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John Mills, Kylie Marree Horváth, Gale Brightwell
"Blown pack" spoilage is primarily caused by Clostridium estertheticum. The primary source of contamination is probably pelts, faeces and soil during opening cuts and de-hiding. Peroxyacetic acid (POAA) based fogs are commonly included in an abattoir's routine cleaning process. Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is a powerful oxidizing agent that penetrates microbe cell walls causing cell death. In this study, we compared the ability of H2 O2 and OXYSAN ZS (POAA containing 1-hydroxyethylidine-1,1-diphosphonic acid as a stabilizer) in different formats to inactivate C...
April 23, 2018: Meat Science
Gale Brightwell, Kylie Marree Horváth
ARDRA analysis was carried out on 90 New Zealand psychrotolerant Clostridium isolates derived from three meat production animal types and their environments. The isolates included species associated with spoilage: C. gasigenes, C. algidicarnis, C. tagluense, C. frigidicarnis and C. estertheticum. The isolates fell into 14 distinct ARDRA Groups, with 13 previously characterised meat spoilage-associated isolates shared between 6 of the 14 groups. The accuracy of ARDRA profiling analysis was supported by sequencing the 16s rRNA gene from isolates, including the representative spoilage associated Clostridium species and was consistent with previous phylogenetic relationships and classical cultural characterisation...
April 2018: Meat Science
Rachael Reid, Declan Bolton, Andrey A Tiuftin, Joe P Kerry, Séamus Fanning, Paul Whyte
Active (anti-microbial) packaging was prepared using three different formulations; Auranta FV; Inbac-MDA and sodium octanoate at two concentrations (2.5 and 3.5 times their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, the lowest concentration that will inhibit the visible growth of the organisms) against Clostridium estertheticum, DSMZ 8809). Inoculated beef samples were packaged using the active packaging and monitored for 100 days storage at 2 °C for blown pack spoilage. The time to the onset of blown pack spoilage was significantly (p < 0...
August 12, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Rachael Reid, Catherine M Burgess, Evonne McCabe, Séamus Fanning, Paul Whyte, Joe Kerry, Declan Bolton
A set of real-time PCR methods for the detection of C. estertheticum, C. gasigenes and C. ruminantium, the causative agents of blown pack spoilage (BPS) in vacuum packaged beef, was developed. Robust validation of the sensitivity and specificity was carried out in the three matrices (beef meat drip, wet environmental swabs and dry environmental swabs) as encountered in our testing laboratory and against Clostridium strains (n=76) and non-Clostridium strains (n=36). It was possible to detect 4-5 spores per ml for C...
June 3, 2017: Meat Science
R Reid, S Fanning, P Whyte, J Kerry, D Bolton
The aim of this study was to investigate if rapid slurry chilling would retard or prevent blown pack spoilage (BPS) of vacuum-packaged beef primals. Beef primals were inoculated with Clostridium estertheticum subspp. estertheticum (DSMZ 8809), C. estertheticum subspp. laramenise (DSMZ 14864) and C. gasigenes (DSMZ 12272), and vacuum-packaged with and without heat shrinkage (90°C for 3 s). These packs were then subjected to immediate chilling in an ice slurry or using conventional blast chilling systems and stored at 2°C for up to 100 days...
February 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Zhongyi Yu, Lynda Gunn, Evan Brennan, Rachael Reid, Patrick G Wall, Peadar Ó Gaora, Daniel Hurley, Declan Bolton, Séamus Fanning
Blown pack spoilage (BPS) is a major issue for the beef industry. Etiological agents of BPS involve members of a group of Clostridium species, including Clostridium estertheticum which has the ability to produce gas, mostly carbon dioxide, under anaerobic psychotrophic growth conditions. This spore-forming bacterium grows slowly under laboratory conditions, and it can take up to 3 months to produce a workable culture. These characteristics have limited the study of this commercially challenging bacterium. Consequently information on this bacterium is limited and no effective controls are currently available to confidently detect and manage this production risk...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xianqin Yang, Mohamed K Youssef, Colin O Gill, Madhu Badoni, Óscar López-Campos
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of meat pH on the abilities of 11 psychrotolerant Clostridium spp. to grow on, and to possibly cause blown pack spoilage of vacuum packaged beef. Beef steaks of pH 5.4-5.6, 5.7-5.9 or ≥6.0, i.e. of normal, intermediate or high pH were prepared and vacuum packaged. Groups of 3 steaks of the same pH range were inoculated with log phase cultures of Clostridium algoriphilum, Clostridium algidixylanolyticum, Clostridium bowmanii, Clostridium estertheticum, Clostridium frigoris, Clostridium frigidicarnis, Clostridium gasigenes, Clostridium lacusfryxellense, Clostridium psychrophilum, Clostridium tagluense or Clostridium vincentii...
May 2014: Food Microbiology
Katharine H Adam, Steve H Flint, Gale Brightwell
Methods for the reduction of spoilage, of lamb, by psychrotolerant clostridia were investigated including exposure to air, hot and cold water spray washing and tyndallisation. Initially vegetative cells of psychrotolerant clostridia associated with spoilage of chilled vacuum-packed meat were exposed to aerobic cooked meat medium at room temperature (21 °C) to determine how long they remained viable. Survival of strains varied from 2h to 3 days. Vegetative cells of Clostridium estertheticum subsp. estertheticum survived 7 days at 10 °C with little reduction in viable numbers...
February 2013: Meat Science
Gale Brightwell, Robyn Clemens
A new real-time PCR assay was developed targeted to the psychrotolerant spoilage bacteria, Clostridum estertheticum, a causative agent of 'blown-pack' spoilage of vacuum packaged meats during chilled storage. Further, a robust validation of the sensitivity and specificity in different meat processing related matrices was carried out. Results show that real-time PCR is a valid method for the detection of C. estertheticum spores as long as consideration is given to the matrix being tested and the sensitivity of detection required...
December 2012: Meat Science
Laura Cavill, Ana L Renteria-Monterrubio, Christopher R Helps, Janet E L Corry
Samples from raw chill-stored vacuum-packed beef, lamb and venison or the meat processing environment, associated with a spoilage problem, but negative for Clostridium estertheticum using a specific real-time PCR test, were examined for other Clostridium spp. using direct 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Of 291 samples tested by PCR, presence of clostridia was indicated in 123 and there was sufficient PCR product in 35 to be further investigated. Presence of Clostridium spp. was confirmed by RFLP and sequencing in 25/35 samples (11 of 14 incidents)...
August 2011: Food Microbiology
G Moschonas, D J Bolton, D A McDowell, J J Sheridan
This study identified 431 psychrophilic or psychrotrophic isolates from commercial Irish beef abattoir environments and "blown packs" of vacuum-packed beef, using PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing, and estimated their intraspecies genetic diversity using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and spacer region PCR (SR-PCR). Twenty-five species were identified in the 431 isolates, with the most frequently recovered species being Clostridium gasigenes (n=315), Clostridium estertheticum (n=17), and a potentially novel species designated strain TC1 (n=52)...
July 2011: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
X Yang, S Balamurugan, C O Gill
Beef steaks were inoculated with Clostridium estertheticum spores and Leuconostoc mesenteroides cells at all combinations of numbers of 0, 10, 100 or 1000/cm(2) for each organism. After vacuum packaging the steaks were stored at 4, 1, or -1.5°C. Pack volumes were determined by water displacement at suitable intervals. Irrespective of L. mesenteroides numbers, for packs containing meat inoculated with 0, 10, 100 or 1000 spores/cm(2), 60, 16, 3 and 1 of 60 packs did not swell. The times of onset of swelling were twice as long at -1...
July 2011: Meat Science
Xianqin Yang, Colin O Gill, Sampathkumar Balamurugan
The type strains of Clostridium estertheticum subsp. laramiense and C. estertheticum subsp. estertheticum both utilized glucose and glycogen when growing in meat juice medium and fermented lactate, but ceased growth when glucose was exhausted. The fermentation products from glucose were butyrate, acetate, and formate; those from lactate were 1-butanol, ethanol, butyrate, and formate. Both organisms utilized several amino acids (not containing sulfur) during their cultivation in meat juice medium and did not produce H(2)S...
July 2010: Journal of Food Protection
R M Clemens, K H Adam, G Brightwell
AIMS: To determine the contamination levels of Cl. estertheticum spores that result in gaseous spoilage of vacuum-packaged chilled meats, beef and lamb, stored at two different temperatures, -1.5 and 2 degrees C. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study consisted of two separate trials using the same processing parameters applied to beef and lamb at two different storage temperatures and six different inoculation concentrations of Cl. estertheticum. A threshold for pack blowing of c...
June 1, 2010: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Xianqin Yang, Colin O Gill, Sampathkumar Balamurugan
Bacteria recovered from the microflora of blown packs of vacuum-packaged beef were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, and Clostridium estertheticum, with L. mesenteroides predominant. Isolates of these lactic acid bacteria all grew in peptone yeast extract glucose starch broth (PYGSB) at temperatures between -2 and 30 degrees C but generally grew more slowly and over a more restricted temperature range in meat juice medium (MJM). A C. estertheticum isolate and the type strain of C...
November 2009: Journal of Food Protection
Rhys J Jones, Monique Zagorec, Gale Brightwell, John R Tagg
The abilities of five Lactobacillus sakei strains and one Lactococcus lactis strain to retain inhibitory activity against several target organisms in the flora of product during 12 weeks storage of vacuum-packaged lamb and beef was investigated. L. sakei strains were generally found capable of developing dominant populations on both beef and lamb. L. lactis 75 grew poorly on lamb did not inhibit co-inoculated Brochothrix thermosphacta. Lamb inoculated with the Sakacin-A producer L. sakei Lb706 had lower Listeria monocytogenes populations than lamb inoculated with a bacteriocin-negative variant...
December 2009: Food Microbiology
G Moschonas, D J Bolton, J J Sheridan, D A McDowell
AIMS: To examine the effect of storage temperature and inoculum level on the time of onset of 'blown pack' spoilage (BPS) caused by psychrotolerant bacteria in vacuum-packed (VP) meats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Gas-producing species and strains (n = 11), recovered in our laboratory or reported as associated with BPS, were inoculated onto beef or lamb meat pieces at final levels of <10, 10, 10(2) and 10(3) CFU cm(-2), VP and stored at -1.5, 1 or 4 degrees C. Six strains produced observable amounts of gas within 42 days and a further four strains produced gas within 100 days...
February 2010: Journal of Applied Microbiology
D M Broda, J A Boerema, G Brightwell
AIMS: To determine possible preslaughter and processing sources of psychrophilic and psychrotolerant clostridia causing spoilage of vacuum-packed chilled meats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Molecular methods based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of specific 16S rDNA fragments were used to detect the presence of Clostridium gasigenes, Clostridium estertheticum, Clostridium algidicarnis and Clostridium putrefaciens in a total of 357 samples collected from ten slaughter stock supply farms, slaughter stock, two lamb-processing plants, their environments, dressed carcasses and final vacuum-packed meat stored at -0...
July 2009: Journal of Applied Microbiology
G Moschonas, D J Bolton, J J Sheridan, D A McDowell
AIMS: (i) To evaluate methods for isolation and molecular detection of blown pack spoilage (BPS) clostridia and (ii) to survey beef abattoirs for sources and distributions of Clostridium estertheticum and Cl. gasigenes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Molecular detection and conventional isolation methods were used to detect and recover BPS associated clostridia (Cl. estertheticum and Cl. gasigenes), from four commercial Irish beef abattoirs and their environments, during a one year study...
August 2009: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Xianqin Yang, Sampathkumar Balamurugan, Colin O Gill
Blown pack spoilage of vacuum packaged beef, which results in packs being grossly distended with gas, is caused by the psychrophile Clostridium estertheticum. To determine what substrates are utilized by C. estertheticum during growth on beef, C. estertheticum subsp. estertheticum ATCC 51377, the type strain for that organism, and two isolates from blown pack spoiled beef that were identified as C. estertheticum by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing were grown in meat juice medium at 10 degrees C for up to 14 days. Analysis of the growth media showed that all three organisms grew exponentially on glucose with simultaneous hydrolysis of glycogen...
January 15, 2009: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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