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Jaka Kravanja, Mario Žganec, Jerneja Žganec-Gros, Simon Dobrišek, Vitomir Štruc
Depth image acquisition with structured light approaches in outdoor environments is a challenging problem due to external factors, such as ambient sunlight, which commonly affect the acquisition procedure. This paper presents a novel structured light sensor designed specifically for operation in outdoor environments. The sensor exploits a modulated sequence of structured light projected onto the target scene to counteract environmental factors and estimate a spatial distortion map in a robust manner. The correspondence between the projected pattern and the estimated distortion map is then established using a probabilistic framework based on graphical models...
October 19, 2016: Sensors
Cong Wang, Yibo Gao, Xinghua Gao, Hua Wang, Jingxuan Tian, Li Wang, Bingpu Zhou, Ziran Ye, Jun Wan, Weijia Wen
A highly efficient photochromic hydrogel was successfully fabricated via casting precursor, which is based on amorphous tungsten oxide and poly (ethylene oxide)-block-poly (propylene oxide)-block-poly (ethylene oxide). Under simulated solar illumination, the hydrogel has a rapid and controlled temperature increasing ratio as its coloration degree. Localized electrons in the amorphous tungsten oxide play a vital role in absorption over a broad range of wavelengths from 400 nm to 1100 nm, encompassing the entire visible light and infrared regions in the solar spectrum...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Fang-Fang Li, Jason Lau, Stuart Licht
The electrolytic coproduction of CO and H2 is achieved from air, water, and a single beam of sunlight rather than from fossil fuels. H2 and CO cosynthesis is driven by a single concentrator photovoltaic to simultaneously drive molten hydroxide and molten carbonate electrolyses. The carbon neutral process captures carbon without the need for the preconcentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
November 2015: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
N Pugazhenthiran, K Kaviyarasan, T Sivasankar, A Emeline, D Bahnemann, R V Mangalaraja, S Anandan
Porous NiTiO3 nanorods were synthesized through the sonochemical route followed by calcination at various temperature conditions. Surface morphology of the samples was tuned by varying the heat treatment temperature from 100 to 600°C. The synthesized NiTiO3 nanorods were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, diffused reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. The characterization studies revealed that the NiTiO3 nanomaterial was tuned to porous and perfectly rod shaped structure during the heat treatment at 600°C...
October 14, 2016: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
T Mahvelati-Shamsabadi, E K Goharshadi
Zinc sulfide is a UV-active photocatalyst and it undergoes photocorrosion under light irradiation. In this work, the defect sites on ZnS nanoparticles (NPs) surfaces were induced with the help of powerful ultrasonic waves. The defect sites caused (1) suppression of photocorrosion in a large extent under UV light irradiation and (2) enhancement of visible light photo activity. The photocorrosion inhibition was induced by raising valence band (VB) position through the formation of interstitial zinc and sulfur vacancy states in the ZnS band structure and weakening of oxidative capacity of hole...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
J F Leal, I S Henriques, A Correia, E B H Santos, V I Esteves
Oxytetracycline (OTC) is one of the most used antibiotics in aquaculture. The main concern related to its use is the bacterial resistance, when ineffective treatments are applied for its removal or inactivation. OTC photo-degradation has been suggested as an efficient complementary process to conventional methods used in intensive fish production (e.g.: ozonation). Despite this, and knowing that the complete mineralization of OTC is difficult, few studies have examined the antibacterial activity of OTC photoproducts...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Vi Khanh Truong, Miljan Stefanovic, Shane Maclaughlin, Mark Tobin, Jitraporn Vongsvivut, Mohammad Al Kobaisi, Russell J Crawford, Elena P Ivanova
Corrosion of metallic surfaces is prevalent in the environment and is of great concern in many areas, including the military, transport, aviation, building and food industries, amongst others. Polyester and coatings containing both polyester and silica nanoparticles (SiO2NPs) have been widely used to protect steel substrata from corrosion. In this study, we utilized X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, attenuated total reflection infrared micro-spectroscopy, water contact angle measurements, optical profiling and atomic force microscopy to provide an insight into how exposure to sunlight can cause changes in the micro- and nanoscale integrity of the coatings...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
A S M Iftekhar Uddin, Usman Yaqoob, Gwiy-Sang Chung
Herein we report an enhanced triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on the contact-separation mode between a patterned film of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with a semi-metallic elastomer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and a nylon fiber film. The addition of ethylene glycol to the PEDOT:PSS film improves the functionality of the TENG significantly, yielding promising applicability in both indoor and outdoor (i.e., under sunlight) environments, with the maximum instantaneous power of 0...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jiajia Li, Chunlai Ding, Zhengbiao Zhang, Xiangqiang Pan, Na Li, Jian Zhu, Xiulin Zhu
Butyl acrylate is polymerized in the living way under the irradiation of purple light-emitting diode (LED) or sunlight without photocatalyst at ambient temperature. 2-((Phenoxycarbonothioyl)thio) ethyl propanoate) is exclusively added and acted as an initiator and a chain transfer agent simultaneously in the current system. Poly(butyl acrylate) with well-regulated molecular weight and relatively narrow molecular weight distribution (Ð < 1.30) is synthesized. High conversion (>95%) can be achieved within several minutes...
October 21, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Xiang Gao, Shaolong Wu, Jimu Yan, Xiongfei Zhai, Xiaofeng Li
Semiconductor nanostructure photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells for sunlight conversion have the potential to supply continuous, low-cost, high-efficiency and carbon-free energy; however, in order to provide economically competitive energy, long-time stability and high-efficiency are requisite. In this work, the saturation photocurrent density (Jsat) and stability of the silicon nanowires (SiNWs) in a PEC cell are significantly improved via surface modification with Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and conformal TiO2 ultrathin film...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
David Kahoun, Soňa Řezková, Josef Královský
The effects of heat treatment and storage conditions on the composition of pure mead (honey wine) made from only honey and water were investigated. Heat treatment experiments were performed at 7 different temperatures ranging from 40°C to100°C with 10°C increments for 60min. Storage condition experiments were performed at room temperature (20-25°C) in daylight without direct sunlight and in darkness in a refrigerator at 4°C for 1, 2, 4 and 12weeks. The parameters evaluated were phenolic compounds, peak area of unidentified compounds, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural content and antioxidant capacity...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Tiele Caprioli Machado, Marla Azário Lansarin
The hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), which is generated in the electroplating process, is toxic to most organisms and potentially harmful to human health. The method generally used for remediation of wastewater containing Cr(VI) employs chemicals with high toxicity. This work proposes an alternative technology for the treatment of these wastewaters, based on photochemical reduction of Cr(VI) by alcohols under radiation, which is environmentally sustainable and economically viable. Initially, a batch reactor in laboratory scale was used to determine the best experimental conditions and its specific reaction rate was calculated...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Supamas Danwittayakul, Supachai Songngam, Tipawan Fhulua, Panida Muangkasem, Sittha Sukkasi
Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a simple point-of-use process that uses sunlight to disinfect water for drinking. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles are typically used as water containers for SODIS, but a new SODIS container design has recently been developed with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and can overcome the drawbacks of PET bottles. Two nesting layers of LDPE bags are used in the new design: the inner layer containing the water to be disinfected and the outer one creating air insulation to minimize heat loss from the water to the surroundings...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Technology
Jooyeon Jeong, Kwangryul Baek, Henning Kirst, Anastasios Melis, EonSeon Jin
The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii truncated light-harvesting antenna 4 (tla4) DNA transposon mutant has a pale green phenotype, a lower chlorophyll (Chl) per cell and a higher Chl a/b ratio in comparison with the wild type. It required a higher light intensity for the saturation of photosynthesis and displayed a greater per chlorophyll light-saturated rate of oxygen evolution than the wild type. The Chl antenna size of the photosystems in the tla4 mutant was only about 65% of that measured in the wild type. Molecular genetic analysis revealed that a single plasmid DNA insertion disrupted two genes on chromosome 11 of the mutant...
October 17, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Pengwei Li, Chao Liang, Yiqiang Zhang, Fengyu Li, Yanlin Song, Guosheng Shao
The interfacial contact is critical for the performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), leading to dense perovskite thin films and efficient charge transport. In this contribution, an effective interfacial treatment solution using polyethyleneimine (PEI) was developed to improve the performance and stability of PSCs. Inserting PEI between s-VOX and perovskite layer can produce a high-energy hydrophilic surface to facilitate the formation of high-quality perovskite layer by solution method. Accordingly, the surface coverage of perovskite film on s-VOX layer increased from 80% to 95%, and PCE of the device improved from 12...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ryosuke Kita, Hunter B Fraser
Sun-exposure is a key environmental variable in the study of human evolution. Several skin-pigmentation genes serve as classical examples of positive selection, suggesting that sun-exposure has significantly shaped worldwide genomic variation. Here we investigate the interaction between genetic variation and sun-exposure, and how this impacts gene expression regulation. Using RNA-Seq data from 607 human skin samples, we identified thousands of transcripts that are differentially expressed between sun-exposed skin and non-sun-exposed skin...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Yoshihiko Imanaka, Toshihisa Anazawa, Toshio Manabe, Hideyuki Amada, Sachio Ido, Fumiaki Kumasaka, Naoki Awaji, Gabriel Sánchez-Santolino, Ryo Ishikawa, Yuichi Ikuhara
The artificial photosynthesis technology known as the Honda-Fujishima effect, which produces oxygen and hydrogen or organic energy from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide, is an effective energy and environmental technology. The key component for the higher efficiency of this reaction system is the anode electrode, generally composed of a photocatalyst formed on a glass substrate from electrically conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). To obtain a highly efficient electrode, a dense film composed of a nanoparticulate visible light responsive photocatalyst that usually has a complicated multi-element composition needs to be deposited and adhered onto the FTO...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ayse Tosun, Seda Erisen Karaca, Tolga Unuvar, Yakup Yurekli, Cigdem Yenisey, Imran Kurt Omurlu
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) disorders and possible risk factors in patients with epilepsy only (EO), cerebral palsy only (CPO), and cerebral palsy-epilepsy (CP + E). METHODS: A total of 122 patients [EO (n = 54), CPO (n = 30), CP + E (n = 38)] and 30 healthy children were evaluated. BMD was only measured in patient groups, not in control subjects. BMD of lumbar vertebrae was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
October 18, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Aaron P Roberts, Matthew M Alloy, James T Oris
Solar radiation is a vital component of ecosystem function. However, sunlight can also interact with certain xenobiotic compounds in a phenomenon known as photo-induced, photo-enhanced, photo-activated, or photo-toxicity. This phenomenon broadly refers to an interaction between a chemical and sunlight resulting in increased toxicity. Because most aquatic ecosystems receive some amount of sunlight, co-exposure to xenobiotic chemicals and solar radiation is likely to occur in the environment, and photo-induced toxicity may be an important factor impacting aquatic ecosystems...
October 15, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Rebecca M Stanley, Rachel A Jones, Dylan P Cliff, Stewart G Trost, Donna Berthelsen, Jo Salmon, Marijka Batterham, Simon Eckermann, John J Reilly, Ngiare Brown, Karen J Mickle, Steven J Howard, Trina Hinkley, Xanne Janssen, Paul Chandler, Penny Cross, Fay Gowers, Anthony D Okely
BACKGROUND: Participation in regular physical activity (PA) during the early years helps children achieve healthy body weight and can substantially improve motor development, bone health, psychosocial health and cognitive development. Despite common assumptions that young children are naturally active, evidence shows that they are insufficiently active for health and developmental benefits. Exploring strategies to increase physical activity in young children is a public health and research priority...
October 19, 2016: BMC Public Health
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