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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926862/comparison-of-the-morphology-anatomy-and-chemical-profile-of-mikania-glomerata-and-mikania-laevigata
#1
Vanessa Cruz de Oliveira Costa, Alexandre Augusto Borghi, Juliana Lischka Sampaio Mayer, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya
Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata are medicinal plants popularly used in Brazil for colds and asthma. Although several studies report differences in their composition, they are frequently used indistinctly, which may be due to misidentification of the species or the plant part used. Herein, the chemical, anatomical, and morphological profiles of both species were evaluated, seeking to differentiate them. Due to the pattern of secondary metabolites found in M. glomerata and M. laevigata, the chemical profile of the leaves was the characteristic that best differentiated the two species...
September 19, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923741/influence-of-molybdenum-doping-on-the-structural-optical-and-electronic-properties-of-wo3-for-improved-solar-water-splitting
#2
Shankara S Kalanur, Hyungtak Seo
Doping WO3 with foreign atoms is a very efficient strategy to modify the structural, optical and electronic properties which could influence its photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting activity. In this study, we report a simple and efficient single-step strategy for the fabrication of molybdenum (Mo)-doped WO3 thin films. The characterization results show that doping Mo into WO3 leads to a significant change in the morphology without changing its crystal structure. Elemental mapping and EDS analysis revealed that Mo was homogeneously doped into the crystal lattice of WO3 in the at...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923583/sunlight-and-ultraviolet-radiation-pertinent-retinal-implications-current-management
#3
REVIEW
Tedi Begaj, Shlomit Schaal
Unprotected and prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from sunlight, lasers, and arc welding leads to outer retinal damage. The photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium located in the posterior pole are particularly susceptible to this radiation. Classically known as solar retinopathy, this disorder frequently affects young individuals who have clear lenses and a propensity toward observing solar eclipses. Various imaging techniques aid the clinician in diagnosis, even if patients cannot recall an exposure event...
September 16, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922769/psb33-sustains-photosystem-ii-d1-protein-under-fluctuating-light-conditions
#4
Rikard Fristedt, Andrea Trotta, Marjaana Suorsa, Anders K Nilsson, Roberta Croce, Eva-Mari Aro, Björn Lundin
On Earth, solar irradiance varies as the sun rises and sets over the horizon, and sunlight is thus in constant fluctuation, following a slow dark-low-high-low-dark curve. Optimal plant growth and development are dependent on the capacity of plants to acclimate and regulate photosynthesis in response to these changes of light. Little is known of regulative processes for photosynthesis during nocturnal events. The nucleus-encoded plant lineage-specific protein PSB33 has been described as stabilizing the photosystem II complex, especially under light stress conditions, and plants lacking PSB33 have a dysfunctional state transition...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922020/seasonal-and-weather-variation-of-sleep-and-physical-activity-in-12-14-year-old-children
#5
Mirja Quante, Rui Wang, Jia Weng, Emily R Kaplan, Michael Rueschman, Elsie M Taveras, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Matthew W Gillman, Susan Redline
BACKGROUND: Understanding variation in physical activity (PA) and sleep is necessary to develop novel intervention strategies targeting adolescents' health behaviors. We examined the extent to which PA and sleep vary by aspects of the physical environment. PARTICIPANTS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 669 adolescents in the Project Viva cohort. METHODS: We estimated total PA, sleep duration, sleep efficiency and sleep midpoint timing from wrist accelerometers...
September 18, 2017: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920186/investigation-of-cis-trans-isomer-dependent-dermatotoxicokinetics-of-uv-filter-ethylhexyl-methoxycinnamate-through-stratum-corneum-in-vivo
#6
Anežka Sharma, Katarína Bányiová, Branislav Vrana, Ivan Justan, Pavel Čupr
2-Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) is one of the most used ultraviolet filters in personal care products. It undergoes cis/trans isomerization in sunlight, and there is limited toxicological understanding of the effects of the cis-isomer. It is known that two geometric isomers of one compound can have different physico-chemical properties and effects. However, there are no studies focusing on toxicokinetics of EHMC isomerization products to compare their potential difference in dermal exposure to cis-EHMC and trans-EHMC due to the difference in their dermatotoxicokinetics...
September 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919246/filtered-sunlight-solar-powered-phototherapy-and-other-strategies-for-managing-neonatal-jaundice-in-low-resource-settings
#7
Tina M Slusher, Louise Tina Day, Tolulope Ogundele, Nick Woolfield, Joseph Aderinsola Owa
Challenges in treating severe neonatal jaundice in low and middle-income country settings still exist at many levels. These include: a lack of awareness of causes and prevention by families, communities and even sometimes health care professionals; insufficient, ineffective, high quality affordable diagnostic and therapeutic options; limited availability of rehabilitation provision for kernicterus. Collectively these challenges lead to an unacceptably high global morbidity and mortality from severe neonatal jaundice...
September 15, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918228/primary-photosensitization-and-contact-dermatitis-caused-by-malachra-fasciata-jacq-n-v-malvaceae-in-sheep
#8
Valber Onofre de Araújo, Temístocles Soares Oliveira Neto, Sara Vilar Dantas Simões, Thatyana Kelly Ferreira da Silva, Franklin Riet-Correa, Ricardo Barbosa Lucena
Farmers from Paraiba state, Northeast Brazil, claim that Malachra fasciata causes cutaneous lesions in sheep. To test its toxicity the plant was harvested daily and fed ad libitum for 21 days to 3 sheep as the sole food source (# 1-3). An additional sheep (# 4) was maintained as a control. Cutaneous lesions of photosensitization initiated after 7 days and increased continuously over the next 21 days. The dose ingested varied between 129 g/kg to 175 g/kg. Alopecia, hyperemia and crusting were observed in the animals...
September 14, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917772/disordered-photonics-coupled-with-embedded-nano-au-plasmonics-inducing-efficient-photocurrent-enhancement
#9
Jing Li, Junling Wang, Zhihui Dai, Hongbo Li
Spatial order used to be considered as a benefit for photonics; but recently the study of disorder has broken into people's horizons for its strong random scattering of light. In this work, disordered photonics coupled with plasmonics for efficiently enhanced photocurrent was first investigated using Au-ZnO nanowire array as a model. The embedded Au-ZnO nanowire array was facilely prepared using a template-free electrodeposition method. On the optimal plasmonic substrate, the photocurrent of disorder-enhanced Au-ZnO nanowire array is about 20-fold that of ZnO nanowire array...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915253/persistence-of-marine-fish-environmental-dna-and-the-influence-of-sunlight
#10
Elizabeth A Andruszkiewicz, Lauren M Sassoubre, Alexandria B Boehm
Harnessing information encoded in environmental DNA (eDNA) in marine waters has the potential to revolutionize marine biomonitoring. Whether using organism-specific quantitative PCR assays or metabarcoding in conjunction with amplicon sequencing, scientists have illustrated that realistic organism censuses can be inferred from eDNA. The next step is establishing ways to link information obtained from eDNA analyses to actual organism abundance. This is only possible by understanding the processes that control eDNA concentrations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914322/harnessing-sunlight-without-a-photosensitizer-for-highly-efficient-consecutive-3-2-4-2-annulation-to-synthesize-fused-benzobicyclic-skeletons
#11
Nengneng Zhou, Yixiang Cheng, Jin Xie, Chengjian Zhu
A photosensitizer-free, highly efficient sunlight-promoted tandem [3+2]/[4+2] annulation of unsaturated α-bromocarbonyls with o-alkynylanilines was developed, and allowed for convenient synthesis of fused benzobicyclic skeletons. The reaction was clean and practical in mild conditions and showed excellent functional group compatibility.
September 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912787/effect-of-light-availability-on-the-interaction-between-maritime-pine-and-the-pine-weevil-light-drives-insect-feeding-behavior-but-also-the-defensive-capabilities-of-the-host
#12
Estefanía Suárez-Vidal, Xosé López-Goldar, Luis Sampedro, Rafael Zas
Light is a major environmental factor that may determine the interaction between plants and herbivores in several ways, including top-down effects through changes in herbivore behavior and bottom-up effects mediated by alterations of plant physiology. Here we explored the relative contribution of these two regulation processes to the outcome of the interaction of pine trees with a major forest pest, the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis). We studied to what extent light availability influence insect feeding behavior and/or the ability of pines to produce induced defenses in response to herbivory...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911664/smog-induces-oxidative-stress-and-microbiota-disruption
#13
REVIEW
Tit-Yee Wong
Smog is created through the interactions between pollutants in the air, fog, and sunlight. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, ozone, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic vapors, and particulate matters, can induce oxidative stress in human directly or indirectly through the formation of reactive oxygen species. The outermost boundary of human skin and mucous layers are covered by a complex network of human-associated microbes. The relation between these microbial communities and their human host are mostly mutualistic...
April 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910548/time-of-day-effects-of-exposure-to-solar-radiation-on-thermoregulation-during-outdoor-exercise-in-the-heat
#14
Hidenori Otani, Takayuki Goto, Heita Goto, Minayuki Shirato
High solar radiation has been recognised as a contributing factor to exertional heat-related illness in individuals exercising outdoors in the heat. Although solar radiation intensity has been known to have similar time-of-day variation as body temperature, the relationship between fluctuations in solar radiation associated with diurnal change in the angle of sunlight and thermoregulatory responses in individuals exercising outdoors in a hot environment remains largely unknown. The present study therefore investigated the time-of-day effects of variations in solar radiation associated with changing solar elevation angle on thermoregulatory responses during moderate-intensity outdoor exercise in the heat of summer...
September 14, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910464/unwrapping-a-first-aid-tourniquet-from-its-plastic-wrapper-with-and-without-gloves-worn-a-preliminary-study
#15
John F Kragh, James K Aden, Connor D Lambert, Virgil K Moore, Michael A Dubick
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to gather data about unwrapping a packaged limb tourniquet from its plastic wrapper while wearing different types of gloves. Because already unwrapped tourniquets require no time to unwrap, unwrapping data may provide insights into the issue of having tourniquets unwrapped when stowed in a first aid kit of a Serviceperson at war. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a laboratory setting, 36 tests of nine glove groups were performed in which four people, gloved and ungloved, unwrapped tourniquets...
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904567/intermittent-divergent-squint-in-prematurity-and-its-neurophysiological-aspects
#16
REVIEW
Kalpana Sharma, Praveen Panwar, Kulbhushan Prakash Chaudhary
Intermittent distance exotropia is a deviation characterized by an exophoria at near fixation and manifest exotropia at distance fixation. There is normal binocular fusional vergence and stereoacuity at near fixation, but the eyes tend to diverge in bright sunlight, tiredness, day dreaming and the patient may close one eye in such circumstances. Prematurity is associated with numerous eye pathology, besides retinopathy of prematurity, amblyopia, refractive errors, it is also associated with a higher risk esotropia and exotropia...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904394/ultraviolet-b-light-emitting-diodes-leds-are-more-efficient-and-effective-in-producing-vitamin-d3-in-human-skin-compared-to-natural-sunlight
#17
T A Kalajian, A Aldoukhi, A J Veronikis, K Persons, M F Holick
Vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin is important for health. Those with fat malabsorption disorders malabsorb vitamin D and thus must rely on cutaneous production of vitamin D3. Vitamin D3 is generated secondary to exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation (whether from the sun or from an artificial source). Light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been developed to emit ultraviolet radiation. Little is known about the efficiency of UVB emitting LEDs tuned to different wavelengths for producing vitamin D3 in human skin...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904362/detailed-balance-limit-of-efficiency-of-broadband-pumped-lasers
#18
Sergey Nechayev, Carmel Rotschild
Broadband light sources are a wide class of pumping schemes for lasers including LEDs, sunlight and flash lamps. Recently, efficient coupling of broadband light to high-quality micro-cavities has been demonstrated for on-chip applications and low-threshold solar-pumped lasers via cascade energy transfer. However, the conversion of incoherent to coherent light comes with an inherent price of reduced efficiency, which has yet to be assessed. In this paper, we derive the detailed balance limit of efficiency of broadband-pumped lasers and discuss how it is affected by the need to maintain a threshold population inversion and thermodynamically dictated minimal Stokes' shift...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904097/network-approach-to-patterns-in-stratocumulus-clouds
#19
Franziska Glassmeier, Graham Feingold
Stratocumulus clouds (Sc) have a significant impact on the amount of sunlight reflected back to space, with important implications for Earth's climate. Representing Sc and their radiative impact is one of the largest challenges for global climate models. Sc fields self-organize into cellular patterns and thus lend themselves to analysis and quantification in terms of natural cellular networks. Based on large-eddy simulations of Sc fields, we present a first analysis of the geometric structure and self-organization of Sc patterns from this network perspective...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903555/aldehyde-and-ketone-photoproducts-from-solar-irradiated-crude-oil-seawater-systems-determined-by-esi-ms-ms
#20
Xian Cao, Matthew A Tarr
Aldehyde and ketone photoproducts were observed in the aqueous phase under oil exposed to simulated sunlight by using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatization and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Oil samples were spread over seawater in a jacketed beaker held at 27.0 °C and exposed to simulated sunlight. The aq. phase was collected after irradiation and derivatized with DNPH, which selectively reacts with aldehydes and ketones. The derivatized hydrazones (aldehyde/ketone-DNPH derivatives) were washed and enriched with a solid phase extraction cartridge prior to analysis by ESI-MS/MS in negative ion mode...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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