to study related clinical factors for discovering positive lesions on head MRI. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 1-month to 15-year-old children who underwent head MRI as an evaluation for acute nontraumatic visual disturbance as a chief complaint in our pediatric emergency department between March 2010 and March 2015...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753700/spectrum-and-prevalence-of-genetic-predisposition-in-medulloblastoma-a-retrospective-genetic-study-and-prospective-validation-in-a-clinical-trial-cohort
#6
Sebastian M Waszak, Paul A Northcott, Ivo Buchhalter, Giles W Robinson, Christian Sutter, Susanne Groebner, Kerstin B Grund, Laurence Brugières, David T W Jones, Kristian W Pajtler, A Sorana Morrissy, Marcel Kool, Dominik Sturm, Lukas Chavez, Aurelie Ernst, Sebastian Brabetz, Michael Hain, Thomas Zichner, Maia Segura-Wang, Joachim Weischenfeldt, Tobias Rausch, Balca R Mardin, Xin Zhou, Cristina Baciu, Christian Lawerenz, Jennifer A Chan, Pascale Varlet, Lea Guerrini-Rousseau, Daniel W Fults, Wiesława Grajkowska, Peter Hauser, Nada Jabado, Young-Shin Ra, Karel Zitterbart, Suyash S Shringarpure, Francisco M De La Vega, Carlos D Bustamante, Ho-Keung Ng, Arie Perry, Tobey J MacDonald, Pablo Hernáiz Driever, Anne E Bendel, Daniel C Bowers, Geoffrey McCowage, Murali M Chintagumpala, Richard Cohn, Timothy Hassall, Gudrun Fleischhack, Tone Eggen, Finn Wesenberg, Maria Feychting, Birgitta Lannering, Joachim Schüz, Christoffer Johansen, Tina V Andersen, Martin Röösli, Claudia E Kuehni, Michael Grotzer, Kristina Kjaerheim, Camelia M Monoranu, Tenley C Archer, Elizabeth Duke, Scott L Pomeroy, Redmond Shelagh, Stephan Frank, David Sumerauer, Wolfram Scheurlen, Marina V Ryzhova, Till Milde, Christian P Kratz, David Samuel, Jinghui Zhang, David A Solomon, Marco Marra, Roland Eils, Claus R Bartram, Katja von Hoff, Stefan Rutkowski, Vijay Ramaswamy, Richard J Gilbertson, Andrey Korshunov, Michael D Taylor, Peter Lichter, David Malkin, Amar Gajjar, Jan O Korbel, Stefan M Pfister
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is associated with rare hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes; however, consensus medulloblastoma predisposition genes have not been defined and screening guidelines for genetic counselling and testing for paediatric patients are not available. We aimed to assess and define these genes to provide evidence for future screening guidelines. METHODS: In this international, multicentre study, we analysed patients with medulloblastoma from retrospective cohorts (International Cancer Genome Consortium [ICGC] PedBrain, Medulloblastoma Advanced Genomics International Consortium [MAGIC], and the CEFALO series) and from prospective cohorts from four clinical studies (SJMB03, SJMB12, SJYC07, and I-HIT-MED)...
May 9, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742889/intraoperative-neurophysiological-monitoring-a-review-of-techniques-used-for-brain-tumor-surgery-in-children
#7
REVIEW
Keewon Kim, Charles Cho, Moon-Suk Bang, Hyung-Ik Shin, Ji-Hoon Phi, Seung-Ki Kim
Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) utilizes electrophysiological techniques as a surrogate test and evaluation of nervous function while a patient is under general anesthesia. They are increasingly used for procedures, both surgical and endovascular, to avoid injury during an operation, examine neurological tissue to guide the surgery, or to test electrophysiological function to allow for more complete resection or corrections. The application of IOM during pediatric brain tumor resections encompasses a unique set of technical issues...
May 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742885/malignant-brain-tumours-in-children-present-and-future-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
James T Rutka
In contrast to many of the malignant tumors that occur in the central nervous system in adults, the management, responses to therapy, and future perspectives of children with malignant lesions of the brain hold considerable promise. Within the past 5 years, remarkable progress has been made with our understanding of the basic biology of the molecular genetics of several pediatric malignant brain tumors including medulloblastoma, ependymoma, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumour, and high grade glioma/diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma...
May 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742883/tandem-high-dose-chemotherapy-and-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-in-children-with-brain-tumors-review-of-single-center-experience
#9
REVIEW
Ki Woong Sung, Do Hoon Lim, Hyung Jin Shin
The prognosis of brain tumors in children has improved for last a few decades. However, the prognosis remains dismal in patients with recurrent brain tumors. The outcome for infants and young children in whom the use of radiotherapy (RT) is very limited because of unacceptable long-term adverse effect of RT remains poor. The prognosis is also not satisfactory when a large residual tumor remains after surgery or when leptomeningeal seeding is present at diagnosis. In this context, a strategy using high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDCT/auto-SCT) has been explored to improve the prognosis of recurrent or high-risk brain tumors...
May 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742881/medulloblastoma-in-the-molecular-era
#10
REVIEW
Claudia Miranda Kuzan-Fischer, Kyle Juraschka, Michael D Taylor
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood and remains a major cause of cancer related mortality in children. Significant scientific advancements have transformed the understanding of medulloblastoma, leading to the recognition of four distinct clinical and molecular subgroups, namely wingless (WNT), sonic hedgehog, group 3, and group 4. Subgroup classification combined with the recognition of subgroup specific molecular alterations has also led to major changes in risk stratification of medulloblastoma patients and these changes have begun to alter clinical trial design, in which the newly recognized subgroups are being incorporated as individualized treatment arms...
May 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730815/pd-1-pd-l1-and-immune-related-gene-expression-pattern-in-pediatric-malignant-brain-tumors-clinical-correlation-with-survival-data-in-korean-population
#11
Kihwan Hwang, Eun Jung Koh, Eun Jin Choi, Tae Hee Kang, Jung Ho Han, Gheeyoung Choe, Sung-Hye Park, Jennifer Holmes Yearley, Lakshmanan Annamalai, Wendy Blumenschein, Manjiri Sathe, Terri McClanahan, Hun Jung, Kyu-Chang Wang, Seung-Ki Kim, Chae-Yong Kim
BACKGROUND: PD-L1 expression has been evaluated as a predictive biomarker for immunotherapy in numerous tumor types. However, very limited data are available in pediatric brain tumors. The aim of this study was to characterize PD-1 and PD-L1 expressions of four pediatric malignant brain tumors and gene expression profile. METHODS: This study included 89 pediatric patients receiving standard treatment at Seoul National University Children's Hospital and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between 1990 and 2014: atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) 20; ependymoma (EPN) 20; high grade glioma (HGG) 21; and medulloblastoma (MBL) 28...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730064/risk-of-radiation-vasculopathy-and-stroke-in-pediatric-patients-treated-with-proton-therapy-for-brain-and-skull-base-tumors
#12
Matthew D Hall, Julie A Bradley, Ronny L Rotondo, Ricardo Hanel, Chetan Shah, Christopher G Morris, Philipp R Aldana, Daniel J Indelicato
PURPOSE: To estimate the rate of and identify risk factors for vasculopathy after proton therapy in pediatric patients with central nervous system and skull base tumors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 2006 and 2015, 644 pediatric patients with central nervous system and skull base tumors were treated with proton therapy at a single institution. The 3 most common histologies were craniopharyngioma (n = 135), ependymoma (n = 135), and low-grade glioma (n = 131)...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729847/siope-brain-tumor-group-consensus-guideline-on-craniospinal-target-volume-delineation-for-high-precision-radiotherapy
#13
Thankamma Ajithkumar, Gail Horan, Laetitia Padovani, Nicky Thorp, Beate Timmermann, Claire Alapetite, Lorenza Gandola, Monica Ramos, Karen Van Beek, Melissa Christiaens, Yasmin Lassen-Ramshad, Henriette Magelssen, Kristina Nilsson, Frank Saran, Barbara Rombi, Rolf Kortmann, Geert O Janssens
OBJECTIVE: To develop a consensus guideline for craniospinal target volume (TV) delineation in children and young adults participating in SIOPE studies in the era of high-precision radiotherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: During four consensus meetings (Cambridge, Essen, Liverpool, and Marseille), conventional field-based TV has been translated into image-guided high-precision craniospinal TV by a group of expert paediatric radiation oncologists and enhanced by MRI images of liquor distribution...
May 2, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717567/risk-of-brain-tumor-induction-from-pediatric-head-ct-procedures-a-systematic-literature-review
#14
REVIEW
John P Sheppard, Thien Nguyen, Yasmine Alkhalid, Joel S Beckett, Noriko Salamon, Isaac Yang
Head computed tomography (CT) is instrumental for managing patients of all ages. However, its low dose radiation may pose a low but non-zero risk of tumor induction in pediatric patients. Here, we present a systematic literature review on the estimated incidence of brain tumor induction from head CT exams performed on children and adolescents. MEDLINE was searched using an electronic protocol and bibliographic searches to identify articles related to CT, cancer, and epidemiology or risk assessment. Sixteen studies that predicted or measured head CT-related neoplasm incidence or mortality were identified and reviewed...
April 2018: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709735/safeness-and-utility-of-concomitant-intraoperative-monitoring-with-intraoperative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-children-a-pilot-study
#15
Sandra Dias, Johannes Sarnthein, Elisabeth Jehli, Marian Christoph Neidert, Luca Regli, Oliver Bozinov
OBJECTIVE: High-field intraoperative MR (ioMRI) has become increasingly available in neurosurgery centers. There is little experience with the combination of ioMRI with intraoperative neurophysiological neuromonitoring (IONM). We provide a first series of pediatric patients undergoing brain tumor surgery with 3T ioMRI and IONM. METHODS: We conducted a pilot study were we included all consecutive children operated for brain tumors between October 2013 and April 2016 where concomitant ioMRI and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and motor evoked potentials (MEP) were used...
April 27, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705876/comparative-study-of-pulsed-continuous-arterial-spin-labeling-and-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-imaging-by-histogram-analysis-in-evaluation-of-glial-tumors
#16
Atsuko Arisawa, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Hisashi Tanaka, Hiroto Takahashi, Chisato Matsuo, Takuya Fujiwara, Masahiro Fujiwara, Yasunori Fujimoto, Noriyuki Tomiyama
PURPOSE: Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a non-invasive perfusion technique that may be an alternative to dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) for assessment of brain tumors. To our knowledge, there have been no reports on histogram analysis of ASL. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ASL is comparable with DSC-MRI in terms of differentiating high-grade and low-grade gliomas by evaluating the histogram analysis of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the entire tumor...
April 29, 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700887/cic-nutm1-fusion-a-case-which-expands-the-spectrum-of-nut-rearranged-epithelioid-malignancies
#17
Inga-Marie Schaefer, Paola Dal Cin, Christopher D M Fletcher, Glenn J Hanna, Christopher A French
NUT carcinoma (NC) shows very aggressive clinical behavior, occurs predominantly in the thorax and head and neck region of children and adults, and is defined by the presence of NUT (aka NUTM1) rearrangement, mostly BRD4-NUTM1 fusion resulting from t(15;19)(q13, p13.1). So-called "NUT variants" harbor alternate fusions between NUTM1 and BRD3, NSD3, ZNF532, or unknown partners. Rare cases of pediatric tumors with CIC-NUTM1 fusion were recently reported in somatic soft tissue, brain, and kidney. However, such cases have not been identified in adult patients and the presence of a fusion between CIC, characteristic of CIC-rearranged sarcoma, and NUTM1, a defining feature of NC - poses a diagnostic challenge...
April 26, 2018: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700571/sleep-disorders-in-children-with-brain-tumors-a-pilot-study-based-on-a-sleep-disorder-questionnaire
#18
Chiara Pilotto, Eva Passone, Elisa Coassin, Silvia Birri, Ettore Bidoli, Giovanni Crichiutti, Paola Cogo, Maurizio Mascarin
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of sleep disorders (SD) between children treated for brain tumors and healthy children, and to define the type of SD. METHODS: A case-control study was performed from October 2014 to April 2015. Inclusion criteria were patients between 2 and 16 years with "cases" defined as children affected by central nervous system tumors at least 3 months after the end of treatment (surgery and/or radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy) at the time of evaluation and "controls" as healthy children...
April 26, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698006/patterns-of-family-management-for-adolescent-and-young-adult-brain-tumor-survivors
#19
Janet A Deatrick, Lamia P Barakat, George J Knafl, Wendy Hobbie, Sue Ogle, Jill P Ginsberg, Michael J Fisher, Thomas Hardie, Maureen Reilly, Elizabeth Broden, Jennifer Toth, Nicole SanGiacomo, Kathleen A Knafl
Little is known about how families systemically incorporate the work of caring for adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of childhood brain tumors who often remain dependent on their families well into adulthood. The primary aim of this study was to develop a typology of family management (FM) patterns for AYA survivors. The secondary aims were to compare them with FM patterns previously described for children with chronic health conditions and to validate the patterns using quantitative and qualitative data...
April 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692922/-18-f-fdopa-pet-mri-for-monitoring-early-response-to-bevacizumab-in-children-with-recurrent-brain-tumors
#20
Karen Gauvain, Maria Rosana Ponisio, Amy Barone, Michael Grimaldi, Ephraim Parent, Hayden Leeds, Manu Goyal, Joshua Rubin, Jonathan McConathy
Background: Noninvasively predicting early response to therapy in recurrent pediatric brain tumors provides a challenge. 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[18 F]fluoro-L-phenylalanine (18 F-FDOPA) PET/MRI has not been previously studied as a tool to evaluate early response to antiangiogenic therapy in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of using 18 F-FDOPA PET/MRI to assess response to bevacizumab in children with relapsed brain tumors. Materials and Methods: Six patients with recurrent gliomas (5 low-grade, 1 high-grade) planned to undergo treatment with bevacizumab were enrolled...
March 2018: Neuro-oncology Practice
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