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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350173/membranoproliferative-glomerulonephritis-and-interstitial-nephritis-in-the-setting-of-epstein-barr-virus-related-hemophagocytic-syndrome%C3%A2
#1
Iolanda Godinho, Estela Nogueira, Sofia Jorge, António Teixeira Alves, António Gomes da Costa
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a rare, aggressive disorder characterized by dysregulation of lymphocyte and macrophage activity, which culminates in tissue infiltration with hemophagocytosis and ultimately organ failure. Renal involvement frequently ensues and usually results in acute tubular necrosis with associated interstitial inflammation. Less frequently, glomerulopathy can also be found. CASE: We report a case of a 24-year-old Caucasian woman with previous asymptomatic hematuria, mild proteinuria, and normal renal function who presented to us with fever...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350155/yersinia-pestis-survival-and-replication-in-potential-ameba-reservoir
#2
David W Markman, Michael F Antolin, Richard A Bowen, William H Wheat, Michael Woods, Mercedes Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mary Jackson
Plague ecology is characterized by sporadic epizootics, then periods of dormancy. Building evidence suggests environmentally ubiquitous amebae act as feral macrophages and hosts to many intracellular pathogens. We conducted environmental genetic surveys and laboratory co-culture infection experiments to assess whether plague bacteria were resistant to digestion by 5 environmental ameba species. First, we demonstrated that Yersinia pestis is resistant or transiently resistant to various ameba species. Second, we showed that Y...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349567/hbeag-induces-the-expression-of-macrophage-mir-155-to-accelerate-liver-injury-via-promoting-production-of-inflammatory-cytokines
#3
Wenwen Wang, Hongjun Bian, Feifei Li, Xiao Li, Di Zhang, Shuohuan Sun, Shouyang Song, Qiang Zhu, Wanhua Ren, Chengyong Qin, Jianni Qi
Activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) induced that inflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in the pathogenesis of HBV infection. The previous studies from our and other laboratory demonstrated miRNAs can regulate TLR-inducing inflammatory responses to macrophage. However, the involvement of miRNAs in HBV-associated antigen-induced macrophage activation is still not thoroughly understood. Here, we evaluated the effects and mechanisms of miR-155 in HBV-associated antigen-induced macrophage activation...
January 18, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349532/a-novel-approach-in-treatment-of-tuberculosis-by-targeting-drugs-to-infected-macrophages-using-biodegradable-nanoparticles
#4
REVIEW
Shivangi, Laxman S Meena
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis is now causing death of more than 10 million people. Because of the development of drug-resistant TB, drug delivery to the infected site through nanoparticle had been studied for long time. Nanoparticles indicate different sorts of association with the natural particles of the body. Nanoparticles can be used as controlled or specific drug delivery system. It can be through temporal controlled or can be distribution controlled. Glucose polymer-based nanoparticles might play an important role as drug delivery system in case of targeted drug delivery in the infected site of the body or in infected macrophages, as they are biodegradable so there should not be any side effects of these particles in the body and also they show very slow immune response...
January 19, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349092/cathepsin-b-plays-a-key-role-in-optimal-production-of-the-influenza-a-virus
#5
Macon D Coleman, Soon-Duck Ha, S M Mansour Haeryfar, Stephen Dominic Barr, Sung Ouk Kim
Background: Influenza A virus (IAV) is the etiologic agent of the febrile respiratory illness, commonly referred to as 'flu'. The lysosomal protease cathepsin B (CTSB) has shown to be involved in the lifecycle of various viruses. Here, we examined the role of CTSB in the IAV lifecycle. Methods: CTSB-deficient (CTSB-/-) macrophages and the human lung epithelial cell line A549 cells treated with CA-074Me were infected with the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 strain of IAV (IAV-PR8)...
2018: Journal of Virology & Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348630/expression-of-inflammasome-proteins-and-inflammasome-activation-occurs-in-human-but-not-in-murine-keratinocytes
#6
Jennifer Sand, Eric Haertel, Thomas Biedermann, Emmanuel Contassot, Ernst Reichmann, Lars E French, Sabine Werner, Hans-Dietmar Beer
Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes that assemble upon sensing of a variety of stress factors. Their formation results in caspase-1-mediated activation and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines pro-interleukin(IL)-1β and -18, which induce an inflammatory response. Inflammation is supported by a lytic form of cell death, termed pyroptosis. Innate immune cells, such as macrophages or dendritic cells, express and activate inflammasomes. However, it has also been demonstrated that human primary keratinocytes activate different types of inflammasomes in vitro, for example, upon UVB irradiation or viral infection...
January 18, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347945/microrna-transcriptome-analysis-of-porcine-vital-organ-responses-to-immunosuppressive-porcine-cytomegalovirus-infection
#7
Xiao Liu, Haoche Wei, Shan Liao, Jianheng Ye, Ling Zhu, Zhiwen Xu
BACKGROUND: Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) is an immunosuppressive virus that mainly inhibits T-lymphocyte and macrophage immune functions; it has significantly damaged the farming industry. Although recent studies have shown that miRNAs play important roles in immune responses, the regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs during immunosuppressive virus infection remain unclear. METHODS: In this study, porcine small-RNA transcriptomes of PCMV-infected and uninfected vital organs were first characterised by high-throughput sequencing...
January 18, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346774/mannose-receptor-1-restricts-hiv-particle-release-from-infected-macrophages
#8
Sayaka Sukegawa, Eri Miyagi, Fadila Bouamr, Helena Farkašová, Klaus Strebel
Human mannose receptor 1 (hMRC1) is expressed on the surface of most tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, and select lymphatic or liver endothelial cells. HMRC1 contributes to the binding of HIV-1 to monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and is involved in the endocytic uptake of HIV-1 into these cells. Here, we identify hMRC1 as an antiviral factor that inhibits virus release through a bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2)-like mechanism. Virions produced in the presence of hMRC1 accumulated in clusters at the cell surface but were fully infectious...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346642/rnase7-but-not-psoriasin-nor-spla2-iia-associates-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-during-airway-epithelial-cells-infection
#9
Flor Torres-Juarez, Lousseine Touqui, Juan Leon-Contreras, Cesar Rivas-Santiago, Jose A Enciso-Moreno, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Bruno Rivas-Santiago
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Innate immunity is the first line of defense against Mtb and malfunctions in any of its components is associated with the susceptibility to the disease. Epithelial products, such as host defence peptides (HDP) are the first molecules produced to counteract the infection. Although a wide variety of HDP are produced by epithelial cells only few of them have been studied during Mtb infection. Here, we assessed the expression and production of the HDPs: psoriasin, sPLA2-IIA and RNase 7 in airway epithelial cells (NCI-H292), type II pneumocytes (A549 cells) and monocytes-derived macrophages from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (bMDM) and from the human cell line THP1(MDM) after Mtb in vitro infection...
January 16, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345922/efficient-fusion-at-neutral-ph-by-human-immunodeficiency-virus-gp41-trimers-containing-the-fusion-peptide-and-transmembrane-domain
#10
Shuang Liang, Punsisi Ratnayake, Craig Keinath, Lihui Jia, Robert Wolfe, Ahinsa Ranaweera, David P Weliky
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is membrane-enveloped and an initial infection step is joining/fusion of viral and cell membranes. This step is catalyzed by gp41 which is a single-pass integral viral membrane protein. The protein contains a ~170-residue ectodomain located outside the virus that is important for fusion, and includes the fusion peptide (FP), N-helix, loop, C-helix, and viral membrane-proximal external region (MPER). The virion initially has non-covalent complexes between three gp41 ectodomains and three gp120 proteins...
January 18, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345354/lack-of-functional-selectin-ligand-interactions-enhances-innate-immune-resistance-to-systemic-listeria-monocytogenes-infection
#11
Gerard Agbayani, Komal Gurnani, Ahmed Zafer, Subash Sad, Lakshmi Krishnan
Selectin-ligand interactions are important for leukocyte homing and functionality. The roles of selectin-ligand interactions in modulating immunity to intracellular infections are not completely understood. Mice lacking the expression of fucosyltransferase-IV and -VII (Fucosyltransferase-IV and -VII double knockout, FtDKO) exhibit deficient functionality of selectin-ligand interactions. We addressed the kinetics of infection and immunity to Listeria monocytogenes (LM), an intracellular pathogen, in FtDKO mice...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345345/autophagy-inhibition-promotes-phagocytosis-of-macrophage-and-protects-mice-from-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia
#12
Yulin Zhu, Huichun Li, Shenggang Ding, Yating Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of autophagy in macrophages and the protection of mouse models against MRSA invasion, which provide new potential therapeutic direction for lung infection. METHODS: The effect of ST239 in macrophages were analyzed by western blot and immunofluorescence to observe the influence of autophagy inhibitor 3-MA in macrophages. Then we established MRSA mice model and the models were divided into different groups of drugs. As well as analyzed the effect of autophagy in macrophage with MRSA and the changes of lung pathological in the mouse model by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345343/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rewiring-host-cell-signaling-to-promote-infection
#13
REVIEW
Michael D Stutz, Michelle P Clark, Marcel Doerflinger, Marc Pellegrini
The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to cause disease hinges upon successfully thwarting the innate defenses of the macrophage host cell. The pathogen's trump card is its armory of virulence factors that throw normal host cell signaling into disarray. This process of subverting the macrophage begins upon entry into the cell, when M. tuberculosis actively inhibits the fusion of the bacilli-laden phagosomes with lysosomes. The pathogen then modulates an array of host signal transduction pathways, which dampens the macrophage's host-protective cytokine response, while simultaneously adapting host cell metabolism to stimulate lipid body accumulation...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345340/berberine-demonstrates-anti-inflammatory-properties-in-helicobacter-pylori-infected-mice-with-chronic-gastritis-by-attenuating-the-th17-response-triggered-by-the-b-cell-activating-factor
#14
Xiuxia Wu, Xian Li, Zhongqin Dang, Yunfei Jia
Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid derived from various medicinal herbs. Previous studies have suggested that BBR exerts antimicrobial, antitumor, and antidiabetic effects and can be used to treat Helicobacter pylori-induced chronic gastritis. However, the exact mechanism by which BBR inhibits H. pylori infection is not fully understood. We investigated the anti-inflammatory properties and potential mechanism of BBR in H. pylori-infected mice with chronic gastritis. We found that BBR can suppress the expression of pro-inflammatory genes IL-6, TGF-β, and IL-1β and upregulate anti-inflammatory gene IL-10 expression in the mucosa and RAW 264...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345056/for-when-bacterial-infections-persist-toll-like-receptor-inducible-direct-antimicrobial-pathways-in-macrophages
#15
REVIEW
Claudia J Stocks, Mark A Schembri, Matthew J Sweet, Ronan Kapetanovic
Macrophages are linchpins of innate immunity, responding to invading microorganisms by initiating coordinated inflammatory and antimicrobial programs. Immediate antimicrobial responses, such as NADPH-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS), are triggered upon phagocytic receptor engagement. Macrophages also detect and respond to microbial products through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as TLRs. TLR signaling influences multiple biological processes including antigen presentation, cell survival, inflammation, and direct antimicrobial responses...
January 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344491/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-adults-with-intraocular-involvement-clinicopathologic-features-of-3-cases
#16
M Adelita Vizcaino, Charles G Eberhart, Fausto J Rodriguez
Background/Aims: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an infrequent inflammatory multisystemic syndrome. Only rare cases with ophthalmic involvement describing their pathologic features have been previously reported. Methods: We report 3 cases of adult-onset HLH with bilateral ocular involvement and describe their clinicopathologic features. Results: Three adult males - 2 with a history of viral infection - developed persistent fever, fatigue, bone marrow abnormalities, and irreversible multiorgan failure...
December 2017: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344006/histone-deacetylase-2-hdac2-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-lps-induced-inflammation-by-regulating-pai-1-expression
#17
Wen-Feng Fang, Yu-Mu Chen, Chiung-Yu Lin, Hui-Lin Huang, Hua Yeh, Ya-Ting Chang, Kuo-Tung Huang, Meng-Chih Lin
Background: Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by dysregulated host response to infection, and is primarily characterized by an uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response. In the present study, we developed an effective adjunct therapy mediated by a novel mechanism, to attenuate overt inflammation. LPS-treated macrophages were adopted as an in vitro model of endotoxin-induced inflammation during sepsis. Experiments were carried out using primary mouse peritoneal macrophages and the murine macrophage cell line RAW264...
2018: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343644/identification-of-genes-required-for-mycobacterium-abscessus-growth-in-vivo-with-a-prominent-role-of-the-esx-4-locus
#18
Laura Laencina, Violaine Dubois, Vincent Le Moigne, Albertus Viljoen, Laleh Majlessi, Justin Pritchard, Audrey Bernut, Laura Piel, Anne-Laure Roux, Jean-Louis Gaillard, Bérengère Lombard, Damarys Loew, Eric J Rubin, Roland Brosch, Laurent Kremer, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Fabienne Girard-Misguich
Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) and an opportunistic human pathogen, is responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from pulmonary to skin and soft tissue infections. This intracellular organism can resist the bactericidal defense mechanisms of amoebae and macrophages, an ability that has not been observed in other RGM. M. abscessus can up-regulate several virulence factors during transient infection of amoebae, thereby becoming more virulent in subsequent respiratory infections in mice...
January 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343083/polarized-macrophage-subsets-differentially-express-the-drug-efflux-transporters-mrp1-and-bcrp-resulting-in-altered-hiv-production
#19
Hui He, Merrion Buckley, Bernard Britton, Ying Mu, Kristin Warner, Santosh Kumar, Theodore J Cory
Introduction Macrophages play an important role in HIV, where they are a cellular reservoir. Macrophages are polarized into two phenotypes: pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, which may have altered expression of drug efflux transporters, including BCRP and MRP1. These differences may result in subtherapeutic concentrations of antiretrovirals inside of macrophages and viral replication. Methods U937 and U1 cells were polarized to the M1 or M2 phenotype via IFN-γ and LPS, or IL-4, IL-13, and LPS...
January 2018: Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342870/biomarkers-of-progression-after-hiv-acute-early-infection-nothing-compares-to-cd4%C3%A2-%C2%BA-t-cell-count
#20
Gabriela Turk, Yanina Ghiglione, Macarena Hormanstorfer, Natalia Laufer, Romina Coloccini, Jimena Salido, César Trifone, María Julia Ruiz, Juliana Falivene, María Pía Holgado, María Paula Caruso, María Inés Figueroa, Horacio Salomón, Luis D Giavedoni, María de Los Ángeles Pando, María Magdalena Gherardi, Roberto Daniel Rabinovich, Pedro A Pury, Omar Sued
Progression of HIV infection is variable among individuals, and definition disease progression biomarkers is still needed. Here, we aimed to categorize the predictive potential of several variables using feature selection methods and decision trees. A total of seventy-five treatment-naïve subjects were enrolled during acute/early HIV infection. CD4⁺ T-cell counts (CD4TC) and viral load (VL) levels were determined at enrollment and for one year. Immune activation, HIV-specific immune response, Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) and C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) genotypes, and plasma levels of 39 cytokines were determined...
January 13, 2018: Viruses
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