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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214443/photodegradation-and-sorption-govern-tetracycline-removal-during-wastewater-treatment-in-algal-ponds
#1
Zane N Norvill, Alma Toledo-Cervantes, Saul Blanco, Andy Shilton, Benoit Guieysse, Raul Muñoz
The degradation of the antibiotic tetracycline, supplied at 100µgL(-1) in domestic wastewater, was studied in an outdoor, pilot scale, high rate algal pond (HRAP). Effective operation was demonstrated with the biomass concentration and the chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency averaging 1.2±0.1gTSSL(-1) and 80±4%, respectively, across all operational periods. Tetracycline removal exceeded 93% and 99% when the HRAP was operated at hydraulic retention times of 4 and 7days, respectively. Batch tests and pulse testing during HRAP operation repeatedly evidenced the significance of photodegradation as a removal mechanism...
February 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209050/-active-photoprotection-sunscreens-with-dna-repair-enzymes-a-review-of-the-literature
#2
Matteo Megna, Serena Lembo, Nicola Balato, Giuseppe Monfrecola
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exerts different harmful effects on human health, being the main etiological agents of certain skin cancers and photoaging. In this context, photoprotection, intended as a set of measures adopted to limit and prevent the effects of UV radiation, plays a critical role in avoiding undesired sunlight outcomes. Traditional sunscreens represent a widely used photoprotective approach, even if they exert a "passive photoprotection" and are not effective once damage to skin cells has been generated after sun exposure...
February 16, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203242/sunlight-modulates-fruit-metabolic-profile-and-shapes-the-spatial-pattern-of-compound-accumulation-within-the-grape-cluster
#3
Noam Reshef, Natasha Walbaum, Nurit Agam, Aaron Fait
Vineyards are characterized by their large spatial variability of solar irradiance (SI) and temperature, known to effectively modulate grape metabolism. To explore the role of sunlight in shaping fruit composition and cluster uniformity, we studied the spatial pattern of incoming irradiance, fruit temperature and metabolic profile within individual grape clusters under three levels of sunlight exposure. The experiment was conducted in a vineyard of Cabernet Sauvignon cv. located in the Negev Highlands, Israel, where excess SI and midday temperatures are known to degrade grape quality...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202281/photodegradation-of-diclofenac-in-seawater-by-simulated-sunlight-irradiation-the-comprehensive-effect-of-nitrate-fe-iii-and-chloride
#4
N Zhang, J M Li, G G Liu, X L Chen, K Jiang
Diclofenac is one of the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in various aquatic environments. The photodegradation of diclofenac in the absence/presence of nitrate, Fe(III) and chloride, especially their interactions, were systematically studied. Under the study conditions, photodegradation rate was decreased with increasing nitrate, Fe(III) and chloride concentrations. Nitrate has an synergistic action for Fe(III). Nitrate and chloride have antagonistic effect. An antagonistic action is present between nitrate, Fe(III) and chloride...
February 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194678/role-of-precursors-on-the-photophysical-properties-of-carbon-nitride-and-its-application-for-antibiotic-degradation
#5
Suyana Panneri, Priyanka Ganguly, Balagopal N Nair, Abdul Azeez Peer Mohamed, Krishna Gopa Kumar Warrier, Unnikrishnan Nair Saraswathy Hareesh
In this paper, we provide a comprehensive evaluation of graphitic carbon nitride (C3N4) powders derived from the four different precursors melamine, cyanamide, thiourea, and urea for the photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic under sunlight irradiation. The powders were synthesized by employing the conventional thermal decomposition method. The synthesized powders were examined using different characterization tools for evaluating the photophysical properties. The degradation profile revealed that urea-derived C3N4 showed the highest activity while melamine-derived C3N4 showed the least activity...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193814/two-eyes-for-two-purposes-in-situ-evidence-for-asymmetric-vision-in-the-cockeyed-squids-histioteuthis-heteropsis-and-stigmatoteuthis-dofleini
#6
Kate N Thomas, Bruce H Robison, Sönke Johnsen
The light environment of the mesopelagic realm of the ocean changes with both depth and viewer orientation, and this has probably driven the high diversity of visual adaptations found among its inhabitants. The mesopelagic 'cockeyed' squids of family Histioteuthidae have unusual eyes, as the left and right eyes are dimorphic in size, shape and sometimes lens pigmentation. This dimorphism may be an adaptation to the two different sources of light in the mesopelagic realm, with the large eye oriented upward to view objects silhouetted against the dim, downwelling sunlight and the small eye oriented slightly downward to view bioluminescent point sources...
April 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192997/photolysis-of-antibiotics-under-simulated-sunlight-irradiation-identification-of-photoproducts-by-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#7
Rosa María Baena-Nogueras, Eduardo Gonzalez-Mazo, Pablo Antonio Lara-Martín
There is a growing concern on the widespread use of antibiotics and their presence in the aqueous environment. Their removal in the water column is mediated by different types of degradation processes for which the mechanisms are still unclear. This research is focused on characterizing the photodegradation kinetics and pathways of two largely employed antibiotics families: sulfonamides (9 SDs) and fluoroquinolones (6 FQs). Degradation percentages and rates were measured in pure water exposed to simulated natural sunlight at a constant irradiance value (500 W m-2) during all the experiments, and the main photoproducts formed were characterized through accurate mass measurement using ultra-performance liquid chromatography - quadrupole-time-of-flight - mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS)...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190805/mass-spectrometric-discrimination-of-squalene-monohydroperoxide-isomers
#8
Naoki Shimizu, Hannah Bersabe, Junya Ito, Shunji Kato, Ryo Towada, Takahiro Eitsuka, Shigefumi Kuwahara, Teruo Miyazawa, Kiyotaka Nakagawa
Squalene (SQ), a main component of human sebum, is readily photooxidized by exposure to sunlight, producing six squalene monohydroperoxide (SQ-OOH) isomers. Despite its known connection to various skin conditions, few studies have sought to analyze SQ-OOH at the isomeric level. In this study, we aimed to develop a method to discriminate each SQ-OOH isomer with the use of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The six standard SQ-OOH isomers were prepared by photooxidizing SQ in the presence of rose bengal, a photosensitizer, and isolated by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188423/photosynthetic-antenna-engineering-to-improve-crop-yields
#9
Henning Kirst, Stéphane T Gabilly, Krishna K Niyogi, Peggy G Lemaux, Anastasios Melis
Evidence shows that decreasing the light-harvesting antenna size of the photosystems in tobacco helps to increase the photosynthetic productivity and plant canopy biomass accumulation under high-density cultivation conditions. Decreasing, or truncating, the chlorophyll antenna size of the photosystems can theoretically improve photosynthetic solar energy conversion efficiency and productivity in mass cultures of algae or plants by up to threefold. A Truncated Light-harvesting chlorophyll Antenna size (TLA), in all classes of photosynthetic organisms, would help to alleviate excess absorption of sunlight and the ensuing wasteful non-photochemical dissipation of excitation energy...
February 10, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187403/green-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticle-for-the-selective-and-sensitive-colorimetric-detection-of-mercury-ii-ion
#10
Vijay Kumar, Devendra K Singh, Sweta Mohan, Daraksha Bano, Ravi Kumar Gundampati, Syed Hadi Hasan
An ecofriendly and zero cost approach has been developed for the photoinduced synthesis of more stable AgNPs using an aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii (AEM) as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The exposed reaction mixture of AEM and AgNO3 to sunlight turned dark brown which primarily confirmed the biosynthesis of AgNPs. The biosynthesis was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy which exhibited a sharp SPR band at 430nm after 30min of sunlight exposure. The optimum conditions for biosynthesis of AgNPs were 30min of sunlight exposure, 2...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187140/diel-periodicity-of-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae-under-field-conditions
#11
Richard K Evans, Michael D Toews, Ashfaq A Sial
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an economically important pest of blueberry and other thin-skinned fruits, persists and prolifically reproduces under seemingly lethal climatic conditions in the field. However, behavioral and physiological mechanisms employed by D. suzukii to tolerate such extreme climatic conditions in the field are unknown. The primary objective of this project was to investigate diel periodicity of D. suzukii and their reproductive success under field conditions as related by climatic factors such as temperature and relative humidity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183998/scalable-manufactured-randomized-glass-polymer-hybrid-metamaterial-for-daytime-radiative-cooling
#12
Yao Zhai, Yaoguang Ma, Sabrina N David, Dongliang Zhao, Runnan Lou, Gang Tan, Ronggui Yang, Xiaobo Yin
Passive radiative cooling draws heat from surfaces and radiates it into space as infrared radiation to which the atmosphere is transparent. However, the energy density mismatch between solar irradiance and the low infrared radiation flux from a near-ambient-temperature surface require materials that strongly emit thermal energy and barely absorb sunlight. We embedded resonant polar dielectric microspheres randomly in a polymeric matrix, resulting in a metamaterial that is fully transparent to the solar spectrum while having an infrared emissivity greater than 0...
February 9, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183154/photomorphogenic-responses-to-ultraviolet-b-light
#13
REVIEW
Gareth I Jenkins
Exposure to UV-B light regulates numerous aspects of plant metabolism, morphology and physiology through the differential expression of hundreds of genes. Photomorphogenic responses to UV-B are mediated by the photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8). Considerable progress has been made in understanding UVR8 action: the structural basis of photoreceptor function, how interaction with CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) initiates signaling and how REPRESSOR OF UV-B PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS (RUP) proteins negatively regulate UVR8 action...
February 9, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183013/base-driven-sunlight-oxidation-of-silver-nanoprisms-for-label-free-visual-colorimetric-detection-of-hexahydro-1-3-5-trinitro-1-3-5-triazine-explosive
#14
Yi He, Li Wang
Here we report a label-free method for visual colorimetric detection of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (HTT) explosive based on base-driven sunlight oxidation of silver nanoprisms (AgNPRs). Under natural sunlight illumination, the surface plasmon of AgNPRs is excited, which populates O2 antibonding orbitals to generate negative-ion state (O2(-)). The resultant O2(-) with a strong oxidation activity can etch AgNPRs to smaller nanodisks with the aid of NaOH aqueous solution, leading to a blue shift of the absorption peak and color change from blue to pink...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182645/between-a-rock-and-a-soft-place-using-optical-ages-to-date-ancient-clam-gardens-on-the-pacific-northwest
#15
Christina M Neudorf, Nicole Smith, Dana Lepofsky, Ginevra Toniello, Olav B Lian
Rock-walled archaeological features are notoriously hard to date, largely because of the absence of suitable organic material for radiocarbon dating. This study demonstrates the efficacy of dating clam garden wall construction using optical dating, and uses optical ages to determine how sedimentation rates in the intertidal zone are affected by clam garden construction. Clam gardens are rock-walled, intertidal terraces that were constructed and maintained by coastal First Nation peoples to increase bivalve habitat and productivity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181794/morphology-evolution-and-degradation-of-cspbbr3-nanocrystals-under-blue-light-emitting-diode-illumination
#16
Shouqiang Huang, Zhichun Li, Bo Wang, Nanwen Zhu, Congyang Zhang, Long Kong, Qi Zhang, Aidang Shan, Liang Li
Under illumination of light emitting diode (LED) or sunlight, the green color of all-inorganic CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals (CPB-NCs) often quickly changes to yellow, and follows by large photoluminescence (PL) loss. To figure out what is happening on CPB-NCs during the color change process, the morphology, structure and PL evolutions are systematically investigated by varying the influence factors of illumination, moisture, oxygen and temperature. We find that the yellow color is mainly originated from the large CPB crystals formed in the illumination process...
February 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181031/psychosocial-aspects-associated-with-use-of-sunscreen-natural-sunlight-exposure-and-artificial-tanning
#17
Jessica Ventenilla, Katlein França, Torello Lotti, Jonette Keri
Natural and artificial tanning have become very popular in Western culture, yet at the same time, there is still a psychodermatology concern for this activity. Not much has been examined with the psychological aspects of tanning and sunscreen use. The purpose of this study is to examine the psychosocial effects associated with sun protection, natural, and artificial tanning among individuals 18 years old or older visiting the University of Miami Dermatology Outpatient Clinic. We distributed a survey on tanning and sunscreen use to 150 dermatology outpatients, hospital employees, and hospital visitors for three weeks during June/July 2015 asking about how often they tan, use sunscreen, and how they feel about this topic...
February 8, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179126/vitamin-d-deficiency-in-mothers-neonates-and-children
#18
Deena H Elsori, Majeda S Hammoud
Vitamin D is produced in response to the exposure of skin to sunlight through UV-B synthesis. It can also be obtained from diet and dietary supplements. Vitamin D is essential for strong bones as it helps to absorb calcium from diet. Vitamin D deficiency mainly occurs if strict vegetarian diet is followed as mostly the source of vitamin D is animal based; therefore, exposure to sunlight is restricted or having dark skin color. Low vitamin D levels results in increased possibility of gestational diabetes among pregnant women, low birth weight and pre-eclampsia in infants, and mothers may suffer bone impairment, osteoporosis, hypocalcaemia, and hypertension...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178638/fast-photoelectro-reduction-of-cr-vi-over-mos2-tio2-nanotubes-on-ti-wire
#19
Lixia Yang, Xutong Zheng, Ming Liu, Shenglian Luo, Yan Luo, Guifa Li
A stable MoS2 nanosheets@TiO2 NTAs composite was prepared via a simple hydrothermal process. Few-layer MoS2 nanosheets distributed on the TiO2 nanotube top surface and the inner walls rather than filling in the tubes, allowing abundant tubular channels open to environment and benefiting for efficient mass transport. Photocatalytic (PE) and photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) performance of the composite were evaluated on Cr(VI) reduction, with variable low molecule weight organic acids (LOAs) added as sacrificial electron donor to form a charge-transfer-complex (CTC) between LOAs and TiO2/MoS2, which is sensitive to the visible light illumination and could induce the photo-reduction of Cr(VI) and photo-oxidation of LOAs...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176237/vitamin-d-and-its-role-in-psoriasis-an-overview-of-the-dermatologist-and-nutritionist
#20
REVIEW
Luigi Barrea, Maria Cristina Savanelli, Carolina Di Somma, Maddalena Napolitano, Matteo Megna, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease. Psoriasis lesions are characterized by hyper-proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes associated with inflammatory cellular infiltrate in both dermis and epidermis. The epidermis is the natural source of vitamin D synthesis by sunlight action. Recently, a role for vitamin D in the pathogenesis of different skin diseases, including psoriasis, has been reported. Indeed, significant associations between low vitamin D status and psoriasis have been systematically observed...
February 7, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
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