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Isabel Aparici-Espert, Miguel A Miranda, Virginie Lhiaubet-Vallet
Photosensitization by drugs is a problem of increasing importance in modern life. This phenomenon occurs when a chemical substance in the skin is exposed to sunlight. Photosensitizing drugs are reported to cause severe skin dermatitis, and indeed, it is generally advised to avoid sunbathing and to apply sunscreen. In this context, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac is a photosensitive drug, especially when administered in topical form. In this work, efforts have been made to design and study an innovative pro-drug/pro-filter system containing diclofenac and the UVA filter avobenzone in order to develop a safer use of this topical drug...
March 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ana P F Santos, Bianca M Souza, Tânia F C V Silva, Rodrigo P Cavalcante, Silvio C Oliveira, Amílcar Machulek, Rui A R Boaventura, Vítor J P Vilar
The mineralization of bio-recalcitrant humic acids (HAs) by a solar photo-Fenton (SPF) process was investigated in aqueous system, in order to understand its abatement in real high-HA content matrices, such as sanitary landfill leachates. SPF reactions were performed in tubular photoreactors with CPCs at lab-scale (simulated solar light) and pilot-scale (natural sunlight). Considering the experimental conditions selected for this work, the formation of insoluble HA-Fe3+ complexes was observed. Thus, to avoid HA precipitation, oxalic acid (Ox) was added, since Fe3+ -Ox complexes present a higher stability constant...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Elizabeth W Uhl
Although vitamin D is critical to calcium/phosphorus homeostasis, bone formation and remodeling, there is evolution-based variation between species in vitamin D metabolism and susceptibility to rickets and osteomalacia. Most herbivores produce vitamin D3 in response to sunlight, but dogs and cats have generally lost the ability as carnivore diets are rich in vitamin D. Nutritional deficiencies and/or poor exposure to sunlight can induce rickets in birds, swine, cattle and sheep, but horses are less susceptible as they have evolved a calcium homeostasis that is quite different than other animals...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Jamal Abdul Nasir, Muhammad Imran, Syed Arif Ahmed Zaidi
Vitamin D deficiency is an emerging health concern around the world, highly prevalent in south Asian population, despite abundant sunlight. In Pakistan, all age groups are vulnerable to Vitamin D deficiency including pregnant women. This systematic review aimed to determine the pattern of Vitamin D deficiency among Pakistani pregnant women as well as exploring the causes and possible interventions that have had a substantial effect on improving the vitamin D level. Three databases (PubMed, Pub Get and Google Scholar), for the present review up to 2016, were used for the identification of published peer reviewed original relevant studies regarding Vitamin D deficiency among Pakistani pregnant women with the keywords Vitamin D or 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25(OH)D in combination with pregnant women...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Masanori Izumi, Sakuya Nakamura
Most assimilated nutrients in the leaves of land plants are stored in chloroplasts as photosynthetic proteins, where they mediate CO₂ assimilation during growth. During senescence or under suboptimal conditions, chloroplast proteins are degraded, and the amino acids released during this process are used to produce young tissues, seeds, or respiratory energy. Protein degradation machineries contribute to the quality control of chloroplasts by removing damaged proteins caused by excess energy from sunlight...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Andreas Stang, Jürgen C Becker, Paul Nghiem, Jacques Ferlay
AIM: The aim of this article was to provide worldwide, population-based incidence rates for Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). METHODS: We included 11,576 cases from 20 countries for time trend analyses (1990-2007) and 11,028 cases (2.5 billion person-years) from 21 countries for the period 2003-2007 extracted from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents. We computed age-standardised incidence rates (World Standard population) per million person years and sex ratios of these rates...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Brian L Diffey, Curtis D Mobley
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the contribution to our erythemal exposure at the coast of solar UV both reflected from, and transmitted into, the ocean. METHODS: The reflection of solar UV radiation from, and transmitted into, seawater were calculated using a numerical model under a number of atmospheric conditions in order to estimate erythemal exposure on the skin of supine/prone and ambulant people. RESULTS: The results were expressed as UV Indices...
March 13, 2018: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
Roberta R Rodrigues, Jared Heath Delcamp, Hammad Cheema
The development of high voltage solar cells is an attractive way to use sunlight for solar-to-fuel devices, multijunction solar-to-electric systems, and to power limited area consumer electronics. By designing a low oxidation potential organic dye (RR9)/redox shuttle (Fe(bpy)33+/2+) pair for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) devices, the highest single device photovoltage (1.42 V) has been realized for a DSC not relying on doped TiO2. Additionally, Fe(bpy)33+/2+ offers a robust, readily tunable ligand platform for redox potential tuning...
March 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Akiyoshi Shimura, Sakai Hideo, Yoshikazu Takaesu, Ryota Nomura, Yoko Komada, Takeshi Inoue
OBJECTIVE: Sleep affects adolescents in various ways. However, the effects of multiple factors on sleep hygiene remain unclear. A comprehensive assessment of the effects of life habits on sleep in high-school students was conducted. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 344 high school students (age range 15-17; 171 boys, 173 girls) in Tokyo, Japan was conducted in 2015. Complete responses were provided by 294 students. Demographic variables, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), diurnal type scale, Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS), and life habits such as dinnertime, viewing electronic displays, caffeine intake, sunlight in the morning, and the brightness of the room in the night were asked...
April 2018: Sleep Medicine
Sungwon Choi, Sung-Wook Min
We propose a method for depth estimation using a tilted retroreflective structure, which consists of a beam splitter and a micro-corner cube array. Existing depth estimation methods commonly use an active light source to detect the depth of an object. However, sunlight interferes with their depth measurements and decreases their accuracy outdoors. The proposed method does not need any active light source because depth information is obtained in the image domain, not in the object domain. The depth of field imaging by a retroreflector indicates the depth position of the object image, immediately...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Wen-Wen Yong, Huan Lu, Han Li, Shu Wang, Ming-Tian Zhang
Artificial photosynthesis is a chemical process that seeks to capture energy from sunlight to produce solar fuels. Light absorption by a robust and efficient photosensitizer is one of the key steps in solar energy conversion. However, common photosensitizers, including [Ru(bpy)3]2+, remain far from the ideal. In this work, we exploited the performance of conjugated polymers (CPs) as photosensitizers in photodriven hydrogen evolution in aqueous solution (pH 6). Interestingly, CPs, such as poly(fluorene-co-phenylene) derivative (PFP, 429 mmolH2•gCP-1•h-1), exhibit steady and high reactivity towards hydrogen evolution; this performance can rival that of a phosphonated [Ru(bpy)3]2+ (RuP) under the same conditions, indicating that CPs are promising metal-free photosensitizers for future application in photocatalysis...
March 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
N W Dahl, P L Woodfield, B A F Simpson, C J Lemckert, H M Stratton
Buoyancy-driven turbulent dispersion in a maturation pond is studied using a combination of field measurements and computational fluid dynamics. Modelling flow in maturation ponds requires turbulent closure models because of the large physical size and the need to model on diurnal timescales. Simulation results are shown to be more sensitive to the inclusion of a buoyancy production term appearing in the turbulent transport equations than to the model choice. Comparisons with experimental thermal profiles show that without this term, thermal mixing is over-predicted...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
K Soumya, K Narasimha Murthy, G L Sreelatha, T Sharmila
AIM: This research aims to characterize the pigment produced by isolated fungi and to evaluate its anti-cancer activities. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pigment producing fungi was isolated and identified as Fusarium chlamydosporum. The pigment was extracted with chloroform, purified by PTLC and characterized by FT-IR, ESIMS, LCMS and NMR (1 HNMR,13 C NMR) spectral analysis, which revealed the pigment to be "long chain hydrocarbons with poly unsaturated groups" (m/z 702)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Ashish Kumar, Christian Schuerings, Suneel Kumar, Ajay Kumar, Venkata Krishnan
A novel graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 )-CaTiO3 (CTCN) organic-inorganic heterojunction photocatalyst was synthesized by a facile mixing method, resulting in the deposition of CaTiO3 (CT) nanoflakes onto the surface of g-C3 N4 nanosheets. The photocatalytic activity of the as-synthesized heterojunction (along with the controls) was evaluated by studying the degradation of an aqueous solution of rhodamine B (RhB) under UV, visible and natural sunlight irradiation. The CTCN heterojunction with 1:1 ratio of g-C3 N4 /CT showed the highest photocatalytic activity under sunlight irradiation and was also demonstrated to be effective for the degradation of a colorless, non-photosensitizing pollutant, bisphenol A (BPA)...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Kah Hon Leong, Azrina Abd Aziz, Lan Ching Sim, Pichiah Saravanan, Min Jang, Detlef Bahnemann
The utilisation of sunlight as an abundant and renewable resource has motivated the development of sustainable photocatalysts that can collectively harvest visible light. However, the bottleneck in utilising the low energy photons has led to the discovery of plasmonic photocatalysts. The presence of noble metal on the plasmonic photocatalyst enables the harvesting of visible light through the unique characteristic features of the noble metal nanomaterials. Moreover, the formation of interfaces between noble metal particles and semiconductor materials further results in the formation of a Schottky junction...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Fereshte Ashtari, Nafiseh Esmaeil, Marjan Mansourian, Parinaz Poursafa, Omid Mirmosayyeb, Mahdi Barzegar, Hajar Pourgheisari
The evidence for an impact of ambient air pollution on the incidence and severity of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still limited. In the present study, we assessed the association between daily air pollution levels and MS prevalence and severity in Isfahan city, Iran. Data related to MS patients has been collected from 2008 to 2016 in a referral university clinic. The air quality index (AQI) data, were collected from 6 monitoring stations of Isfahan department of environment. The distribution map presenting the sites of air pollution monitoring stations as well as the residential address of MS patients was plotted on geographical information system (GIS)...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Sascha Hein, Jaap J Ten Bosch
OBJECTIVE: Restorative and prosthetic materials should provide an appearance similar to natural teeth under all light conditions, including UV-rich environments and daylight. Various studies claim that UV-induced fluorescence makes teeth whiter and brighter in daylight. The aim of this paper is to determine experimentally the significance of tooth fluorescence in natural sunlight on perceived tooth color. METHODS: A total of 35 extracted, hydrated teeth without restorations or endodontic treatments were evaluated in an experimental setup...
March 7, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Zhineng Hao, Yongguang Yin, Juan Wang, Dong Cao, Jingfu Liu
There are increasing concerns about the adverse effects of released engineered nanoparticles and photochemically formed organohalogen compounds (OHCs) on human health and the environment. Herein, we report that titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) can photocatalytically halogenate dissolved organic matter (DOM) to form a large number of organobromine compounds (OBCs) and organoiodine compounds (OICs), as characterized by negative ion electrospray ionization coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
A Kofi Amegah, Moses Nsoh, Gifty Ashley-Amegah, Judith Anaman-Togbor
OBJECTIVE: Data on dietary vitamin D (vitD) intake, sunlight exposure, and the associated determinants are lacking in Africa. The aim of this study was to establish the factors influencing vitD intake and sunlight exposure among pregnant women in an African population with the goal of improving maternal vitD nutrition. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 703 mother-infant pairs accessing postnatal care at the five main health facilities in Cape Coast, Ghana in 2016...
November 28, 2017: Nutrition
Ségolène De Vaugelade, Edith Nicol, Svetlana Vujovic, Sophie Bourcier, Stéphane Pirnay, Stéphane Bouchonnet
RATIONALE: The present work is devoted to the structural elucidation of by-products issued from the direct UV-visible irradiation of dehydroacetic acid (DHA) in solution and in cosmetic emulsion. METHODS: Analyses were carried out using a gas chromatography coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometer and by a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC-UHRMS). The potential toxicities of by-products were estimated by in silico calculations based on a QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) approach and by in vitro bioassays conducted on Vibrio fischeri bacteria...
March 8, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
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