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Soyoung Kim, Ki Hwan Choi, Jaesuk Yun
Many chemicals have been reported to induce phototoxicity. The absorbance of light energy within the sunlight range is a common characteristic of phototoxicity. The 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test (PT) in 3T3 mouse skin fibroblasts has been used to identify the phototoxic potential induced by excited chemicals after exposure to ultra violet (UV). However, as phototoxicity may occur in ocular cells, it is necessary to develop a more suitable test for cornea-derived cells. In this study, we attempted to establish a new in vitro PT method in rabbit corneal cell lines (SIRC)...
2018: PloS One
Akihide Iwase, Kazutaka Ii, Akihiko Kudo
Metal sulfides are an excellent material group for highly efficient water reduction to H2. We demonstrate the uphill reaction using a single-particulate metal sulfide photocatalyst. A Ru cocatalyst-loaded ZnS photocatalyst showed an activity for the decomposition of an aqueous solution into H2 and N2 under simulated sunlight irradiation.
May 21, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Hongying Zhu, Ning Wang, Lei Yao, Qi Chen, Ran Zhang, Junchao Qian, Yiwen Hou, Weiwei Guo, Sijia Fan, Siling Liu, Qiaoyun Zhao, Feng Du, Xin Zuo, Yujun Guo, Yan Xu, Jiali Li, Tian Xue, Kai Zhong, Xiaoyuan Song, Guangming Huang, Wei Xiong
Sunlight exposure is known to affect mood, learning, and cognition. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that moderate UV exposure elevated blood urocanic acid (UCA), which then crossed the blood-brain barrier. Single-cell mass spectrometry and isotopic labeling revealed a novel intra-neuronal metabolic pathway converting UCA to glutamate (GLU) after UV exposure. This UV-triggered GLU synthesis promoted its packaging into synaptic vesicles and its release at glutamatergic terminals in the motor cortex and hippocampus...
May 7, 2018: Cell
Roman Podolec, Roman Ulm
Plants have evolved specific photoreceptors that capture informational cues from sunlight. The phytochrome, cryptochrome, and UVR8 photoreceptors perceive red/far-red, blue/UV-A, and UV-B light, respectively, and control overlapping photomorphogenic responses important for plant growth and development. A major repressor of such photomorphogenic responses is the E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) and SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (SPA) proteins, which acts by regulating the stability of photomorphogenesis-promoting transcription factors...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Huanhuan Jiang, Myoseon Jang
The atmospheric process dynamically changes the chemical compositions of organic aerosol (OA), thereby complicating the interpretation of its health effects. In this study, the dynamic evolution of the oxidative potential of various OA was studied, including wood combustion particles and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) generated from different hydrocarbons (i.e. gasoline, toluene, isoprene and α-pinene). The oxidative potential of OA at different aging stages was subsequently measured by the dithiothreitol consumption (DTTm, mass normalized)...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Xiong Ding, Pengfei Wang
We have demonstrated that the 3-diethylaminobenzyl (DEABn) photolabile protecting group (PPG) is an effective and structurally simple PPG for releasing molecules in aqueous environment. In general, the photoreaction is clean, and the released substrate and the PPG product, i.e., 3-diethylaminobenzyl alcohol, are obtained in high yield. The clean photoreaction can also be achieved under mild ambient conditions with sunlight while the reactant is stable under indoor lighting. Release of two substrates from one PPG chromophore in aqueous solution has been demonstrated to be feasible...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Meredith C Schuman, Ian T Baldwin
Plants are at the trophic base of most ecosystems, embedded in a rich network of ecological interactions in which they evolved. While their limited range and speed of motion precludes animal-typical behavior, plants are accomplished chemists, producing thousands of specialized metabolites which may function to convey information, or even to manipulate the physiology of other organisms. Plants' complex interactions and their underlying mechanisms are typically dissected within the controlled environments of growth chambers and glasshouses, but doing so introduces conditions alien to plants evolved in natural environments, such as being pot-bound, and receiving artificial light with a spectrum very different from sunlight...
May 17, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Stephanie Krauß, Vanessa Darwisch, Walter Vetter
Tocopheryl fatty acid esters (TFAE) consist of tocopherols esterified to fatty acids, but only little is known about this substance class. In this study, twelve vegetable groups were screened on TFAE and contents of (free) tocopherols and TFAE were determined in red bell pepper, red chili pepper, cucumber and walnut (n = 5, respectively). Intact TFAE were separated by solid phase extraction from free tocopherols and analyzed by GC/MS. Highest TFAE values were determined in chili pepper (4.0-16 mg/100 g fresh weight, FW) and walnut (4...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kuppulingam Thirumalai, Manohar Shanthi, Meenakshisundaram Swaminathan
In this article we report preparation of 5 wt% HoVO4 doped ZnO via template-free hydrothermal process and investigated its photocatalytic activity against azo dyes Rhodamine-B (Rh-B), Trypan Blue (TB) and Acid Black 1 (AB 1) in solar light irradiation. The as prepared HoVO4 doped ZnO was characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Field emission Transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Diffused reflectance (DRS) and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Rama Gaur, P Jeevanandam
The present study reports the synthesis of SnS2 nanoparticles with different morphologies via a facile thermal decomposition approach. The SnS2 nanoparticles were synthesized using tin chloride and thiourea (or thioacetamide) in two different solvents (diphenyl ether and 1-octadecene). The SnS2 nanoparticles were extensively characterized using different analytical techniques. The crystallite size of SnS2 varies from 6.1 nm to 19.0 nm. Electron microscopy studies indicate that the SnS2 samples consist of flakes which assemble into different hierarchical structures such as ball dahlia, peony dahlia-like nanoflowers, nanoyarns and linear structures under different synthetic conditions...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Marioly Vernhes Tamayo, André Passaglia Schuch, Teiti Yagura, Luis Baly Gil, Carlos Frederico Martins Menck, Angel Sánchez-Lamar
One approach to protect the human skin against harmful effects of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is to use natural products as photoprotectors. In this work, the extract from specie Phyllanthus orbicularis K was evaluated as a protective agent against the photodamage by UVB, UVA artificial lamps and environmental sunlight exposure. The plasmid DNA solutions were exposed to radiations using the DNA-dosimeter system in presence of plant extract. The DNA repair enzymes, E. coli Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and T4 bacteriophage endonuclease V (T4-endo V), were employed to discriminate oxidized DNA damage and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) respectively...
May 16, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Kátia Regina Groch, Josué Díaz-Delgado, Milton C C Marcondes, Adriana Castaldo Colosio, Elitieri B Santos-Neto, Vítor Luz Carvalho, Gisele Silva Boos, Ana Carolina Oliveira de Meirelles, Hernani Gomes da Cunha Ramos, Juliana Plácido Guimarães, João Carlos Gomes Borges, Jociery Einhardt Vergara-Parente, Judy A St Leger, Antonio Fernández, José Luiz Catão-Dias
This study describes the pathologic findings of 24 humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) found stranded along the Brazilian coast from 2004 to 2016. Eighteen (75%) animals evaluated were found stranded alive. From these, 13 died naturally on shore and five were euthanized. Six died at sea and were washed ashore. Of the 24, 19 (79.2%) were calves, four (16.7%) were juveniles, and one (4.2%) was an adult. The most probable cause of stranding and/or death (CSD) was determined in 23/24 (95.8%) individuals. In calves, CSD included neonatal respiratory distress (13/19; 68...
2018: PloS One
Xiaojie Song, Xianyang Shi, Mi Yang
Biosynthesised nanocomposites have attracted growing interests attributed to their 'green' synthesis nature in recent years. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium, was used to reduce palladium (II) nitrate to palladium (0) nanoparticles (Pd NPs) under anaerobic conditions, resulting in the in situ formation of Pd NPs immobilised on TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) (Pd/TNTs nanocomposites). The Pd/TNTs nanocomposites were characterised by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and electron spin resonance, respectively...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Christopher P Muzzillo, W Ellis Klein, Zhen Li, Alexander Daniel DeAngelis, Kimberly Horsley, Kai Zhu, Nicolas Gaillard
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting is an elegant method of converting sunlight and water into H2 fuel. To be commercially advantageous, PEC devices must become cheaper, more efficient and much more durable. This work examines low-cost polycrystalline chalcopyrite films, which are successful as photovoltaic absorbers, for application as PEC absorbers. In particular, Cu-Ga-Se films with wide band gaps can be employed as top cell photocathodes in tandem devices as a realistic route to high efficiencies...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sakuya Nakamura, Masanori Izumi
Light energy is essential for photosynthetic energy production and plant growth. Chloroplasts in green tissues convert energy from sunlight into chemical energy via the electron transport chain. When the level of light energy exceeds the capacity of the photosynthetic apparatus, chloroplasts undergo a process known as photoinhibition. Since photoinhibition leads to the overaccumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the spreading of cell death, plants have developed multiple systems to protect chloroplasts from strong light...
May 14, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Sumin Cho, Changui Ahn, Junyong Park, Seokwoo Jeon
Considering the environmental issues, it is essential to develop highly efficient and recyclable photocatalysts in purification systems. Conventional TiO2 nanoparticles have strong intrinsic oxidizing power and high surface area, but are difficult to collect after use and rarely absorb visible light, resulting in low photocatalytic efficiency under sunlight. Here we develop a new type of highly efficient and recyclable photocatalyst made of a three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured N-doped TiO2 monolith with enhanced visible light absorption...
May 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Wondimagegn Paulos Kumma, Yusuf Haji, Junayde Abdurahmen, Yohannes Mehretie Adinew
Background: Universal use of iodized salt is a simple and inexpensive method to prevent and eliminate iodine deficiency disorders like mental retardation. However, little is known about the level of adequately iodized salt consumption in the study area. Therefore, the study was aimed at assessing the proportion of households having adequately iodized salt and associated factors in Wolaita Sodo town and its peripheries, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from May 10 to 20, 2016, in 441 households in Sodo town and its peripheries...
2018: International Journal of Food Science
Sri Kasi Matta, Chunmei Zhang, Yalong Jiao, Anthony O'Mullane, Aijun Du
The properties of bulk compounds required to be suitable for photovoltaic applications, such as excellent visible light absorption, favorable exciton formation, and charge separation are equally essential for two-dimensional (2D) materials. Here, we systematically study 2D group IV-V compounds such as SiAs2 and GeAs2 with regard to their structural, electronic and optical properties using density functional theory (DFT), hybrid functional and Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) approaches. We find that the exfoliation of single-layer SiAs2 and GeAs2 is highly feasible and in principle could be carried out experimentally by mechanical cleavage due to the dynamic stability of the compounds, which is inferred by analyzing their vibrational normal mode...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Ioannis Deretzis, Emanuele Smecca, Giovanni Mannino, Antonino La Magna, Tsutomu Miyasaka, Alessandra Alberti
Methylammonium lead iodide (CH3 NH3 PbI3 ) is an extensively used perovskite material with a remarkable potential for solar energy conversion. Despite its high photovoltaic efficiency, the material suffers from fast degradation when aging in atmospheric conditions and/or under sunlight. Here we review the principal degradation mechanisms of CH3 NH3 PbI3 , focusing on the thermodynamic, environmental and polymorphic parameters that impact on the stability of the material. A critical analysis of the available data indicates that degradation under ambient conditions is a defect-generation process that is highly localized on surfaces and interfaces, while it is further enhanced above the tetragonal-cubic transition at ∼54 °C...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Paul Brumer
Light-induced processes that occur in nature, such as photosynthesis and photoisomerization in the first steps in vision, are often studied in the laboratory using coherent pulsed laser sources, which induce time-dependent coherent wavepacket molecule dynamics. Nature, however, uses stationary incoherent thermal radiation, such as sunlight, leading to a totally different molecular response, the time-independent steady state. It is vital to appreciate this difference in order to assess the role of quantum coherence effects in biological systems...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
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