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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899592/an-mrna-specific-trnai-carrier-eif2a-plays-a-pivotal-role-in-cell-proliferation-under-stress-conditions-stress-resistant-translation-of-c-src-mrna-is-mediated-by-eif2a
#1
Oh Sung Kwon, Sihyeon An, Eunah Kim, Jinbae Yu, Ka Young Hong, Jae Seung Lee, Sung Key Jang
c-Src, a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase, activates NF-κB and STAT3, which in turn triggers the transcription of anti-apoptosis- and cell cycle-related genes. c-Src protein regulates cell proliferation, cell motility and programmed cell death. And the elevated level of activated c-Src protein is related with solid tumor generation. Translation of c-Src mRNA is directed by an IRES element which mediates persistent translation under stress conditions when translation of most mRNAs is inhibited by a phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eIF2 carrying the initiator tRNA (tRNAi) to 40S ribosomal subunit under normal conditions...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895729/celastrus-orbiculatus-extract-triggers-apoptosis-and-autophagy-via-pi3k-akt-mtor-inhibition-in-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#2
Lin Yang, Yanqing Liu, Mei Wang, Yayun Qian, Xiaojun Dai, Yaodong Zhu, Jue Chen, Shiyu Guo, Tadashi Hisamitsu
Celastrus orbiculatus is used as a folk medicine in China for the treatment of numerous diseases. The ethyl acetate extract of Celastrus orbiculatus (COE) also displays a wide range of anti-cancer activities in the laboratory. However, the effectiveness of COE-induced autophagy and its mechanism of action in colorectal cancer cells have not been investigated thus far. The present study analyzed the effect of COE on HT-29 cell viability, apoptosis and autophagy using MTT assay, flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy and western blotting...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895634/cytosolic-proteome-profiling-of-aminoglycosides-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-using-maldi-tof-ms
#3
Divakar Sharma, Manju Lata, Rananjay Singh, Nirmala Deo, Krishnamurthy Venkatesan, Deepa Bisht
Emergence of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is the consequence of the failure of second line TB treatment. Aminoglycosides are the important second line anti-TB drugs used to treat the multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Main known mechanism of action of aminoglycosides is to inhibit the protein synthesis by inhibiting the normal functioning of ribosome. Primary target of aminoglycosides are the ribosomal RNA and its associated proteins. Various mechanisms have been proposed for aminoglycosides resistance but still some are unsolved...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890642/protective-effect-of-quercetin-on-high-fat-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice-is-mediated-by-modulating-intestinal-microbiota-imbalance-and-related-gut-liver-axis-activation
#4
David Porras, Esther Nistal, Susana Martínez-Flórez, Sandra Pisonero-Vaquero, José Luis Olcoz, Ramiro Jover, Javier González-Gallego, María Victoria García-Mediavilla, Sonia Sánchez-Campos
Gut microbiota is involved in obesity, metabolic syndrome and the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It has been recently suggested that the flavonoid quercetin may have the ability to modulate the intestinal microbiota composition, suggesting a prebiotic capacity which highlights a great therapeutic potential in NAFLD. The present study aims to investigate benefits of experimental treatment with quercetin on gut microbial balance and related gut-liver axis activation in a nutritional animal model of NAFLD associated to obesity...
November 25, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889913/long-term-melatonin-treatment-delays-ovarian-aging
#5
Hiroshi Tamura, Mai Kawamoto, Shun Sato, Isao Tamura, Ryo Maekawa, Toshiaki Taketani, Hiromi Aasada, Eiichi Takaki, Akira Nakai, Russel J Reiter, Norihiro Sugino
Ovarian aging is characterized by gradual declines in oocyte quantity and quality. Melatonin is considered an anti-aging agent due to its cytoprotective actions as an antioxidant. The present study examined whether long-term melatonin treatment would delay ovarian aging in mice. Female ICR mice (10 weeks old) were given melatonin-containing water (100 μg/ml; melatonin) or water only until 43 weeks of age. Their oocytes were recovered from the oviduct, and in vitro fertilization was performed. The ovaries were used for a histological analysis of the number of follicles...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882181/angiogenin-is-upregulated-during-the-alloreactive-immune-response-and-has-no-effect-on-the-t-cell-expansion-phase-whereas-it-affects-the-contraction-phase-by-inhibiting-cd4-t-cell-apoptosis
#6
Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Georgios Pissas, Maria Sounidaki, Nikolaos Antoniadis, Georgia Antoniadi, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Ioannis Stefanidis
Under growth conditions, angiogenin is translocated into the nucleus, where it enhances ribosomal RNA transcription, facilitating increased protein synthesis and cellular proliferation. During stress conditions, angiogenin is sequestered in the cytoplasm, where it cleaves transfer RNA (tRNA) to produce tRNA-derived, stress-induced small RNAs (tiRNAs) that inhibit global protein synthesis, but increase the translation of anti-apoptotic factors. In the present study, the role of angiogenin in the human alloreactive immune response was evaluated using mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs) and neamine, an inhibitor of angiogenin nuclear translocation...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881976/the-roles-of-alpha-momorcharin-and-jasmonic-acid-in-modulating-the-response-of-momordica-charantia-to-cucumber-mosaic-virus
#7
Ting Yang, Yao Meng, Li-Juan Chen, Hong-Hui Lin, De-Hui Xi
Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) is a type-I ribosome inactivating protein with a molecular weight of 29 kDa that is found in Momordica charantia, and has been shown to be effective against a broad range of human viruses as well as having anti-tumor activities. However, the role of endogenous α-MMC under viral infection and the mechanism of the anti-viral activities of α-MMC in plants are still unknown. To study the effect of α-MMC on plant viral defense and how α-MMC increases plant resistance to virus, the M...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879048/coordinated-protein-co-expression-in-plants-by-harnessing-the-synergy-between-an-intein-and-a-viral-2a-peptide
#8
Bei Zhang, Madhusudhan Rapolu, Sandeep Kumar, Manju Gupta, Zhibin Liang, Zhenlin Han, Philip Williams, Wei Wen Su
A novel approach is developed for coordinated expression of multiple proteins from a single transgene in plants. An Ssp DnaE mini-intein variant engineered for hyper N-terminal autocleavage is covalently linked to the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A (F2A) peptide with unique ribosome skipping property, via a peptide linker, to create an "IntF2A" self-excising fusion protein domain. This IntF2A domain acts, in cis, to direct highly effective release of its flanking proteins of interest (POI) from a "polyprotein" precursor in plants...
November 23, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874146/roles-of-nucleolin-focus-on-cancer-and-anti-cancer-therapy
#9
Zhuo Chen, XinHua Xu
Nucleolin, a multifunctional protein distributed in the nucleolus, participates in many modulations including rDNA transcription, RNA metabolism, and ribosome assembly. Nucleolin is also found in the cytoplasm and on the cell membrane, and surface nucleolin can bind to various ligands to affect many physiological functions. The expression and localization of nucleolin is often abnormal in cancers, as the differential distribution of nucleolin in cancer can influence the carcinogenesis, proliferation, survival, and metastasis of cancer cells, leading to the cancer progression...
December 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874054/combinational-immunotherapy-with-allo-dribble-vaccines-and-anti-ox40-co-stimulation-leads-to-generation-of-cross-reactive-effector-t-cells-and-tumor-regression
#10
Guangjie Yu, Yuhuan Li, Zhihua Cui, Nicholas P Morris, Andrew D Weinberg, Bernard A Fox, Walter J Urba, Lixin Wang, Hong-Ming Hu
It is well-known that vaccines comprising of irradiated whole tumor cells or tumor-derived heat shock proteins can generate tumor-specific immune responses. In contrast, we showed recently that vaccines composed of autophagosomes (DRibbles) derived from syngeneic sarcomas could induce cross-reactive T-cell responses and cross-protection against the tumor. This unusual property of DRibbles was related to the selective recruitment of defective ribosomal products (DRiPs) and other short-lived proteins (SLiPs) into autophagosomes via sequestosome (SQSTM1, p62) mediated association of ubiquitinated SLiPs to the autophagy gene product LC3...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872687/determining-the-molecular-pathways-underlying-the-protective-effect-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-for-alzheimer-s-disease-a-bioinformatics-approach
#11
Alejo J Nevado-Holgado, Simon Lovestone
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents a substantial unmet need, due to increasing prevalence in an ageing society and the absence of a disease modifying therapy. Epidemiological evidence shows a protective effect of non steroidal anti inflammatory (NSAID) drugs, and genome wide association studies (GWAS) show consistent linkage to inflammatory pathways; both observations suggesting anti-inflammatory compounds might be effective in AD therapy although clinical trials to date have not been positive. In this study, we use pathway enrichment and fuzzy logic to identify pathways (KEGG database) simultaneously affected in both AD and by NSAIDs (Sulindac, Piroxicam, Paracetamol, Naproxen, Nabumetone, Ketoprofen, Diclofenac and Aspirin)...
2017: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869143/genome-mining-unveils-widespread-natural-product-biosynthetic-capacity-in-human-oral-microbe-streptococcus-mutans
#12
Liwei Liu, Tingting Hao, Zhoujie Xie, Geoff P Horsman, Yihua Chen
Streptococcus mutans is a major pathogen causing human dental caries. As a Gram-positive bacterium with a small genome (about 2 Mb) it is considered a poor source of natural products. Due to a recent explosion in genomic data available for S. mutans strains, we were motivated to explore the natural product production potential of this organism. Bioinformatic characterization of 169 publically available genomes of S. mutans from human dental caries revealed a surprisingly rich source of natural product biosynthetic gene clusters...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868169/articulatin-d-induces-apoptosis-via-activation-of-caspase-8-in-acute-t-cell-leukemia-cell-line
#13
Ruchi Mishra, Mrinal K Das, Savita Singh, Radhey Shyam Sharma, Sadhna Sharma, Vandana Mishra
Leukemia is among the most aggressive and prevalent human malignant carcinoma. Chemotherapy is the preferred therapeutic strategy; however, recurrence of cancer and non-selective cytotoxicity are the major concerns. Unlike synthetic chemotherapeutic agents, mistletoe ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) displays anti-tumor function in various types of cancers. However, its effect on leukemia cells is little explored. In this study, we assessed the impact of Viscum articulatum RIP (Articulatin-D) on the survival of acute T-cell leukemia cells and the involved molecular and cellular mechanisms...
November 21, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858580/toxins-mazf-and-mqsr-cleave-escherichia-coli-ribosomal-rna-precursors-at-multiple-sites
#14
Toomas Mets, Markus Lippus, David Schryer, Aivar Liiv, Villu Kasari, Anton Paier, Ülo Maiväli, Jaanus Remme, Tanel Tenson, Niilo Kaldalu
The endoribonuclease toxins of the E. coli toxin-antitoxin systems arrest bacterial growth and protein synthesis by targeting cellular mRNAs. As an exception, E. coli MazF was reported to cleave also 16S rRNA at a single site and separate an anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence-containing RNA fragment from the ribosome. We noticed extensive rRNA fragmentation in response to induction of the toxins MazF and MqsR, which suggested that these toxins can cleave rRNA at multiple sites. We adapted differential RNA-sequencing to map the toxin-cleaved 5'- and 3'-ends...
November 18, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853635/tumor-infiltrating-tim-3-t-cells-proliferate-avidly-except-when-pd-1-is-co-expressed-evidence-for-intracellular-cross-talk
#15
Jing Li, Gulidanna Shayan, Lyndsay Avery, Hyun-Bae Jie, Neil Gildener-Leapman, Nicole Schmitt, Bin Feng Lu, Lawrence P Kane, Robert L Ferris
Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) and T cell Ig and mucin domain-3 protein (Tim-3) are immune checkpoint receptors highly expressed on tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes (TIL). PD-1 inhibits T cell activation and type-1 T cell responses, while Tim-3 is proposed to mark more extensively exhausted cells, although the mechanisms underlying Tim-3 function are not clear. Trials of anti-PD-1 therapy have identified a large subset of non-responder patients, likely due to expression of alternative checkpoint molecules like Tim-3...
2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847436/the-p90rsk-mediated-signaling-of-ethanol-induced-cell-proliferation-in-hepg2-cell-line
#16
Han Sang Kim, Su-Jin Kim, Jinhyung Bae, Yiyi Wang, Sun Young Park, Young Sil Min, Hyun Dong Je, Uy Dong Sohn
Ribosomal S6 kinase is a family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in the regulation of cell viability. There are two subfamilies of ribosomal s6 kinase, (p90rsk, p70rsk). Especially, p90rsk is known to be an important downstream kinase of p44/42 MAPK. We investigated the role of p90rsk on ethanol-induced cell proliferation of HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were treated with 10~50 mM of ethanol with or without ERK and p90rsk inhibitors. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. The expression of pERK1, NHE1 was measured by Western blots...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842546/optimization-of-construct-design-and-fermentation-strategy-for-the-production-of-bioactive-atf-sap-a-saporin-based-anti-tumoral-upar-targeted-chimera
#17
Alfredo Errico Provenzano, Riccardo Posteri, Francesco Giansanti, Francesco Angelucci, Sopsamorn U Flavell, David J Flavell, Maria Serena Fabbrini, Danilo Porro, Rodolfo Ippoliti, Aldo Ceriotti, Paola Branduardi, Riccardo Vago
BACKGROUND: The big challenge in any anti-tumor therapeutic approach is represented by the development of drugs selectively acting on the target with limited side effects, that exploit the unique characteristics of malignant cells. The urokinase (urokinase-type plasminogen activator, uPA) and its receptor uPAR have been identified as preferential target candidates since they play a key role in the evolution of neoplasms and are associated with neoplasm aggressiveness and poor clinical outcome in several different tumor types...
November 14, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829214/pict-1-is-a-key-nucleolar-sensor-in-dna-damage-response-signaling-that-regulates-apoptosis-through-the-rpl11-mdm2-p53-pathway
#18
Hongbo Chen, Liqiao Han, Hsiangi Tsai, Zhiwei Wang, Yanping Wu, Yanhong Duo, Wei Cao, Lijun Chen, Zhirong Tan, Ning Xu, Xianzhang Huang, Junhua Zhuang, Laiqiang Huang
PICT-1 is an essential ribosome biogenesis factor whose loss induces p53 accumulation and apoptosis. Here, we show that DNA damage changes PICT-1 localization and decreases PICT-1 protein levels via the proteasome pathway. Two important phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like kinases (PIKKs), ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and the Ku70 subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), co-localize and interact with PICT-1 in the nucleolus. Computational prediction of phosphorylation sites and detection using an anti-phospho-substrate antibody suggest that PICT-1 might be a substrate of PIKKs...
November 4, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809255/mono-pegylation-of-alpha-mmc-and-map30-from-momordica-charantia-l-production-identification-and-anti-tumor-activity
#19
Yun Sun, Fenghui Sun, Jianlong Li, Minlu Wu, Xiang Fan, Yanfa Meng, Yao Meng
PEGylation is a well-established and effective strategy to decrease immunogenicity, which can increase the stability and in vivo half-life time. However, the generation of multi-site modified products is inevitable due to the lysine chemistry, which will bring difficulties in subsequent research, such as purification and quantification. Site-specific modification by mPEG-succinimidyl carbonate (mPEG-SC) is a widely used method for N-terminal conjugation. In this study, we used it for site-directed modification on two ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30), from Momordica charantia L...
October 31, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793719/enabling-techniques-in-the-search-for-new-antibiotics-combinatorial-biosynthesis-of-sugar-containing-antibiotics
#20
REVIEW
Je Won Park, Sang-Jip Nam, Yeo Joon Yoon
Nature has a talent for inventing a vast number of natural products, including hybrids generated by blending different scaffolds, resulting in a myriad of bioactive chemical entities. Herein, we review the highlights and recent trends (2010 to 2016) in the combinatorial biosynthesis of sugar-containing antibiotics where nature's structural diversification capabilities are exploited to enable the creation of new anti-infective and anti-proliferative drugs. In this review, we describe the modern combinatorial biosynthetic approaches for polyketide synthase-derived complex and aromatic polyketides, non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-directed lipo-/glycopeptides, aminoglycosides, nucleoside antibiotics, and alkaloids, along with their therapeutic potential...
October 25, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
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