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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635594/translation-repression-via-modulation-of-the-cytoplasmic-poly-a-binding-protein-in-the-inflammatory-response
#1
Xu Zhang, Xiaoli Chen, Qiuying Liu, Shaojie Zhang, Wenqian Hu
Gene expression is precisely regulated during the inflammatory response to control infection and limit the detrimental effects of inflammation. Here, we profiled global mRNA translation dynamics in the mouse primary macrophage-mediated inflammatory response and identified hundreds of differentially translated mRNAs. These mRNAs' 3'UTRs have enriched binding motifs for several RNA-binding proteins, which implies extensive translational regulatory networks. We characterized one such protein, Zfp36, as a translation repressor...
June 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635366/redox-biology-of-leishmania-and-macrophage-targeted-nanoparticles-for-therapy
#2
Hafiz Shoaib Sarwar, Sohail Akhtar, Muhammad Farhan Sohail, Zaeema Naveed, Muhammad Rafay, Akhtar Nadhman, Masoom Yasinzai, Gul Shahnaz
Intramacrophage parasite 'Leishmania' has developed various mechanisms for proficient uptake into macrophages and phagosome regulation to avoid macrophage's oxidative burst induced by peroxide, hydroxyl radical, hypochlorous acid and peroxynitrite production. One major barrier for impairing the accession of old fashioned anti-Leishmanial drugs is intrinsic incapability to pass through cell membranes and limiting their abilities to ultimately destroy intracellular pathogens. Receptor-mediated targeted drug delivery to the macrophages by using nanoparticles emerges as promising strategy to improve therapeutic efficacy of old-fashioned drug...
June 21, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634775/hydrophilic-acylated-surface-protein-a-haspa-of-leishmania-donovani-expression-purification-and-biophysico-chemical-characterization
#3
Manoj Kumar, Kishu Ranjan, Vijay Singh, Chandramani Pathak, Anju Pappachan, Desh Deepak Singh
Hydrophilic acylated surface proteins (HASPs) are acidic surface proteins which get localized on the surface of Leishmania parasite during infective stages through a "non-classical" pathway. In this study, we report the heterologous expression and purification of Leishmania donovani HASPA (r-LdHASPA) in E. coli system and its partial characterization. The structural aspects of the purified protein were analyzed using CD spectroscopy and modeling studies which indicate that r-LdHASPA consists of random coils...
June 21, 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634345/sirtuin-3-deficiency-does-not-alter-host-defenses-against-bacterial-and-fungal-infections
#4
Eleonora Ciarlo, Tytti Heinonen, Jérôme Lugrin, Hans Acha-Orbea, Didier Le Roy, Johan Auwerx, Thierry Roger
Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is the main mitochondrial deacetylase. SIRT3 regulates cell metabolism and redox homeostasis, and protects from aging and age-associated pathologies. SIRT3 may drive both oncogenic and tumor-suppressive effects. SIRT3 deficiency has been reported to promote chronic inflammation-related disorders, but whether SIRT3 impacts on innate immune responses and host defenses against infections remains essentially unknown. This aspect is of primary importance considering the great interest in developing SIRT3-targeted therapies...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634242/type-ii-secretion-substrates-of-legionella-pneumophila-translocate-out-of-the-pathogen-occupied-vacuole-via-a-semipermeable-membrane
#5
Hilary K Truchan, Harry D Christman, Richard C White, Nakisha S Rutledge, Nicholas P Cianciotto
Legionella pneumophila replicates in macrophages in a host-derived phagosome, termed the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). While the translocation of type IV secretion (T4S) effectors into the macrophage cytosol is well established, the location of type II secretion (T2S) substrates in the infected host cell is unknown. Here, we show that the T2S substrate ProA, a metalloprotease, translocates into the cytosol of human macrophages, where it associates with the LCV membrane (LCVM). Translocation is detected as early as 10 h postinoculation (p...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633555/glutamine-administration-in-early-or-late-septic-phase-downregulates-lymphocyte-pd-1-pd-l1-expression-and-the-inflammatory-response-in-mice-with-polymicrobial-sepsis
#6
Ya-Mei Hu, Yuan-Chin Hsiung, Man-Hui Pai, Sung-Ling Yeh
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a severe inflammatory response to infection. Excessive compensation to inflammation leads to dysregulated immune response that ultimately results in organ damage and lethality of sepsis. This study administered glutamine (GLN) in the early or late phase of sepsis to investigate its effects on regulating leukocyte programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (programmed cell death ligand 1 [PD-L1]) expression, macrophage function, inflammation, and acute kidney injury in sepsis...
March 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631596/cholesterol-25-hydroxylase-acts-as-a-host-restriction-factor-on-pseudorabies-virus-replication
#7
Jiang Wang, Lei Zeng, Li Zhang, Zhen-Zhen Guo, Shao-Fang Lu, Sheng-Li Ming, Guo-Li Li, Bo Wan, Ke-Gong Tian, Guo-Yu Yang, Bei-Bei Chu
Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) catalyses the production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC) from cholesterol by adding a second hydroxyl group at position 25. The aim of this study was to examine the antiviral effect of CH25H on pseudorabies virus (PRV), a swine pathogen that can cause devastating disease and economic losses worldwide. The results showed that porcine ch25h was induced by either interferon or PRV infection. PRV infection of porcine alveolar macrophages (3D4/21 cells) was attenuated by CH25H overexpression and enhanced by silencing of CH25H...
June 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630327/virus-induced-inflammasome-activation-is-suppressed-by-prostaglandin-d2-dp1-signaling
#8
Rahul Vijay, Anthony R Fehr, Ann M Janowski, Jeremiah Athmer, Dorthea L Wheeler, Matthew Grunewald, Ramakrishna Sompallae, Samarchith P Kurup, David K Meyerholz, Fayyaz S Sutterwala, Shuh Narumiya, Stanley Perlman
Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), an eicosanoid with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties, is the most abundantly expressed prostaglandin in the brain. Here we show that PGD2 signaling through the D-prostanoid receptor 1 (DP1) receptor is necessary for optimal microglia/macrophage activation and IFN expression after infection with a neurotropic coronavirus. Genome-wide expression analyses indicated that PGD2/DP1 signaling is required for up-regulation of a putative inflammasome inhibitor, PYDC3, in CD11b(+) cells in the CNS of infected mice...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630320/%C3%AE-20-ifitm2-differentially-restricts-x4-and-r5-hiv-1
#9
Wan-Lin Wu, Christopher Robert Grotefend, Ming-Ting Tsai, Yi-Ling Wang, Vladimir Radic, Hyungjin Eoh, I-Chueh Huang
CCR5 (R5)-tropic, but not CXCR4 (X4)-tropic, HIV-1 is associated with primary HIV-1 infection and transmission. Recent studies have shown that IFN-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins, including IFITM1, IFITM2, and IFITM3, restrict a broad range of viruses. Here, we demonstrate that an IFITM2 isoform (Δ20 IFITM2) lacking 20 amino acids at the N terminus differentially restricts X4 and R5 HIV-1. Δ20 IFITM2 suppresses replication of X4 HIV-1 strains by inhibiting their entry. High levels of Δ20 IFITM2 expression could be detected in CD4(+) T cells and in monocytes...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630072/pseudomonas-quinolone-signal-pqs-induces-oxidative-stress-and-inhibits-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#10
Maher Y Abdalla, Traci Hoke, Javier Seravalli, Barbara L Switzer, Melissa Bavitz, Jill D Fliege, Peter J Murphy, Bradley E Britigan
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) causes lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS) is a secreted PA virulence factor that contributes to the pathogenicity of PA. We were able to detect PQS in sputum samples from CF patients infected with PA, but not in samples from uninfected patients. We then tested the hypothesis that PQS induces oxidative stress in host cells by determining the ability of PQS to induce production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lung epithelial cells (A549 and primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE)) and macrophages (J774A...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630067/sipa-activation-of-caspase-3-is-a-decisive-mediator-of-host-cell-survival-at-early-stages-of-salmonella-typhimurium-infection
#11
Anne McIntosh, Lynsey M Meikle, Michael Ormsby, Beth A McCormick, John M Christie, James M Brewer, Mark Roberts, Daniel M Wall
Salmonella invasion protein A (SipA) is a dual function effector protein that plays roles in both actin polymerization and caspase-3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells. To date its function in other cell types has remained largely unknown despite its expression in multiple cell types and its extracellular secretion during infection. Here we show that in macrophages SipA induces increased caspase-3 activation early in infection. This activation required a threshold level of SipA linked to multiplicity of infection and may be a limiting factor controlling bacterial numbers in infected macrophages...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630064/pneumolysin-dependent-calpain-activation-and-il-1%C3%AE-secretion-in-macrophages-infected-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#12
Rendong Fang, Rui Wu, Huihui Du, Meilan Jin, Yajing Liu, Guihua Lei, Bing Jiang, Zehui Lei, Yuanyi Peng, Kui Nie, Kohsuke Tsuchiya
Pneumolysin (PLY), a major virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a pore-forming cytolysin that modulates host innate responses contributing to host defense against and pathogenesis of pneumococcal infections. Interleukin-1α (IL-1α) has been shown to be involved in tissue damage in a pneumococcal pneumonia model, however, the mechanism by which this cytokine is produced during S. pneumoniae infection remains unclear. In this study, we examined the role of PLY in IL-1α production. Although the strains induced similar levels of pro-IL-1α expression, wild-type S...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630063/listeria-vectored-vaccine-expressing-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-30-kda-major-secretory-protein-via-the-constitutively-active-prfa-regulon-boosts-bcg-efficacy-against-tuberculosis
#13
Qingmei Jia, Barbara Jane Dillon, Saša Masleša-Galić, Marcus A Horwitz
A potent vaccine against tuberculosis, one of the world's deadliest diseases, is needed to enhance the immunity of people worldwide, most of whom have been vaccinated with the partially effective BCG vaccine. Here we investigate novel live attenuated recombinant Listeria monocytogenes (rLm) vaccines expressing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) 30 kDa major secretory protein (r30/Ag85B) (rLm30) as heterologous booster vaccines in animals primed with BCG. Using three attenuated Lm vectors, rLm ΔactA (LmI), rLm ΔactA ΔinlB (LmII), and rLm ΔactA ΔinlBprfA* (LmIII), we constructed five rLm30 vaccine candidates expressing the r30 linked in-frame to the Lm Listeriolycin O signal sequence and driven by the hly promoter (h30) or linked in-frame to the ActA N-terminus and driven by the actA promoter (a30)...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629255/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-associated-to-haemophilus-parainfluenzae-endocarditis-a-case-report
#14
D I Costescu Strachinaru, M Chaumont, D Gobin, L Sattar, M Strachinaru, E Karakike, A Roman, D Konopnicki
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare but severe and potentially fatal syndrome that is characterized by increased proliferation and activation of benign macrophages with hemophagocytosis throughout the reticuloendothelial system. This syndrome is classified as primary (genetic) or secondary when acquired in the context of infections (usually viral), malignancies, rheumatologic and metabolic diseases. CASE SUMMARY: We report a case of HLH complicating a Haemophilus parainfluenzae mitral valve endocarditis and resolving under antibiotic and surgical treatment alone...
June 19, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628912/liver-kinase-b1-amp-activated-protein-kinase-pathway-activation-attenuated-the-progression-of-endotoxemia-in-the-diabetic-mice
#15
Yan Yang, Ruolan Dong, Danli Hu, Zhihui Chen, Menglu Fu, Dao Wen Wang, Xizhen Xu, Ling Tu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sepsis is a common disease that continues to increase in prevalence worldwide, and diabetes mellitus may make the situation worse. This study was designed to determine the role of Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1)/adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway in diabetic mice complicated with systemic endotoxemia. METHODS: The effects of LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway activation on endotoxemia were investigated in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice (STZ-mice) and db/db diabetic mice...
June 19, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628152/-relationship-between-macrophage-capping-protein-and-gastric-cancer-cell-s-proliferation-and-migration-ability
#16
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of macrophage-capping protein (CapG) on migration and proliferation of human gastric cancer cell line. METHODS: Real-time PCR method was used to detect the expression of CapG gene in four gastric cancer cell lines, and AGS cells with low expression and transfection were selected as the research objects. Specific primers were designed for CapG and recombinant plasmids synthesized. A lentivirus packaging system which could express CapG was constructed, and a cell line stably expressing CapG was established by infecting human gastric cancer cell line AGS cells...
June 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627635/concomitant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-promotes-lung-tumor-growth-through-enhancing-treg-development
#17
Yan Zhou, Zhangguo Hu, Shuhui Cao, Bo Yan, Jialin Qian, Hua Zhong
Lung cancer is the most common malignancy in humans. An increased population of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the tumor-associated microenvironment plays an important role in cancer immune evasion. The exact role and the involved mechanisms of concomitant H37Rv infection in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development are still not clear. Here, we showed that H37Rv infection promoted NSCLC cell growth with a higher percentage of Tregs found in draining lymph nodes. We also determined in vitro that H37Rv infection induced macrophage maturation and PD-L1 expression, which promoted Treg proportion, with enhanced proliferation suppression function...
June 19, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626451/dependency-of-b-1-cells-in-the-maintenance-of-splenic-interleukin-10-producing-cells-and-impairment-of-macrophage-resistance-in-visceral-leishmaniasis
#18
Angélica Fernandes Arcanjo, Dirlei Nico, Gabriellen Menezes Migliani de Castro, Yasmin da Silva Fontes, Paula Saltarelli, Debora Decote-Ricardo, Marise P Nunes, Antônio Ferreira-Pereira, Clarisa B Palatnik-de-Sousa, Célio G Freire-de-Lima, Alexandre Morrot
Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected disease caused by Leishmania protozoa parasites transmitted by infected sand fly vectors. This disease represents the second in mortality among tropical infections and is associated to a profound immunosuppression state of the host. The hallmark of this infection-induced host immunodeviation is the characteristic high levels of the regulatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) cytokine. In the present study, we investigated the role of B-1 cells in the maintenance of splenic IL-10 levels that could interfere with resistance to parasite infection...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625898/doctor-says-you-are-cured-but-you-still-feel-the-pain-borrelia-dna-persistence-in-lyme-disease
#19
REVIEW
Jorge Cervantes
Lyme disease is a zoonosis caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb). A great amount of research has attempted to elucidate the mechanisms by which Bb causes inflammation and chronic symptomatology in some patients. Patients often seek unconventional treatments that lack scientific evidence, as medical care is unable to effectively explain and treat their illness. Bb-DNA can persist for long periods of time in some individuals, even after antibiotic therapy. Herein, scientific rationale is presented for a new therapeutic approach against remaining bacterial DNA, and/or increasing the ability of human macrophages to remove extracellular Bb DNA...
June 15, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624659/surface-engineering-of-solid-lipid-nanoparticle-assemblies-by-methyl-%C3%AE-d-mannopyranoside-for-the-active-targeting-to-macrophages-in-anti-tuberculosis-inhalation-therapy
#20
Eleonora Maretti, Luca Costantino, Cecilia Rustichelli, Eliana Leo, Maria Antonietta Croce, Francesca Buttini, Eleonora Truzzi, Valentina Iannuccelli
This study describes the development of new mannosylated Solid Lipid Nanoparticle assemblies (SLNas) delivering rifampicin for an inhaled treatment of tuberculosis. SLNas were surface engineered with mannose residues to recognize mannose receptors located on infected alveolar macrophages and facilitate cell internalization. Two sets of SLNas were produced by the melt emulsifying technique using biocompatible lipid components, i.e. cholesteryl myristate combined with palmitic acid (PA set) or tripalmitin (TP set), in the presence of the targeting moiety, methyl α-d-mannopyranoside...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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