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Brain tumors in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912153/comprehensive-genomic-profiling-of-282-pediatric-low-and-high-grade-gliomas-reveals-genomic-drivers-tumor-mutational-burden-and-hypermutation-signatures
#1
Adrienne Johnson, Eric Severson, Laurie Gay, Jo-Anne Vergilio, Julia Elvin, James Suh, Sugganth Daniel, Mandy Covert, Garrett M Frampton, Sigmund Hsu, Glenn J Lesser, Kimberly Stogner-Underwood, Ryan T Mott, Sarah Z Rush, Jennifer J Stanke, Sonika Dahiya, James Sun, Prasanth Reddy, Zachary R Chalmers, Rachel Erlich, Yakov Chudnovsky, David Fabrizio, Alexa B Schrock, Siraj Ali, Vincent Miller, Philip J Stephens, Jeffrey Ross, John R Crawford, Shakti H Ramkissoon
BACKGROUND: Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of death for children with cancer in the U.S. Incorporating next-generation sequencing data for both pediatric low-grade (pLGGs) and high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) can inform diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic decision-making. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed comprehensive genomic profiling on 282 pediatric gliomas (157 pHGGs, 125 pLGGs), sequencing 315 cancer-related genes and calculating the tumor mutational burden (TMB; mutations per megabase [Mb])...
September 14, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900319/investigation-of-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-polymorphism-in-pediatric-patients-with-brain-cancer
#2
Baris Yilmaz, Gulnur Ayse Tokuc, Ahmet Koc, Edanur Yesil
AIM: In recent years, it is believed that Vitamin D may play a protective role in some cancer types. Certain regions of the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene may show a genetic difference in structure. The most frequent polymorphisms in this gene are in Taq-1, Fok-1, and Bsm-1 regions. Some adult cancer types are associated with VDR gene polymorphism such as; colorectal carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and prostate carcinoma. Reviewing the medical literature, no such study had been done on children so far...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883869/ataxia-in-childhood-epidemiological-clinical-and-neuroradiologic-features-and-the-risk-of-recurrence
#3
REVIEW
Mohsen Javadzadeh, Masoud Hassanvand Amouzadeh, Shaghayegh Sadat Esmail Nejad, Ezatollah Abasi, Abbas Alipour, Mohsen Mollamohammadi
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted on the demographic data, clinical characteristics, electroencephalography, neuroradiological findings, and their impact on the recurrence of ataxia. MATERIALS & METHODS: A 3-yr retrospective review of 49 children with ataxia in Mofid Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran was conducted from Apr 2013 to Apr 2016. The demographic, clinical and paraclinical data were recorded in pre-prepared questionnaires. The patients were also classified in two groups of with or without recurrence and the results were compared...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881750/new-in-vivo-avatars-of-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-gliomas-dipg-from-stereotactic-biopsies-performed-at-diagnosis
#4
Alexandre Plessier, Ludivine Le Dret, Pascale Varlet, Kévin Beccaria, Joëlle Lacombe, Sébastien Mériaux, Françoise Geffroy, Laurence Fiette, Patricia Flamant, Fabrice Chrétien, Thomas Blauwblomme, Stéphanie Puget, Jacques Grill, Marie-Anne Debily, David Castel
Diffuse Instrinsic Pontine Glioma is the most aggressive form of High Grade Gliomas in children. The lack of biological material and the absence of relevant models have hampered the development of new therapeutics. Their extensive infiltration of the brainstem renders any surgical resection impossible and until recently biopsies were considered not informative enough and therefore not recommended. Thus, most models were derived from autopsy material. We aimed to develop relevant in vivo DIPG models that mimic this specific disease and its molecular diversity from tumor material obtained at diagnosis...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877739/estrogen-and-soy-isoflavonoids-decrease-sensitivity-of-medulloblastoma-and-central-nervous-system-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumor-cells-to-chemotherapeutic-cytotoxicity
#5
Scott M Belcher, Caleb C Burton, Clifford J Cookman, Michelle Kirby, Gabriel L Miranda, Fatima O Saeed, Kathleen E Wray
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies demonstrated that growth and migration of medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant brain tumor in children, are stimulated by 17β-estradiol. The growth stimulating effects of estrogens are mediated through ERβ and insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling to inhibit caspase 3 activity and reduce tumor cell apoptosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether estrogens decreased sensitivity of MB cells to cytotoxic actions of chemotherapeutic drugs...
September 6, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868253/relationships-between-regional-radiation-doses-and-cognitive-decline-in-children-treated-with-cranio-spinal-irradiation-for-posterior-fossa-tumors
#6
Elodie Doger de Speville, Charlotte Robert, Martin Perez-Guevara, Antoine Grigis, Stephanie Bolle, Clemence Pinaud, Christelle Dufour, Anne Beaudré, Virginie Kieffer, Audrey Longaud, Jacques Grill, Dominique Valteau-Couanet, Eric Deutsch, Dimitri Lefkopoulos, Catherine Chiron, Lucie Hertz-Pannier, Marion Noulhiane
Pediatric posterior fossa tumor (PFT) survivors who have been treated with cranial radiation therapy often suffer from cognitive impairments that might relate to IQ decline. Radiotherapy (RT) distinctly affects brain regions involved in different cognitive functions. However, the relative contribution of regional irradiation to the different cognitive impairments still remains unclear. We investigated the relationships between the changes in different cognitive scores and radiation dose distribution in 30 children treated for a PFT...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861622/perfusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-pediatric-brain-tumors
#7
F Dallery, R Bouzerar, D Michel, C Attencourt, V Promelle, J Peltier, J M Constans, O Balédent, C Gondry-Jouet
PURPOSE: The use of DSC-MR imaging in pediatric neuroradiology is gradually growing. However, the number of studies listed in the literature remains limited. We propose to assess the perfusion and permeability parameters in pediatric brain tumor grading. METHODS: Thirty children with a brain tumor having benefited from a DSC-MR perfusion sequence have been retrospectively explored. Relative CBF and CBV were computed on the ROI with the largest lesion coverage. Assessment of the lesion's permeability was also performed through the semi-quantitative PSR parameter and the K2 model-based parameter on the whole-lesion ROI and a reduced ROI drawn on the permeability maps...
August 31, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858758/livestock-and-poultry-density-and-childhood-cancer-incidence-in-nine-states-in-the-usa
#8
Benjamin J Booth, Rena R Jones, Mary E Turyk, Sally Freels, Deven M Patel, Leslie T Stayner, Mary H Ward
BACKGROUND: Parental occupational and childhood exposures to farm animals have been positively associated with childhood brain tumors, whereas associations with childhood leukemia are equivocal. The developing immune system may be influenced by allergen, virus, or other exposures from animal sources, which may contribute to childhood cancer incidence. METHODS: Incident cancers (acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL], acute myeloid leukemia [AML], central nervous system [CNS], peripheral nervous system [PNS]) for children aged 0-4 diagnosed between 2003 and 2008 were obtained from nine National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries and were linked to U...
August 28, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856499/correlation-between-arterial-spin-labeling-perfusion-and-histopathological-vascular-density-of-pediatric-intracranial-tumors
#9
Kazufumi Kikuchi, Akio Hiwatashi, Osamu Togao, Koji Yamashita, Koji Yoshimoto, Masahiro Mizoguchi, Satoshi O Suzuki, Toru Iwaki, Yuriko Suzuki, Hiroshi Honda
Traditional MRI methods for estimation of blood flow in brain tumors require high-flow injection of contrast agents through large-bore intravenous access, which limits their pediatric utility. In contrast, arterial spin-labeling (ASL) can be used without contrast media. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between tumor blood flow (TBF) measured by ASL and histopathological vascular density in pediatric brain tumors. Nineteen consecutive children were evaluated (10 boys, 9 girls; median age: 6 years; 8 high-grade and 11 low-grade tumors)...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844078/long-term-effects-of-radiation-therapy-on-white-matter-of-the-corpus-callosum-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-in-children
#10
Monwabisi Makola, M Douglas Ris, E Mark Mahone, Keith Owen Yeates, Kim M Cecil
BACKGROUND: Despite improving survival rates, children are at risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral difficulties following the diagnosis and treatment of a brain tumor. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy have all been shown to impact the developing brain, especially the white matter. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term effects of radiation therapy on white matter integrity, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging, in pediatric brain tumor patients 2 years after the end of radiation treatment, while controlling for surgical interventions...
August 26, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842941/characterization-of-early-communicative-behavior-in-mouse-models-of-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#11
Susan E Maloney, Krystal C Chandler, Corina Anastasaki, Michael A Rieger, David H Gutmann, Joseph D Dougherty
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a monogenic neurodevelopmental disease caused by germline loss-of-function mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. Cognitive impairments are observed in approximately 80% of children with this disease, with 45-60% exhibiting autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology. In light of the high comorbidity rate between ASD and NF1, we assessed early communicative behavior by maternal-separation induced pup ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) and developmental milestones in two distinct Nf1 genetically engineered models, one modeling clinical germline heterozygous loss of Nf1 function (Nf1(+/-) mice), and a second with somatic biallelic Nf1 inactivation in neuroglial progenitor cells (Nf1(GFAP) CKO mice)...
August 26, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831636/survival-and-level-of-care-among-breast-cancer-patients-with-brain-metastases-treated-with-whole-brain-radiotherapy
#12
Gabriella Frisk, Beatrice Tinge, Sara Ekberg, Sandra Eloranta, L Magnus Bäcklund, Elisabet Lidbrink, Karin E Smedby
PURPOSE: The benefit of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for late stage breast cancer patients with brain metastases has been questioned. In this study we evaluated survival and level of care (hospital or home) following WBRT in a population-based cohort by personal and tumor characteristics. METHODS: We identified 241 consecutive patients with breast cancer and brain metastases receiving WBRT in Stockholm, Sweden, 1999-2012. Through review of medical records, we collected data on prognostic determinants including level of care before and after WBRT...
August 22, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808765/presentation-and-symptom-interval-in-children-with-central-nervous-system-tumors-a-single-center-experience
#13
Chiara Stocco, Chiara Pilotto, Eva Passone, Agostino Nocerino, Raffaello Tosolini, Anna Pusiol, Paola Cogo
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to describe the symptoms and signs of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in a pediatric population and to assess the time interval between the onset of the disease and the time of the diagnosis. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted at our Oncology Pediatric Unit between January 2000 and November 2011. We included 75 children between 5 months and 16 years (mean age of 7.8 ± 4.7 years), with male to female ratio of 3:2...
August 14, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796925/neurological-comorbidity-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#14
Keiko Hirabaru, Muneaki Matsuo
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of central nervous system comorbidities in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). METHODS: We performed a nationwide survey to investigate neurological comorbidities in 3-15-year-old children with NF1 in Japan by sending questionnaires to pediatricians and pediatric neurologists. A secondary questionnaire was sent to the parents of identified NF1 patients to assess neurological comorbidities including headache, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-Rating Scale (RS), and the Social Responsiveness Scale -2...
August 10, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783412/am-i-a-6-or-a-10-mate-value-among-young-adult-survivors-of-childhood-cancer-and-healthy-peers
#15
Vicky Lehmann, Marrit A Tuinman, Madelaine C Keim, Mariët Hagedoorn, Cynthia A Gerhardt
PURPOSE: This study focused on self-perceived mate value of young adult survivors of childhood cancer relative to healthy peers. Qualitative studies indicate potential problems surrounding romantic relationships among survivors, but systematic studies are missing. METHODS: One-hundred forty-nine childhood cancer survivors and 149 matched controls completed online questionnaires about their mate value, social comparison strategies (i.e., upward/downward identifying/contrasting strategies), and marital status...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783147/marrow-ablative-chemotherapy-followed-by-tandem-autologous-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-in-pediatric-patients-with-malignant-brain-tumors
#16
J A Guerra, G Dhall, A Marachelian, E Castillo, J Malvar, K Wong, R Sposto, J L Finlay
To improve survival in young children with malignant brain tumors, irradiation-avoiding or -minimizing marrow-ablative chemotherapy (HDCx) with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AuHCT) has been investigated. We evaluated the outcome of 44 children with malignant brain tumors treated with HDCx and tandem AuHCT at Children's Hospital Los Angeles between June 1999 and July 2012. Forty-four children with malignant brain tumors were studied. Twenty-one had medulloblastoma/primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor, eight atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT), five high-grade glioma, four malignant germ cell tumor, three ependymoma and three choroid plexus carcinoma...
August 7, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781917/long-term-recurrence-of-dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumor-clinical-case-report
#17
Daniel A Tonetti, William J Ares, R Mark Richardson, Ronald L Hamilton, Frank S Lieberman
BACKGROUND: Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs) are rare, benign brain neoplasms that typically arise in children and adolescents and classically present with intractable, partial complex seizures. DNETs are classically associated with a favorable prognosis after complete surgical resection. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe a case of long-term recurrence of a DNET, which initially resected and diagnosed as an oligodendroglioma prior to the recognition of DNETs...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770127/neonatal-brain-tumors-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Shaam Bodeliwala, Vikas Kumar, Daljit Singh
Brain tumors in neonatal age group is uncommon comparing with older children and adults. In older children brain tumors are commonly infratentorial, where as in neonates, they are supratentorial. Though extracranial tumors are commoner in neonates, brain tumors cause 5-20% deaths approximately. We are presenting a review on brain tumors in neonates.
April 2017: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768455/occipital-headaches-in-children-are-they-a-red-flag
#19
Jacob Genizi, Amal Khourieh-Matar, Nurit Assaf, Irena Chistyakov, Isaac Srugo
Occipital headache is considered a risk factor for serious secondary headache pathology. The purpose of our study was to assess the etiology of occipital headaches among children visiting the emergency department. Subjects were children aged 5 to 18 years who were referred to the emergency department due to headaches during the years 2013 to 2014. A total of 314 patients with headaches were seen at our emergency department. Thirty-nine patients had occipital headaches. Viral infections were the most prevalent final diagnosis (97; 31%), followed by migraine (37; 11...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766000/-pediatric-brain-tumors
#20
REVIEW
W Reith, S Bodea, R Mühl-Benninghaus
Brain tumors differ between children and adults both in histology and localization. Malignant gliomas and meningiomas predominate in adults while medulloblastomas and low-grade astrocytomas are the most frequent brain tumors in children. More than one half (50-70%) of pediatric brain tumors have an infratentorial location but only approximately 30% in adults. Brain tumors can be recognized in sonography, cranial computed tomography (CCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by their space-consuming character and by their divergent density and intensity in comparison to normal brain parenchyma...
August 1, 2017: Der Radiologe
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