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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429736/single-step-one-pot-synthesis-of-tio2-nanosheets-doped-with-sulfur-on-reduced-graphene-oxide-with-enhanced-photocatalytic-activity
#1
Weilin Wang, Zhaofeng Wang, Jingjing Liu, Zhu Luo, Steven L Suib, Peng He, Guqiao Ding, Zhengguo Zhang, Luyi Sun
A hybrid photocatalyst based on anatase TiO2 was designed by doping TiO2 with sulfur and incorporating reduced graphene oxide (TiO2-S/rGO hybrid), with an aim to narrow the band gap to potentially make use of visible light and decrease the recombination of excitons, respectively. This TiO2-S/rGO hybrid was successfully synthesized using a one-pot hydrothermal method via single-step reaction. The structure and morphology of the TiO2-S/rGO hybrid catalyst was carefully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428810/recent-achievements-obtained-by-chloroplast-transformation
#2
REVIEW
Muhamed Adem, Dereje Beyene, Tileye Feyissa
Chloroplasts play a great role for sustained wellbeing of life on the planet. They have the power and raw materials that can be used as sophisticated biological factories. They are rich in energy as they have lots of pigment-protein complexes capable of collecting sunlight, in sugar produced by photosynthesis and in minerals imported from the plant cell. Chloroplast genome transformation offers multiple advantages over nuclear genome which among others, include: integration of the transgene via homologus recombination that enables to eliminate gene silencing and position effect, higher level of transgene expression resulting into higher accumulations of foreign proteins, and significant reduction in environmental dispersion of the transgene due to maternal inheritance which helps to minimize the major critic of plant genetic engineering...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426988/solar-photocatalytic-application-of-nbo2oh-as-alternative-photocatalyst-for-water-treatment
#3
Luana Márcia Bezerra Batista, Alexsandro Jhones Dos Santos, Djalma Ribeiro da Silva, Ana Paula de Melo Alves, Sergi Garcia-Segura, Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle
Water recycling and industrial effluents remediation are a hot topic of research to reduce the environmental impact of the human activity. Persistent organic pollutants are highly recalcitrant compounds with hazardous effects associated to their fate in water bodies. Several novel technologies have been developed during the last decades to deal with this novel contamination. However, the natural sources and idiosyncrasy of each country lead to the potential application of different technologies. In this context, we have focused on the development of phocotalytic treatment of solutions containing dyes using a novel photocatalytic material, the NbO2OH...
April 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426975/the-regulation-of-the-chloroplast-proton-motive-force-plays-a-key-role-for-photosynthesis-in-fluctuating-light
#4
REVIEW
Ute Armbruster, Viviana Correa Galvis, Hans-Henning Kunz, Deserah D Strand
Plants use sunlight as their primary energy source. During photosynthesis, absorbed light energy generates reducing power by driving electron transfer reactions. These are coupled to the transfer of protons into the thylakoid lumen, generating a proton motive force (pmf) required for ATP synthesis. Sudden alterations in light availability have to be met by regulatory mechanisms to avoid the over-accumulation of reactive intermediates and maximize energy efficiency. Here, the acidification of the lumen, as an intermediate product of photosynthesis, plays an important role by regulating photosynthesis in response to excitation energy levels...
April 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426435/surface-plasmon-resonance-in-gold-nanoparticles-a-review
#5
Vincenzo Amendola, Roberto Pilot, Marco Frasconi, Onofrio M Maragò, Maria Antonia Iatì
In the last two decades, plasmon resonance in gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) has been the subject of intense research efforts. Plasmon physics is intriguing and its precise modelling proved to be challenging. In fact, plasmons are highly responsive to a multitude of factors, either intrinsic to the Au NPs or from the environment, and recently the need emerged for the correction of standard electromagnetic approaches with quantum effects. Applications related to plasmon absorption and scattering in Au NPs are impressively numerous, ranging from sensing to photothermal effects to cell imaging...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424191/the-d-lemma-narrow-band-uv-type-b-radiation-versus-vitamin-d-supplementation-versus-sunlight-for-cardiovascular-and-immune-health
#6
Michael F Holick, Arash Hossein-Nezhad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420738/sar202-genomes-from-the-dark-ocean-predict-pathways-for-the-oxidation-of-recalcitrant-dissolved-organic-matter
#7
Zachary Landry, Brandon K Swan, Gerhard J Herndl, Ramunas Stepanauskas, Stephen J Giovannoni
Deep-ocean regions beyond the reach of sunlight contain an estimated 615 Pg of dissolved organic matter (DOM), much of which persists for thousands of years. It is thought that bacteria oxidize DOM until it is too dilute or refractory to support microbial activity. We analyzed five single-amplified genomes (SAGs) from the abundant SAR202 clade of dark-ocean bacterioplankton and found they encode multiple families of paralogous enzymes involved in carbon catabolism, including several families of oxidative enzymes that we hypothesize participate in the degradation of cyclic alkanes...
April 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419325/dissecting-molecular-and-physiological-response-mechanisms-to-high-solar-radiation-in-cyanic-and-acyanic-leaves-a-case-study-on-red-and-green-basil
#8
Massimiliano Tattini, Federico Sebastiani, Cecilia Brunetti, Alessio Fini, Sara Torre, Antonella Gori, Mauro Centritto, Francesco Ferrini, Marco Landi, Lucia Guidi
Photosynthetic performance and the expression of genes involved in light signaling and the biosynthesis of isoprenoids and phenylpropanoids were analysed in green ('Tigullio', TIG) and red ('Red Rubin', RR) basil. The aim was to detect the physiological and molecular response mechanisms to high sunlight. The attenuation of blue-green light by epidermal anthocyanins was shown to evoke shade-avoidance responses with consequential effects on leaf morpho-anatomical traits and gas exchange performance. Red basil had a lower mesophyll conductance, partially compensated by the less effective control of stomatal movements, in comparison with TIG...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418660/pegylated-solanesol-for-oral-delivery-of-coenzyme-q10
#9
Benkai Qin, Lei Liu, Yangyang Pan, Yingchun Zhu, Xiaohe Wu, Shiyong Song, Guang Han
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is widely used in preventive or curative treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, CoQ10 exhibits an extremely low solubility in aqueous medium as well as a poor oral bioavailability. Therefore, solanesyl poly(ethylene glycol) succinate (SPGS) and CoQ10 were formulated as CoQ10-SPGS micelles with a high content of CoQ10 to improve the bioavailability of CoQ10 in rat. Findings indicate that, in the CoQ10-SPGS micelles, SPGS is self-assembled into stable nanosized micelles with a CoQ10 loading capacity of more than 39%...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418080/phototoxic-potential-of-undispersed-and-dispersed-fresh-and-weathered-macondo-crude-oils-to-gulf-of-mexico-marine-organisms
#10
Bryson E Finch, Solmaz Marzooghi, Dominic M Di Toro, William A Stubblefield
Crude oils contain a mixture of hydrocarbons including phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that have the ability to absorb ultraviolet (UV) light. PAH absorption of UV light can substantially increase their toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of the current study was to examine the potential for phototoxicity of fresh and naturally weathered Macondo crude oils alone and in combination with the dispersant Corexit 9500 to mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia), inland silverside (Menidia beryllina), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis)...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414912/observation-of-photovoltaic-action-from-photoacid-modified-nafion-due-to-light-driven-ion-transport
#11
William White, Christopher D Sanborn, Ronald S Reiter, David M Fabian, Shane Ardo
Replacing passive ion-exchange membranes, like Nafion, with membranes that use light to drive ion transport would allow membranes in photoelectrochemical technologies to serve in an active role. Toward this, we modified per-fluorosulfonic acid ionomer membranes with organic pyrenol-based photoacid dyes to sensitize the membranes to visi-ble light and initiate proton transport. Covalent modification of the membranes was achieved by reacting Nafion sul-fonyl fluoride poly(perfluorosulfonyl fluoride) membranes with 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-tris(2-aminoethylsulfonamide) photoacids...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414022/cigarette-smoking-and-the-risks-of-basal-cell-carcinoma-and-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#12
J C Dusingize, C M Olsen, N P Pandeya, P Subramaniam, B S Thompson, R E Neale, A C Green, D C Whiteman
Sunlight is the principal environmental risk factor for keratinocyte cancers, but other carcinogens have also been implicated, including tobacco smoke. Findings have been conflicting however. We investigated associations between cigarette smoking and incidence of BCC or SCC in QSkin, a prospective study of skin cancer (n=43,794). Smoking history was self-reported at baseline; newly diagnosed BCCs and SCCs were ascertained through data linkage and verified by histopathology reports. We restricted analyses to white participants who at baseline reported no past history of skin cancer excisions and no more than 5 destructively-treated actinic skin lesions...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408720/water-harvesting-from-air-with-metal-organic-frameworks-powered-by-natural-sunlight
#13
Hyunho Kim, Sungwoo Yang, Sameer R Rao, Shankar Narayanan, Eugene A Kapustin, Hiroyasu Furukawa, Ari S Umans, Omar M Yaghi, Evelyn N Wang
Atmospheric water is a resource equivalent to ~10% of all fresh water in lakes on Earth. However, an efficient process for capturing and delivering water from air, especially at low humidity levels (down to 20%), has not been developed. We report the design and demonstration of a device based on porous metal-organic framework-801 [Zr6O4(OH)4(fumarate)6] that captures water from the atmosphere at ambient conditions using low-grade heat from natural sunlight below one sun (1 kW per square meter). This device is capable of harvesting 2...
April 13, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401345/vitamin-d-in-european-children-statement-from-the-european-academy-of-paediatrics-eap
#14
Zachi Grossman, Adamos Hadjipanayis, Tom Stiris, Stefano Del Torso, Jean-Christophe Mercier, Arunas Valiulis, Raanan Shamir
Vitamin D is synthesized in human skin upon sun exposure and is also a nutrient. It regulates calcium and phosphate metabolism and is essential for the maintenance of bone health. Vitamin D supplementation during infancy, in order to prevent rickets, is universally accepted. Many human cell types carry vitamin D receptor, this being a drive for conducting studies on the possible association between vitamin D status and other diseases. Studies have affirmed that a considerable number of healthy European children may be vitamin D deficient, especially in high-risk groups (darker pigmented skin, living in areas with reduced sun exposure and other disorders)...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399505/host-defense-antimicrobial-peptides-as-antibiotics-design-and-application-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Biswajit Mishra, Scott Reiling, D Zarena, Guangshun Wang
This review deals with the design and application strategies of new antibiotics based on naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). The initial candidate can be designed based on three-dimensional structure or selected from a library of peptides from natural or laboratory sources followed by optimization via structure-activity relationship studies. There are also advanced application strategies such as induction of AMP expression from host cells by various factors (e.g., metals, amino acids, vitamin D and sunlight), the use of engineered probiotic bacteria to deliver peptides, the design of prodrug and peptide conjugates to improve specific targeting...
April 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399477/solar-photocatalytic-disinfection-of-e-coli-and-bacteriophages-ms2-%C3%AE-x174-and-pr772-using-tio2-zno-and-ruthenium-based-complexes-in-a-continuous-flow-system
#16
Joanne Mac Mahon, Suresh C Pillai, John M Kelly, Laurence W Gill
The performance of photocatalytic treatment processes were assessed using different photocatalysts against E. coli and bacteriophages MS2, ΦX174 and PR772, in a recirculating continuous flow compound parabolic collector system under real sunlight conditions. Suspended TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticle powders and Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate in solution were tested separately, as well as in combination, using E. coli. For a 3-log reduction of E. coli in distilled water, inactivation rates in terms of cumulative dose were in the order Ru(bpy)3Cl2>(TiO2 & Ru(bpy)3Cl2)>(ZnO & Ru(bpy)3Cl2)>ZnO>TiO2>photolysis...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398602/heptacoordinate-co-ii-complex-a-new-architecture-for-photochemical-hydrogen-production
#17
Fiorella Lucarini, Mariachiara Pastore, Serhii Vasylevskyi, Massimo Varisco, Euro Solari, Aurelien Crochet, Katharina M Fromm, Fabio Zobi, Albert Ruggi
Hydrogen is a promising potential clean source of energy which can be produced using abundant and renewable resources (e.g. water and sunlight). Recently, hexacoordinate polypyridine cobalt complexes have gained great attention because of their stability and activity in water reduction catalysis. To further investigate the effect of coordination geometry on the catalytic activity, we synthesized and characterized the first heptacoordinate cobalt catalyst for light-driven hydrogen production in water. Photochemical experiments using [Ru(bpy)3]2+ as photosensitizer gave a turnover number (TON) of 16300 mol H2 (mol cat...
April 11, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397781/measurement-of-the-cosmic-optical-background-using-the-long-range-reconnaissance-imager-on-new-horizons
#18
Michael Zemcov, Poppy Immel, Chi Nguyen, Asantha Cooray, Carey M Lisse, Andrew R Poppe
The cosmic optical background is an important observable that constrains energy production in stars and more exotic physical processes in the universe, and provides a crucial cosmological benchmark against which to judge theories of structure formation. Measurement of the absolute brightness of this background is complicated by local foregrounds like the Earth's atmosphere and sunlight reflected from local interplanetary dust, and large discrepancies in the inferred brightness of the optical background have resulted...
April 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394362/prevalence-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-and-association-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-qatari-population
#19
K Al-Dabhani, K K Tsilidis, N Murphy, H A Ward, P Elliott, E Riboli, M Gunter, I Tzoulaki
OBJECTIVES: Despite long hours of sunlight in Qatar and other regions of the Middle East, vitamin D deficiency has been rising. In parallel, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome has also been increasing in Qatar. Vitamin D levels have been associated with metabolic syndrome but the data are inconsistent and no studies have addressed these inter-relationships in a Middle Eastern population where the prevalence of these conditions is high. The objective is to investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with metabolic syndrome and its components in the Qatar Biobank population...
April 10, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394128/water-soluble-pd8l4-self-assembled-molecular-barrel-as-an-aqueous-carrier-for-hydrophobic-curcumin
#20
Imtiyaz Ahmad Bhat, Ruchi Jain, Mujahuddin M Siddiqui, Deepak K Saini, Partha Sarathi Mukherjee
A tetrafacial water-soluble molecular barrel (1) was synthesized by coordination driven self-assembly of a symmetrical tetrapyridyl donor (L) with a cis-blocked 90° acceptor [cis-(en)Pd(NO3)2] (en = ethane-1,2-diamine). The open barrel structure of (1) was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The presence of a hydrophobic cavity with large windows makes it an ideal candidate for encapsulation and carrying hydrophobic drug like curcumin in an aqueous medium. The barrel (1) encapsulates curcumin inside its molecular cavity and protects highly photosensitive curcumin from photodegradation...
April 10, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
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