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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351904/er%C3%AE-mediated-nuclear-sequestration-of-rsk2-is-required-for-er-breast-cancer-tumorigenesis
#1
Katarzyna A Ludwik, Oliver Gene McDonald, David R Brenin, Deborah A Lannigan
Although ribosomal protein S6 kinase A3 (RSK) activation status positively correlates with patient responses to anti-estrogen hormonal therapies, the mechanistic basis for these observations is unknown. Using multiple in vitro and in vivo models of ER+ breast cancer, we report that ERα sequesters active RSK2 into the nucleus to promote neoplastic transformation and facilitate metastatic tumor growth. RSK2 physically interacted with ERα through its N-terminus to activate a pro-neoplastic transcriptional network critical to the ER+ lineage in the mammary gland, thereby providing a gene signature that effectively stratified patient tumors according to ERα status...
January 19, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344415/rhizoma-coptidis-and-berberine-as-a-natural-drug-to-combat-aging-and-aging-related-diseases-via-anti-oxidation-and-ampk-activation
#2
REVIEW
Zhifang Xu, Wei Feng, Qian Shen, Nannan Yu, Kun Yu, Shenjun Wang, Zhigang Chen, Seiji Shioda, Yi Guo
Aging is the greatest risk factor for human diseases, as it results in cellular growth arrest, impaired tissue function and metabolism, ultimately impacting life span. Two different mechanisms are thought to be primary causes of aging. One is cumulative DNA damage induced by a perpetuating cycle of oxidative stress; the other is nutrient-sensing adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and rapamycin (mTOR)/ ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) pathways. As the main bioactive component of natural Chinese medicine rhizoma coptidis (RC), berberine has recently been reported to expand life span in Drosophila melanogaster, and attenuate premature cellular senescence...
December 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341215/microrna181c-inhibits-prostate-cancer-cell-growth-and-invasion-by-targeting-multiple-erk-signaling-pathway-components
#3
Zhengzheng Su, Mengni Zhang, Miao Xu, Xinglan Li, Junya Tan, Yunyi Xu, Xiuyi Pan, Ni Chen, Xueqin Chen, Qiao Zhou
BACKGROUND: The ERK signaling pathway is frequently deregulated in tumorigenesis, mostly by classical mechanisms such as gene mutation of its components (eg, RAS and RAF). However, whether and how multiple key components of ERK pathway are regulated by microRNAs are not clear. METHODS: We firstly predicted post-transcriptional regulation of multiple key components of the ERK signaling pathway by miR181c through bioinformatics analysis, and then confirmed the post-transcriptional regulation by dual luciferase reporter gene assays and Western blot analysis...
January 16, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329627/comparative-efficacy-of-curcumin-and-paromomycin-against-cryptosporidium-parvum-infection-in-a-balb-c-model
#4
Mohammad Asadpour, Fatemeh Namazi, Seyed Mostafa Razavi, Saeed Nazifi
Cryptosporidium is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite causing gastrointestinal disorder in various hosts worldwide. The disease is self-limiting in the immunocompetent but life-threatening in immunodeficient individuals. Investigations to find an effective drug for the complete elimination of the Cryptosporidium infection are ongoing and urgently needed. The current study was undertaken to examine the anti-cryptosporidial efficacy of curcumin in experimentally infected mice compared with that of paromomycin. Oocysts were isolated from a pre-weaned dairy calf and identified as Cryptosporidium parvum using a nested- polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on Small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene and sequencing analysis...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329019/salidroside-influences-the-cellular-cross-talk-of-human-fetal-lung-diploid-fibroblasts-a-proteomic-approach
#5
Wenmin Xing, Wenyan Gao, Huili Su, Sanying Wang, Jing Zhang, Genxiang Mao, Jing Yan
Senescence is a complex multiple factor proces, which is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to find the proteome of cultured human fetal lung diploid fibroblasts (2BS) of different population doubling (PD), as well as the altered proteome induced by salidroside (SAL) in 2BS cells. Proteins were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combining matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time and flight mass spectrometry (MAL DI-TOF/MS). As a result, we found 16 proteins with two-fold variations in senescent cells or after SAL treatment, some being reduced such as reticulocalbin-1, heat shock protein beta-6, elongation factor 1-delta, F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-1, and chloride intracellular channel 1...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324644/nanocomposite-of-half-fin-anchovy-hydrolysates-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-exhibits-actual-non-toxicity-and-regulates-intestinal-microbiota-short-chain-fatty-acids-production-and-oxidative-status-in-mice
#6
Ru Song, Jianbin Yao, Qingqing Shi, Rongbian Wei
The nanocomposite of half-fin anchovy hydrolysates (HAHp) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) (named as HAHp(3.0)/ZnO NPs) demonstrated increased antibacterial activity compared to either HAHp(3.0) or ZnO NPs as per our previous studies. Also, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was detected in Escherichia coli cells after treatment with HAHp(3.0)/ZnO NPs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of this nanocomposite and to investigate its effect on intestinal microbiota composition, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production, and oxidative status in healthy mice...
January 11, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322917/identification-of-natural-antimicrobial-peptides-from-bacteria-through-metagenomic-and-metatranscriptomic-analysis-of-high-throughput-transcriptome-data-of-taiwanese-oolong-teas
#7
Kai-Yao Huang, Tzu-Hao Chang, Jhih-Hua Jhong, Yu-Hsiang Chi, Wen-Chi Li, Chien-Lung Chan, K Robert Lai, Tzong-Yi Lee
BACKGROUND: Anti-microbial peptides (AMPs), naturally encoded by genes and generally containing 12-100 amino acids, are crucial components of the innate immune system and can protect the host from various pathogenic bacteria and viruses. In recent years, the widespread use of antibiotics has resulted in the rapid growth of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms that often induce critical infection and pathogenesis. Recently, the advent of high-throughput technologies has led molecular biology into a data surge in both the amount and scope of data...
December 21, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322466/using-rt-qpcr-for-quantifying-mycobacteria-marinum-from-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in-vivo-samples
#8
Han Xaio, Stephen H Gillespie
Mycobacterium marinum, the causative agent of fish tuberculosis, is rarely a human pathogen causing a chronic skin infection. It is now wildely used as a model system in animal models, especially in zebra fish model, to study the pathology of tuberculosis and as a means of screening new anti-tuberculosis agent. To facilitate such research, quantifying the viable count of M. marinum bacteria is a crucial step. The main approach used currently is still by counting the number of colony forming units (cfu), a method that has been in place for almost 100 years...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321322/dengue-virus-selectively-annexes-endoplasmic-reticulum-associated-translation-machinery-as-a-strategy-for-co-opting-host-cell-protein-synthesis
#9
David W Reid, Rafael K Campos, Jessica R Child, Tianli Zheng, Kitti Wing Ki Chan, Shelton S Bradrick, Subhash G Vasudevan, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco, Christopher V Nicchitta
A primary question in Dengue virus (DENV) biology is the molecular strategy for recruitment of host cell protein synthesis machinery. Here we combined cell fractionation, ribosome profiling, and RNA-seq to investigate the subcellular organization of viral genome translation and replication as well as host cell translation and its response to DENV infection. We report that throughout the viral life cycle, DENV (+) and (-) strand RNAs were highly partitioned to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), identifying the ER as the primary site of DENV translation...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314656/mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-inhibition-attenuates-myocardial-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-in-hypertrophic-heart
#10
Lei-Lei Ma, Xin Ma, Fei-Juan Kong, Jun-Jie Guo, Hong-Tao Shi, Jian-Bing Zhu, Yun-Zeng Zou, Jun-Bo Ge
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy aggravated myocardial infarction and is causally related to autophagy dysfunction and increased oxidative stress. Rapamycin is an inhibitor of serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) involved in the regulation of autophagy as well as oxidative/nitrative stress. Here, we demonstrated that rapamycin ameliorates myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury by rescuing the defective cytoprotective mechanisms in hypertrophic heart. Our results showed that chronic rapamycin treatment markedly reduced the phosphorylated mTOR and ribosomal protein S6 expression, but not Akt in both normal and aortic-banded mice...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313485/biological-and-molecular-characterization-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-strains-from-four-states-of-brazil
#11
Aline Rimoldi Ribeiro, Luciana Lima, Larissa Aguiar de Almeida, Joana Monteiro, Cláudia Jassica Gonçalves Moreno, Juliana Damieli Nascimento, Renato Freitas de Araújo, Fernanda Mello, Luciamáre Perinetti Alves Martins, Márcia Aparecida Silva Graminha, Marta Maria Geraldes Teixeira, Marcelo Sousa Silva, Mário Steindel, João Aristeu da Rosa
Chagas disease affects between six and seven million people. Its etiological agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, is classified into six discrete typing units (DTUs). The biological study of 11 T. cruzi strains presented here included four parameters: growth kinetics, parasitemia curves, rate of macrophage infection, and serology to evaluate IgM, total IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG3. Sequencing of small subunit of ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA)was performed and the T. cruzi strains were classified into three DTUs. When their growth in liver infusion tryptose medium was represented in curves, differences among the strains could be noted...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311276/species-specific-interactions-of-arr-with-rplk-mediate-stringent-response-in-bacteria
#12
Priyanka Agrawal, Rajagopal Varada, Shivjee Sah, Souvik Bhattacharyya, Umesh Varshney
Bacteria respond to stressful growth conditions through a conserved phenomenon of 'stringent response' mediated by synthesis of stress alarmones, ppGpp or pppGpp [referred to as (p)ppGpp]. The (p)ppGpp synthesis is known to occur by ribosome associated RelA. In addition, a dual function protein SpoT (with both the synthetase and hydrolase activities) maintains (p)ppGpp homeostasis. The presence of (p)ppGpp is also known to contribute to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Mycobacterium smegmatis possesses Arr, which inactivates rifampicin by its ADP-ribosylation...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302014/the-commensal-microbiome-is-associated-with-anti-pd-1-efficacy-in-metastatic-melanoma-patients
#13
Vyara Matson, Jessica Fessler, Riyue Bao, Tara Chongsuwat, Yuanyuan Zha, Maria-Luisa Alegre, Jason J Luke, Thomas F Gajewski
Anti-PD-1-based immunotherapy has had a major impact on cancer treatment but has only benefited a subset of patients. Among the variables that could contribute to interpatient heterogeneity is differential composition of the patients' microbiome, which has been shown to affect antitumor immunity and immunotherapy efficacy in preclinical mouse models. We analyzed baseline stool samples from metastatic melanoma patients before immunotherapy treatment, through an integration of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, metagenomic shotgun sequencing, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for selected bacteria...
January 5, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274665/red-ginseng-extracts-attenuate-skin-inflammation-in-atopic-dermatitis-through-p70-ribosomal-protein-s6-kinase-activation
#14
Mayuko Osada-Oka, Sayaka Hirai, Yasukatsu Izumi, Kazuhiro Misumi, Keiichi Samukawa, Shuhei Tomita, Katsuyuki Miura, Yukiko Minamiyama, Hiroshi Iwao
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory skin disease with increased immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) signaling is known to occur in the inflammatory regions of AD skin. We previously demonstrated that red ginseng extract (RGE), as an anti-inflammatory agent, had potential for treating AD. However, it is still unclear whether RGE inhibits mTOR/p70S6K signaling. Thus, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of RGE on IgE or interferon-γ (IFN-γ) induced signaling pathways...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247799/identification-of-an-alternatively-spliced-nuclear-isoform-of-human-n-terminal-acetyltransferase-naa30
#15
Sylvia Varland, Line M Myklebust, Siri Øfsthus Goksøyr, Nina Glomnes, Janniche Torsvik, Jan Erik Varhaug, Thomas Arnesen
N-terminal acetylation is a highly abundant and important protein modification in eukaryotes catalyzed by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). In humans, six different NATs have been identified (NatA-NatF), each composed of individual subunits and acetylating a distinct set of substrates. Along with most NATs, NatC acts co-translationally at the ribosome. The NatC complex consists of the catalytic subunit Naa30 and the auxiliary subunits Naa35 and Naa38, and can potentially Nt-acetylate cytoplasmic proteins when the initiator methionine is followed by a bulky hydrophobic/amphipathic residue at position 2...
December 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242605/ddias-suppresses-trail-mediated-apoptosis-by-inhibiting-disc-formation-and-destabilizing-caspase-8-in-cancer-cells
#16
Joo-Young Im, Bo-Kyung Kim, Ji-Young Lee, Seung-Ho Park, Hyun Seung Ban, Kyeong Eun Jung, Misun Won
DNA damage-induced apoptosis suppressor (DDIAS) has an anti-apoptotic function during DNA damage in lung cancer. However, the anti-apoptotic mechanism of DDIAS in cancer cells under other conditions has not been reported. We report here that DDIAS protects cancer cells from tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis by two distinct mechanisms in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. DDIAS depletion sensitized NSCLC and HCC cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, an effect that was abrogated by pharmacological or genetic inhibition of caspase-8 and was independent of caspase-9, p53, or mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling...
December 15, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242604/ribosomal-protein-s15a-promotes-tumor-angiogenesis-via-enhancing-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-induced-fgf18-expression-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
Pengyi Guo, Yi Wang, Chunxiu Dai, Chonglin Tao, Fang Wu, Xiaozai Xie, Haitao Yu, Qiandong Zhu, Junjian Li, Longyun Ye, Fuxiang Yu, Yunfeng Shan, Zhengping Yu, Renumathy Dhanasekaran, Rongyuan Zheng, Gang Chen
Ribosomal protein s15a (RPS15A) plays a promotive role in the mRNA/ribosome interactions during early translation. Our previous study has found that inhibiting RPS15A expression can decrease proliferation and induce cell cycle arrest in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. However, the mechanism underlying the involvement of RPS15A in HCC pathogenesis and the clinical significance of RPS15A expression remain unclear. In this study, an evaluation of RPS15A expression in 110 surgically resected HCCs and matched tumor-adjacent normal tissues revealed an overexpression of RPS15A in HCC, which was correlated with worse survival...
December 15, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222166/effect-of-il-7-therapy-on-phospho-ribosomal-protein-s6-and-traf1-expression-in-hiv-specific-cd8-t-cells-in-patients-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy
#18
Chao Wang, Maria I Edilova, Lisa E Wagar, Shariq Mujib, Meromit Singer, Nicole F Bernard, Thérèse Croughs, Michael M Lederman, Irini Sereti, Margaret A Fischl, Elisabeth Kremmer, Mario Ostrowski, Jean-Pierre Routy, Tania H Watts
IL-7 therapy has been evaluated in patients who do not regain normal CD4 T cell counts after virologically successful antiretroviral therapy. IL-7 increases total circulating CD4 and CD8 T cell counts; however, its effect on HIV-specific CD8 T cells has not been fully examined. TRAF1, a prosurvival signaling adaptor required for 4-1BB-mediated costimulation, is lost from chronically stimulated virus-specific CD8 T cells with progression of HIV infection in humans and during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis infection in mice...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220489/diversity-of-translation-initiation-mechanisms-across-bacterial-species-is-driven-by-environmental-conditions-and-growth-demands
#19
Adam J Hockenberry, Aaron J Stern, Luís A N Amaral, Michael C Jewett
The Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence motif is frequently found upstream of protein coding genes and is thought to be the dominant mechanism of translation initiation used by bacteria. Experimental studies have shown that the SD sequence facilitates start codon recognition and enhances translation initiation by directly interacting with the highly conserved anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence on the 30S ribosomal subunit. However, the proportion of SD-led genes within a genome varies across species and the factors governing this variation in translation initiation mechanisms remain largely unknown...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214152/identification-of-candidate-casein-kinase-2-substrates-in-mitosis-by-quantitative-phosphoproteomics
#20
Scott F Rusin, Mark E Adamo, Arminja N Kettenbach
Protein phosphorylation is a crucial regulatory mechanism that controls many aspects of cellular signaling. Casein kinase 2 (CK2), a constitutively expressed and active kinase, plays key roles in an array of cellular events including transcription and translation, ribosome biogenesis, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. CK2 is implicated in cancerous transformation and is a therapeutic target in anti-cancer therapy. The specific and selective CK2 ATP competitive inhibitor, CX-4945 (silmitaseratib), is currently in phase 2 clinical trials...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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