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Brain tumors in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317558/childhood-cancer-incidence-in-india-betweem-2012-and-2014-report-of-a-population-based-cancer-registry
#1
Suman Das, Dilip Kumar Paul, Kumar Anshu, Subhajit Bhakta
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of childhood cancer incidence in India between 2012-2014. METHODS: Secondary data analysis on age-adjusted rates of cancer incidence for children (0-14 years) were collected from the report of the National Cancer Registry Programme in the year 2016. RESULTS: Age-adjusted rates of childhood cancer incidence ranged from 18.5 per million in the state of Nagaland to 235.3 per million in Delhi for boys. The rates were 11...
December 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315108/review-of-molecular-classification-and-treatment-implications-of-pediatric-brain-tumors
#2
Ana S Guerreiro Stucklin, Vijay Ramaswamy, Craig Daniels, Michael D Taylor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors and leading cause of cancer-related death in children. The advent of large-scale genomics has resulted in a plethora of profiling studies that have mapped the genetic and epigenetic landscapes of pediatric brain tumors, ringing in a new era of precision diagnostics and targeted therapies. In this review, we highlight the most recent findings, focusing on studies published after 2015, and discuss how new evidence is changing the care of children with brain tumors...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301833/establishing-a-preclinical-multidisciplinary-board-for-brain-tumors
#3
Birgit Nimmervoll, Nidal Boulos, Brandon M Bianski, Jason Dapper, Michael DeCuypere, Anang A Shelat, Sabrina Terranova, Hope Elizabeth Terhune, Amar Gajjar, Yogesh T Patel, Burgess B Freeman, Arzu Onar-Thomas, Clinton F Stewart, Martine F Roussel, R Kiplin Guy, Thomas E Merchant, Christopher Calabrese, Karen D Wright, Richard J Gilbertson
PURPOSE: Curing all children with brain tumors will require an understanding of how each subtype responds to conventional treatments and how best to combine existing and novel therapies.  It is extremely challenging to acquire this knowledge in the clinic alone, especially among patients with rare tumors.  Therefore, we developed a preclinical brain tumor platform to test combinations of conventional and novel therapies in a manner that closely recapitulates clinic trials.  Experimental Design: A multidisciplinary team was established to design and conduct neurosurgical, fractionated radiotherapy and chemotherapy studies, alone or in combination, in accurate mouse models of supratentorial ependymoma (SEP) subtypes and choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC)...
January 4, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285383/effect-of-o6-methylguanine-dna-methyltransferase-methylation-in-medulloblastoma
#4
Tomoko Kurimoto, Akihide Kondo, Ikuko Ogino, Junya Fujimura, Atsushi Arakawa, Hajime Arai, Toshiaki Shimizu
Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant brain tumor that predominately affects children and requires multimodal treatment, including chemotherapy with alkylating agents. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is a DNA repair enzyme that plays an important role in tumor resistance to alkylating agents. Recent studies demonstrated that MGMT promoter methylation suppresses the expression of MGMT and is associated with favorable outcomes of malignant glioma patients. However, the MGMT methylation status and its prognostic impact on medulloblastoma have not been fully elucidated to date...
December 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260390/parent-perspectives-and-preferences-for-strategies-regarding-nonsedated-mri-scans-in-a-pediatric-oncology-population
#5
Breya Walker, Heather M Conklin, Doralina L Anghelescu, Lacey P Hall, Wilburn E Reddick, Robert Ogg, Lisa M Jacola
PURPOSE: Children with cancer frequently require MRI scans for clinical purposes. Sedation with general anesthesia (GA) is often used to promote compliance, reduce motion, and alleviate anxiety. The use of GA for MRI scans is costly in terms of time, personnel, and medications. In addition, prominent risks are associated with anesthesia exposure in patients with complex medical conditions. Successful behavioral interventions have been implemented in clinical research settings to promote scan success and compliance...
December 19, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249552/pretreatment-cognition-in-patients-diagnosed-with-pediatric-brain-tumors
#6
Elin Irestorm, Sean Perrin, Ingrid Tonning Olsson
BACKGROUND: There is a large body of literature identifying risk factors for the long-term cognitive alterations found in survivors of pediatric brain tumors. Less is known about baseline cognitive functioning in this population, but studies suggest that cognitive dysfunctions are often present at the time of diagnosis. This study aimed to identify potential risk factors for lower cognitive function at the time of pediatric brain tumor diagnosis. METHODS: Participants were children and adolescents (n = 101) diagnosed with a pediatric brain tumor between 2006 and 2015, who underwent a pretreatment neuropsychologic assessment...
November 22, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246098/optic-pathway-gliomas-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#7
Cynthia J Campen, David H Gutmann
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common brain tumor predisposition syndromes, in which affected children are prone to the development of low-grade gliomas. While NF1-associated gliomas can be found in several brain regions, the majority arise in the optic nerves, chiasm, tracts, and radiations (optic pathway gliomas; OPGs). Owing to their location, 35-50% of affected children present with reduced visual acuity. Unfortunately, despite tumor stabilization following chemotherapy, vision does not improve in most children...
January 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241176/surgery-of-intracranial-gliomas-in-children
#8
James A Balogun, James T Rutka
Gliomas are the most common type of brain cancer in the pediatric patients, constituting about 50% of all childhood intracranial tumors. This is a highly heterogeneous group, varying from the benign WHO histopathological grades I and II to malignant WHO grades III and IV. The histology and location are significant prognostic factors, which influence the decision for surgical intervention, as well as the extent of possible tumor removal. In low-grade gliomas, surgery remains the initial option and should be directed at gross total resection in favorable locations, such as the cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239262/outcomes-following-proton-therapy-for-pediatric-ependymoma
#9
Daniel J Indelicato, Julie A Bradley, Ronny L Rotondo, Ronica H Nanda, Natalie Logie, Eric S Sandler, Philipp R Aldana, Nathan J Ranalli, Alexandra D Beier, Christopher G Morris, Nancy P Mendenhall
BACKGROUND: Proton therapy can reduce the low and intermediate radiation dose to uninvolved brain tissue in children with intracranial ependymomas, which may improve functional outcomes and reduce second malignancies in survivors. Accordingly, ependymoma has become the most common pediatric tumor treated with proton therapy, yet data on efficacy and toxicity are limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between June 2007 and February 2017, 179 children (≤21 years old) with nonmetastatic grade II/III intracranial ependymoma received proton therapy at our institution...
December 14, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238226/maternal-diabetes-and-incidence-of-childhood-cancer-a-nationwide-cohort-study-and-exploratory-genetic-analysis
#10
Anna Deleskog, Marcel den Hoed, Giorgio Tettamanti, Sofia Carlsson, Rickard Ljung, Maria Feychting, Hannah L Brooke
Background: The etiology of childhood cancer is not well understood, but may be linked to prenatal and perinatal factors, such as maternal diabetes. However, this association has not been examined in depth. We aimed to determine if maternal diabetes is associated with risk of childhood brain tumor (CBT), leukemia (all types combined and acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL] separately), and lymphoma. Methods: All children born in Sweden between 1973 and 2014 (n=4,239,965) were followed from birth until first cancer diagnosis, age 15 years, or December 31, 2015...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237968/atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-of-the-central-nervous-system-case-series-from-a-regional-tertiary-care-cancer-centre-in-south-india
#11
L Appaji, B S Aruna Kumari, K Govind Babu, C S Premalata, K P R Pramod, Gita R Bhat, Chinchu Prem
BACKGROUND: Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) constitute a rare group of pediatric brain tumors. AIM: To study the clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical (IHC) profile, management and outcome of children with AT/RT of the central nervous system who presented between the years 2007 and 2015 in a regional tertiary care center in South India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the clinical case files...
October 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228390/altered-brain-morphology-after-focal-radiation-reveals-impact-of-off-target-effects-implications-for-white-matter-development-and-neurogenesis
#12
Kiran G Beera, Yu-Qing Li, Jun Dazai, James Stewart, Shannon Egan, Mashal Ahmed, C Shun Wong, David A Jaffray, Brian J Nieman
Background: Children with brain tumors treated with cranial radiation therapy (RT) often exhibit cognitive late effects, commonly associated with reduced white matter (WM) volume and decreased neurogenesis. The impact of radiation damage in particular regions or tissues on brain development as a whole has not been elucidated. Methods: We delivered whole-brain or focal radiation (8 Gy single dose) to infant mice. Focal treatments targeted white matter (anterior commissure), neuronal (olfactory bulbs), or neurogenic (subventricular zone) regions...
November 2, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214403/executive-functioning-academic-skills-and-quality-of-life-in-pediatric-patients-with-brain-tumors-post-proton-radiation-therapy
#13
Lea M Ventura, Julie A Grieco, Casey L Evans, Karen A Kuhlthau, Shannon M MacDonald, Nancy J Tarbell, Torunn I Yock, Margaret B Pulsifer
Radiation therapy (RT) is integral in the treatment of pediatric brain tumors; however, photon RT (XRT) often results in intellectual decline, executive functioning (EF) deficits, academic underachievement/failure, and lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Proton RT (PRT) provides more targeted therapy, minimizing damage to the developing brain, yet few studies have examined its neuropsychological effects. This study investigated the role of EF in academic skills and HRQoL in a sample of children treated with PRT...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204199/clinicopathological-study-of-pediatric-posterior-fossa-tumors
#14
Kadali Satya Vara Prasad, D Ravi, Vijay Pallikonda, Bhavana Venkata Satya Raman
Context: Brain tumor is one of the most devastating forms of human illness, especially when occurring in the posterior fossa and involving the brainstem. Tumors in the posterior fossa are considered some of the most critical brain lesions. This is primarily due to the limited space within the posterior fossa, as well as the potential involvement of the vital brainstem nuclei. Aims: The aim of this study is to analyze the incidence, clinical features, surgical outcome, complications, and prognosis in a series of 37 pediatric patients with posterior fossa tumors who underwent surgery between September 2012 and January 2015 from the Department of Neurosurgery, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam (both prospective and retrospective study)...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204198/profile-and-outcome-of-pediatric-brain-tumors-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-pediatric-oncology-unit-in-south-india
#15
Supriya Gujjar Suresh, Arathi Srinivasan, Julius Xavier Scott, Santosh Mohan Rao, Balasubramaniam Chidambaram, Sanjay Chandrasekar
Context: Tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) constitute the second most common pediatric cancers. Unlike leukemia, management of CNS tumors requires a good multidisciplinary team. Higher rates of treatment abandonment are documented in view of complexity of the treatment with long duration, involving neurosurgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and high cost of treatment. Morbidity associated with CNS tumors may be significant in terms of physical deficits as well as neuropsychological and neuroendocrine sequelae...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198174/intracranial-complications-of-midline-nasal-dermoid-cysts
#16
Dries Opsomer, Toon Allaeys, Ann-Sofie Alderweireldt, Edward Baert, Nathalie Roche
BACKGROUND: Nasal dermoid cysts are common tumors in children. Due to anomalies in embryologic development of the nasal complex, sometimes an intracranial extension exists. When these cysts become infected they can lead to meningitis, brain abscess and death. METHODS: We report the case of a 1.5-year-old girl admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit after infection of a nasal dermoid cyst. RESULTS: The infant had a spiking fever and epileptic seizures...
December 4, 2017: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194500/eano-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-ependymal-tumors
#17
Roberta Rudà, Guido Reifenberger, Didier Frappaz, Stefan M Pfister, Anne Laprie, Thomas Santarius, Patrick Roth, Joerg Christian Tonn, Riccardo Soffietti, Michael Weller, Elizabeth Cohen-Jonathan Moyal
Ependymal tumors are rare CNS tumors and may occur at any age, but their proportion among primary brain tumors is highest in children and young adults. Thus, the level of evidence of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions is higher in the pediatric compared with the adult patient population.The diagnosis and disease staging is performed by craniospinal MRI. Tumor classification is achieved by histological and molecular diagnostic assessment of tissue specimens according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification 2016...
November 29, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189165/childhood-medulloblastoma-current-therapies-emerging-molecular-landscape-and-newer-therapeutic-insights
#18
Soumen Khatua, Anne Song, Divyaswathi Citla Sridhar, Stephen C Mack
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children, currently treated uniformly based on histopathology and clinico-radiological risk stratification. This approach has been undermined by unpredictable relapses and therapeutic failures. Research endeavors over the last decade have clearly identified four molecular variants (WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4) and their demographic, genomic, and epigenetic profile. Improved understanding of the signaling pathways and key oncogenic drivers in these subgroups, has shed light on the reasons for suboptimal clinical outcome and mechanisms of therapeutic resistance...
November 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183026/late-effects-and-long-term-follow-up-after-cancer-in-childhood
#19
Thorsten Langer, Desiree Grabow, Diana Steinmann, Bernhard Wörmann, Gabriele Calaminus
Today, 80% of children and adolescents with cancer survive their disease. From the results of aftercare research arises the question: Are the survivors also healthy? Many late effects depend on the type of cancer and its treatment. Patients with brain tumors and with malignant sarcomas are very often affected by secondary diseases. Data from the USA report that around 2/3 of all patients still living 30 years after their cancer treatment in childhood suffer from late complications. Equivalent figures for Germany were previously unavailable...
2017: Oncology Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180935/atypical-bilateral-cerebellopontine-angle-medulloblastoma-differential-diagnosis-immunohistochemical-features-and-radiological-presentation
#20
Kelvin M Piña Batista, Sayoa Alvarez de Eulate-Beramendi, María Rico, Victor Rodrigo, Yordy E Batista Batista, Kenia Y Alvarez Reyes
Medulloblastoma (MB) is a highly aggressive soft tissue neoplasm, classified as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor. It is the most common posterior fossa tumor in children, but occurs rarely in adults. MB accounts for approximately 20% of all primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors of childhood, while its incidence is around 1% of adult brain tumors. Most often it occurs in the cerebellum. We report a case of multicentric MB involving the bilateral cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and right cerebellar hemisphere...
2017: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
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