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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167939/transgenic-eimeria-magna-p%C3%A3-rard-1925-displays-similar-parasitological-properties-to-the-wild-type-strain-and-induces-an-exogenous-protein-specific-immune-response-in-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus-l
#1
Geru Tao, Tuanyuan Shi, Xinming Tang, Donald W Duszynski, Yunzhou Wang, Chao Li, Jingxia Suo, Xiuling Tian, Xianyong Liu, Xun Suo
Rabbit coccidiosis causes great economic losses to world rabbitries. Little work has been done considering genetic manipulation on the etiological agents, rabbit Eimeria spp. In this study, we constructed a transgenic line of Eimeria magna (EmagER) expressing enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) using regulatory sequences of Eimeria tenella and Toxoplasma gondii. We observed the life cycle of EmagER and confirmed that the transgenic parasites express exogenous proteins targeted to different cellular compartments throughout the entire life cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160250/thiopurines-and-methotrexate-use-in-ibd-patients-in-a-biologic-era
#2
REVIEW
Gerassimos J Mantzaris
Although we have been living in the era of biologic therapy for several decades, the use of immunomodulators (primarily thiopurines [azathioprine and mercaptopurine] and less so methotrexate) still remains an important component of the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pharmaceutical arsenal. Thiopurines as monotherapy exert corticosteroid-sparing effects and can maintain long-term remission in a considerable proportion of patients who have frequent relapses and are or have become mesalazine and/or corticosteroid intolerant or refractory...
February 3, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147380/promises-and-dangers-of-combination-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Wolfgang Kruis, Phuong G Nguyen, Julia Morgenstern
The efficiency of the existing methods of treating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is limited. There are 2 ways to address this problem - either create new treatment modalities or optimize current therapies. Optimisation may be accomplished by using combinations of established therapeutic strategies. With regard to topically acting compounds such as 5-aminosalicylic acid, combining oral and rectal preparations is a commonly used method. Another commonly used combination is anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody modalities together with immunosuppressants (thiopurines, methotrexate)...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130912/effects-on-human-heart-valve-immunogenicity-in-vitro-by-high-concentration-cryoprotectant-treatment
#4
Benjamin A Högerle, Maria Schneider, Katrin Sudrow, Naima Souidi, Meaghan Stolk, Isabella Werner, Anna Biermann, Kelvin G M Brockbank, Ulrich A Stock, Martina Seifert
Previously it was shown that cryopreservation using an ice-free cryopreservation method with the cryoprotectant formulation VS83 beneficially modulated immune reactions in vivo and in vitro when compared with conventionally frozen tissues. In this study, we assessed the impact of a VS83 post-treatment of previously conventionally frozen human tissue on responses of human immune cells in vitro. Tissue punches of treated and non-treated (control) aortic heart valve tissue (leaflets and associated aortic root) were co-cultured for 7 days with peripheral blood mononuclear cells or enriched CD14(+) monocytes...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122644/mtb-specific-lymphocyte-responses-are-impaired-in-tuberculosis-patients-with-pulmonary-cavities
#5
Jun Wang, Yaping Dai, Jun Liu, Yongmei Yin, Hao Pei
OBJECTIVE: Tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is a global health problem. Because the failing immune response in the lung can lead to formation of a pulmonary cavity, this study was designed to clarify MTB-specific lymphocyte responses in TB patients with pulmonary cavities. METHODS: We utilized culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) and early secretory antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6) as immunogenic MTB antigens following overnight stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)...
January 26, 2017: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110884/tumor-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cells-are-negatively-regulated-by-pd-1-and-tim-3-in-human-gastric-cancer
#6
Xu Lu, Lin Yang, Daxing Yao, Xuan Wu, Jingpo Li, Xuesong Liu, Lijuan Deng, Caiting Huang, Yue Wang, Dan Li, Jingwei Liu
Cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes that are present in tumors and capable of recognizing tumor epitopes are nevertheless generally important in eliciting tumor rejection. NY-ESO-1 is a major target of CD8(+) T cell recognition in gastric cancer (GC) and is among the most immunogenic tumor antigens defined to date. Thus, identifying the immune escape mechanisms responsible for inducing tumor-specific CD8(+) T cell dysfunction may reveal effective strategies for immunotherapy. In an effort to understand in vivo tolerance mechanisms, we assessed the phenotype and function of NY-ESO-1-specific CD8(+) T cells derived from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and tumor-associated lymphocytes (TALs) of GC patients...
January 5, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095262/biosimilars-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-accumulating-clinical-evidence
#7
Sean McConachie, Sheila M Wilhelm, Pramodini B Kale-Pradhan
Biologic antagonists to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α) are effective medications and have become well established in the treatment of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Biosimilar medications, which are medications deemed to be equivalent to reference biologic products in terms of clinical effectiveness, safety, pharmacokinetic analysis, and immunogenicity, have now been approved in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) based on indication exploration from clinical data in alternate disease states...
January 29, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035633/infliximab-biosimilars-in-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Massimo Radin, Savino Sciascia, Dario Roccatello, Maria Jose Cuadrado
BACKGROUND: Biological therapies represent a fundamental innovation for the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, many biological originators have reached, or are about to reach, patent expiry and long-term therapy costs have become progressively unsustainable. CT-P13, a biosimilar of the anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) monoclonal antibody infliximab, might represent a significant alternative to its originator, with the potential to decrease medical care costs and, therefore, become available to a large number of patients...
February 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028358/thiopurines-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-current-evidence-and-a-historical-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Jordan E Axelrad, Abhik Roy, Garrett Lawlor, Burton Korelitz, Simon Lichtiger
The use of thiopurines in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been examined in numerous prospective, controlled trials, with a majority demonstrating a clinical benefit. We conducted this review to describe the historical and current evidence in the use of thiopurines in IBD. A systematic search was performed on MEDLINE between 1965 and 2016 to identify studies on thiopurines in IBD. The most robust evidence for thiopurines in IBD includes induction of remission in combination with anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents, and maintenance of remission and post-operative maintenance in Crohn's disease...
December 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992577/tolerogenic-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-control-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-infection-by-inducting-regulatory-t-cells-in-an-ido-dependent-manner
#10
Eliseu Frank de Araújo, Daniella Helena Medeiros, Nayane Alves de Lima Galdino, Antônio Condino-Neto, Vera Lúcia Garcia Calich, Flávio Vieira Loures
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), considered critical for immunity against viruses, were recently associated with defense mechanisms against fungal infections. However, the immunomodulatory function of pDCs in pulmonary paracoccidiodomycosis (PCM), an endemic fungal infection of Latin America, has been poorly defined. Here, we investigated the role of pDCs in the pathogenesis of PCM caused by the infection of 129Sv mice with 1 x 106 P. brasiliensis-yeasts. In vitro experiments showed that P. brasiliensis infection induces the maturation of pDCs and elevated synthesis of TNF-α and IFN-β...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981613/induction-of-multiple-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-responses-in-mice-by-a-multiepitope-dna-vaccine-against-dengue-virus-serotype-1
#11
Xin Yu Chen, De Zhou Li, Xiao Zhi Zhong, Bokun Chen, Zhi Liang Duan, Jin Sheng Wen
Dengue virus (DENV) is still the major threat to the health of humans in most tropical and subtropical countries and regions. In the present study, based on the eukaryotic expressing plasmid pcDNA(TM) 3.1/myc-His(-) A, we constructed a multiepitope DNA vaccine which encodes fifteen immunogenic and conserved HLA-A*0201-, HLA-A*1101-, HLA-A*2402-restricted CTL epitopes from DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1). Immunization of HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice, HLA-A*1101 transgenic mice and HLA-A*2402 transgenic mice with the recombinant plasmid pcDNA(TM) 3...
December 16, 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959341/a-novel-pd-l1-targeting-antagonistic-dna-aptamer-with-antitumor-effects
#12
Wei-Yun Lai, Bo-Tsang Huang, Jen-Wei Wang, Pei-Ying Lin, Pan-Chyr Yang
The PD-1/PD-L1 axis is a major pathway involved in tumor immune evasion. Here, we report the novel PD-L1 antagonizing DNA aptamer (aptPD-L1) and demonstrate an integrated pipeline that expedites therapeutic aptamer development. Aptamer can exert antibody-mimic functions and is advantageous over antibody for its chemically synthetic nature, low immunogenicity, and efficient tissue penetration. Our results showed that aptPD-L1 blocked the binding between human PD-1 and PD-L1. Experiments using murine models showed that aptPD-L1 promoted in vitro lymphocyte proliferation and suppressed in vivo tumor growth without the induction of observable liver or renal toxicity...
December 13, 2016: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929748/evaluation-of-inflammatory-and-immune-responses-in-long-term-cultured-human-precision-cut-lung-slices
#13
Angela Temann, Tatiana Golovina, Vanessa Neuhaus, Carolann Thompson, Jessica A Chichester, Armin Braun, Vidadi Yusibov
The development of systems that are more accurate and time-efficient in predicting safety and efficacy of target products in humans are critically important in reducing the cost and duration of pharmaceutical development. To circumvent some of the limitations imposed by the use of animal models, ex vivo systems, such as precision-cut lung slices (PCLS), have been proposed as an alternative for evaluating safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines and pharmaceuticals. In this study, we have established a human PCLS system and methodology for PCLS cultivation that can provide long-term viability and functionality in culture...
February 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924646/influence-of-anti-tnf-immunogenicity-on-safety-in-rheumatic-disease-a-narrative-review
#14
Andrea Matucci, Daniele Cammelli, Fabrizio Cantini, Delia Goletti, Valentina Marino, Giuseppe Maria Milano, Raffaele Scarpa, Giuliano Tocci, Enrico Maggi, Alessandra Vultaggio
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) antagonists have been shown to be effective in the treatment of chronic inflammatory rheumatic conditions. The use of anti-TNF agents, combined with improved diagnosis, aggressive regimens and regular monitoring, have substantially improved patient outcomes. However, all biological agents are immunogenic, resulting in the formation of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs), which can neutralize drug activity leading to loss of response and potential relapse. In addition, ADAs can also cause serious adverse events such as infusion hypersensitivity reactions...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921220/increased-cell-free-mitochondrial-dna-is-a-marker-of-ongoing-inflammation-and-better-neurocognitive-function-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-individuals
#15
Josué Pérez-Santiago, Michelli F De Oliveira, Susanna R Var, Tyler R C Day, Steven P Woods, Sara Gianella, Sanjay R Mehta
Cell-free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a highly immunogenic molecule that is associated with several inflammatory conditions and with neurocognitive impairment during untreated HIV infection. Here, we investigate how cell-free mtDNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with inflammation, neuronal damage, and neurocognitive functioning in the context of long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We quantified the levels of cell-free mtDNA in the CSF from 41 HIV-infected individuals with completely suppressed HIV RNA levels in blood plasma (<50 copies/mL) by droplet digital PCR...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918020/effects-of-ovalbumin-protein-nanoparticle-vaccine-size-and-coating-on-dendritic-cell-processing
#16
Timothy Z Chang, Samantha S Stadmiller, Erika Staskevicius, Julie A Champion
Nanoparticle vaccine delivery platforms are a promising technology for enhancing vaccine immunogenicity. Protein nanoparticles (PNPs), made entirely from antigen, have been shown to induce protective immune responses against influenza. However, the fundamental mechanisms by which PNPs enhance component protein immunogenicity are not understood. Here, we investigate the role of size and coating of model ovalbumin (OVA) PNPs on particle uptake and trafficking, as well as on inflammation and maturation factor expression in dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro...
January 31, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917620/normothermic-ex-vivo-lung-perfusion-in-brain-dead-donors-reduces-inflammatory-cytokines-and-toll-like-receptor-expression
#17
Shadi Shafaghi, Esmaeil Mortaz, Azizollah Abbasi Dezfuli, Hoda Godarzi, Kambiz Sheikhy, Zahra Ansari Aval, Behrooz Farzanegan, Habib Emami, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini-Baharanchi, Katayoun Najafizadeh
Inflammatory responses and innate immunologic reactions play an important role in the respiratory system. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is considered a novel method in the evaluation and reconditioning of donor lungs prior to transplantation. However, EVLP's effect on inflammatory and metabolic markers of human lung tissue is unknown.  This study investigated how the performance of EVLP on brain-dead (BD) donor lungs affects the production and release of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-a), inflammatory cells and toll-like receptors (TLR) -2, 4...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908311/obesity-decreases-clinical-efficacy-and-levels-of-adalimumab-in-patients-with-ankylosing-spondylitis
#18
José Rosas, Francisca Llinares-Tello, José Miguel Senabre-Gallego, Xavier Barber-Vallés, Gregorio Santos-Soler, Esteban Salas-Heredia, Ana Pons Bas, Catalina Cano Pérez, Mario García-Carrasco
OBJECTIVES: Obesity can be a factor that affects response to anti-TNF drugs. However, studies on patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are rare. We aimed to determine whether obesity affects serum levels of adalimumab (ADL), and immunogenicity and clinical efficacy of the drug in patients with AS. METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 57 patients with axial AS receiving ADL was conducted. They received DMARD per standard of care at their rheumatologist's discretion...
January 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890936/increased-proportion-of-mature-nk-cells-is-associated-with-successful-imatinib-discontinuation-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#19
M Ilander, U Olsson-Strömberg, H Schlums, J Guilhot, O Brück, H Lähteenmäki, T Kasanen, P Koskenvesa, S Söderlund, M Höglund, B Markevärn, A Själander, K Lotfi, A Dreimane, A Lübking, E Holm, M Björeman, S Lehmann, L Stenke, L Ohm, T Gedde-Dahl, W Majeed, H Ehrencrona, S Koskela, S Saussele, F-X Mahon, K Porkka, H Hjorth-Hansen, Y T Bryceson, J Richter, S Mustjoki
Recent studies suggest that a proportion of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients in deep molecular remission can discontinue the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment without disease relapse. In this multi-center, prospective clinical trial (EURO-SKI, NCT01596114) we analyzed the function and phenotype of T and NK cells and their relation to successful TKI cessation. Lymphocyte subclasses were measured from 100 imatinib-treated patients at baseline and 1 month after the discontinuation, and functional characterization of NK and T cells was done from 45 patients...
December 16, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866772/h1-ic31-vaccination-is-safe-and-induces-long-lived-tnf-%C3%AE-il-2-cd4-t-cell-responses-in-m-tuberculosis-infected-and-uninfected-adolescents-a-randomized-trial
#20
Helen Mearns, Hennie D Geldenhuys, Benjamin M Kagina, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Francesca Little, Frances Ratangee, Hassan Mahomed, Willem A Hanekom, Søren T Hoff, Morten Ruhwald, Ingrid Kromann, Peter Bang, Mark Hatherill, Peter Andersen, Thomas J Scriba
BACKGROUND: Control of the tuberculosis epidemic requires a novel vaccine that is effective in preventing tuberculosis in adolescents, a key target population for vaccination against TB. METHODS: Healthy adolescents, stratified by M. tuberculosis-infection status, were enrolled into this observer-blinded phase II clinical trial of the protein-subunit vaccine candidate, H1:IC31, comprising a fusion protein (H1) of Ag85B and ESAT-6, formulated with the IC31 adjuvant...
January 3, 2017: Vaccine
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