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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550120/hiv-1-decreases-nrf2-are-activity-and-phagocytic-function-in-alveolar-macrophages
#1
Bashar S Staitieh, Lingmei Ding, Wendy A Neveu, Paul Spearman, David M Guidot, Xian Fan
Respiratory complications occur frequently in individuals living with human immunodeficiency-1 virus (HIV) infection, and there is evidence that HIV-related oxidative stress impairs alveolar macrophage immune function. We hypothesized that nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), a master transcription factor that activates the antioxidant response element (ARE) and regulates antioxidant defenses, has an important role in alveolar macrophage (AMs) immune dysfunction in individuals with HIV infections...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550086/the-iron-dependent-mitochondrial-superoxide-dismutase-soda-promotes-leishmania-virulence
#2
Bidyottam Mittra, Maria Fernanda Laranjeira-Silva, Danilo Ciccone Miguel, Juliana Perrone Bezerra de Menezes, Norma W Andrews
Leishmaniasis is one of the leading global neglected diseases, affecting millions of people worldwide. Leishmania infection depends on the ability of insect-transmitted metacyclic promastigotes to invade mammalian hosts, differentiate into amastigotes and replicate inside macrophages. To counter the hostile oxidative environment inside macrophages, these protozoans contain anti-oxidant systems that include iron-dependent superoxide dismutases (SODs) in mitochondria and glycosomes. Increasing evidence suggests that in addition to this protective role, Leishmania mitochondrial SOD may also initiate H2O2-mediated redox signaling that regulates gene expression and metabolic changes associated with differentiation into virulent forms...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549840/phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-mediated-pathophysiological-effect-of-hiv-1-tat-protein
#3
REVIEW
Bruno Beaumelle, Petra Tóth, Olfat A Malak, Christophe Chopard, Gildas Loussouarn, Nicolas Vitale
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cells actively release the transcriptional activator (Tat) viral protein that is required for efficient HIV gene transcription. Extracellular Tat is able to enter uninfected cells. We recently reported that internalized Tat escapes endosomes to reach the cytosol and is then recruited to the plasma membrane by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). As a consequence, Tat strongly impairs different critical cellular functions in several cell types. Here we will review recent evidences showing that Tat, by affecting the interaction of key cellular effectors with PtdIns(4,5)P2, blocks exocytosis from neuroendocrine cells, perturbs the synaptic vesicle exo-endocytosis cycle, prevents efficient phagocytosis by macrophages, and alters potassium channel activity in cardiac cells...
May 23, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549783/irinotecan-temozolomide-with-temsirolimus-or-dinutuximab-in-children-with-refractory-or-relapsed-neuroblastoma-cog-anbl1221-an-open-label-randomised-phase-2-trial
#4
Rajen Mody, Arlene Naranjo, Collin Van Ryn, Alice L Yu, Wendy B London, Barry L Shulkin, Marguerite T Parisi, Sabah-E-Noor Servaes, Mitchell B Diccianni, Paul M Sondel, Julia G Bender, John M Maris, Julie R Park, Rochelle Bagatell
BACKGROUND: Outcomes for children with relapsed and refractory neuroblastoma are dismal. The combination of irinotecan and temozolomide has activity in these patients, and its acceptable toxicity profile makes it an excellent backbone for study of new agents. We aimed to test the addition of temsirolimus or dinutuximab to irinotecan-temozolomide in patients with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma. METHODS: For this open-label, randomised, phase 2 selection design trial of the Children's Oncology Group (COG; ANBL1221), patients had to have histological verification of neuroblastoma or ganglioneuroblastoma at diagnosis or have tumour cells in bone marrow with increased urinary catecholamine concentrations at diagnosis...
May 23, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549389/correction-to-huang-h-et%C3%A2-al-m2-polarized-tumour-associated-macrophages-in-stroma-correlate-with-poor-prognosis-and-epstein-barr-viral-infection-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548709/-polka-dot-macrophages-on-cytology-of-bilateral-adrenal-masses-nailing-disseminated-histoplasmosis
#6
Sumit Grover, Pavneet Kaur Selhi, Neena Sood, Ridhi Sood, Harpreet Kaur
Histoplasma capsulatum is a saprophytic fungus that in immunocompetent individuals causes self-limited pulmonary infection; however, in immunosuppressed patients involvement of the reticuloendothelial system, alimentary tract, urinary tract, and central nervous system is fairly common. Rarely patients present with bilateral adrenal masses which mimic tuberculosis and metastasis on radiology because of associated central necrosis. Ultrasound guided FNAC aided by special stains like Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and Gomori Methenamine Silver (GMS) may help in early diagnosis in such dubious cases...
May 26, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548038/marek-s-disease-virus-infection-of-phagocytes-a-de-novo-in-vitro-infection-model
#7
Pankaj Chakraborty, Lonneke Vervelde, Robert G Dalziel, Peter S Wasson, Venugopal Nair, Bernadette M Dutia, Pete Kaiser
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an alphaherpesvirus that induces T-cell lymphomas in chickens. Natural infections in vivo are caused by the inhalation of infected poultry house dust and it is presumed that MDV infection is initiated in the macrophages from where the infection is passed to B cells and activated T cells. Virus can be detected in B and T cells and macrophages in vivo, and both B and T cells can be infected in vitro. However, attempts to infect macrophages in vitro have not been successful. The aim of this study was to develop a model for infecting phagocytes [macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs)] with MDV in vitro and to characterize the infected cells...
May 26, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546024/mirna-8159-is-involved-in-tlr-signaling-pathway-regulation-after-pathogen-infection-by-direct-targeting-tlr13-in-miiuy-croaker
#8
Junxia Cui, Yunhang Gao, Qing Chu, Dekun Bi, Tianjun Xu
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in the recognition of immune reactions against invading pathogens. The molecular regulation mechanisms of TLR expression in aquatic organisms remain unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are critical adjustors of immune signaling pathway at the post-transcriptional level and play critical roles in intricate networks of host-pathogen interactions and innate immunity. The critical role of TLRs in host defense for discerning certain kinds of pathogen associated molecular patternsand striking a cascade immune response in fish have been demonstrated...
May 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546023/a-cxcl-ortholog-from-hippocampus-abdominalis-molecular-features-and-functional-delineation-as-a-pro-inflammatory-chemokine
#9
Minyoung Oh, S D N K Bathige, Yucheol Kim, Seongdo Lee, Hyerim Yang, Myoung-Jin Kim, Jehee Lee
Chemokines are a family of chemotactic cytokines that regulate leukocyte migration. They are classified into four groups namely, CXC, CC, C and CX3C, based on the formation of a disulfide bridge. Among these, CXC chemokines have been identified as the largest group of chemokines in humans. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized a homolog of CXC chemokine from the big-belly seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalis, and designated it as ShCXCL. The cDNA of ShCXCL composed of a 342-bp open reading frame encoding 113 amino acids (aa)...
May 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546020/the-evolution-and-functional-characterization-of-miiuy-croaker-interferon-regulatory-factor-9-involved-in-immune-response
#10
Qiong Yang, Junxia Cui, Weihua Song, Xueyan Zhao, Tianjun Xu
Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are transcription factors playing important roles in regulating the expression of type I interferons (IFNs) and IFN-stimulated genes. IRF9 is one of the IRF family gene members which belongs to the IRF4 subfamily. Mammalian IRF9 has been known to be involved in antiviral response as the DNA sequence recognition subunit of IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) complex. In fish, only a few studies investigated the characteristics of IRF9 and the role in IFN signaling. In this study, we identify the IRF9 gene from miiuy croaker (mmiIRF9) and studied its feature and function...
May 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545808/the-absence-of-tnf-permits-myeloid-arginase-1-expression-in-experimental-l-monocytogenes-infection
#11
Xinying Li, A Bruce Lyons, Gregory M Woods, Heinrich Körner
During an immune response inflammatory macrophages with their wide variety of effector mechanisms including the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase play an important part in the defense against invading pathogens. The inflammatory phenotype requires the presence of TNF which suppresses alternative activation. In the bacterial Listeria monocytogenes infection model inflammatory macrophages are crucial for protection. After infection, TNF-deficient hosts have a similar number of splenic macrophages but die rapidly...
May 16, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545436/thymoquinone-tq-inhibits-the-replication-of-intracellular-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-macrophages-and-modulates-nitric-oxide-production
#12
Hafij Al Mahmud, Hoonhee Seo, Sukyung Kim, Md Imtiazul Islam, Kung-Woo Nam, Hyun-Deuk Cho, Ho-Yeon Song
BACKGROUND: Human tuberculosis, which is caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a major public health concern. Increasing drug resistance poses a threat of disease resurgence and continues to cause considerable mortality worldwide, which necessitates the development of new drugs with improved efficacy. Thymoquinone (TQ), an essential compound of Nigella sativa, was previously reported as an active anti-tuberculosis agent. METHODS: In this study, the effects of TQ on intracellular mycobacterial replication are examined in macrophages...
May 25, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545345/systemic-necrotizing-polyarteritis-in-three-weaned-lambs-from-one-flock
#13
Mark Wessels, Ben Strugnell, Nick Woodger, Martin Peat, Severina Anna La Rocca, Akbar Dastjerdi
Systemic necrotizing polyarteritis was diagnosed in three 7-11-mo-old lambs from the same flock. Aneurysmal dilation and rupture of the gastroduodenal artery in 1 lamb resulted in fatal hemorrhage. All lambs had severe necrotizing vasculitis involving the small intestine, abomasum, mesentery, kidney, and heart with concurrent lymphocytic enteritis. Immunohistochemistry for T- and B-lymphocytes and macrophages found a T-cell- and macrophage-dominant transmural vascular infiltrate and T-cell-associated enteritis...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545241/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-hn001-and-lactobacillus-acidophilus-la-14-attenuate-gardnerella-vaginalis-infected-bacterial-vaginosis-in-mice
#14
Se-Eun Jang, Jin-Ju Jeong, Su-Young Choi, Hyunji Kim, Myung Joo Han, Dong-Hyun Kim
Oral administration of a probiotic mixture (PM; Respecta(®)) consisting of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (L1), Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14 (L2), and lactoferrin RCXTM results in colonization of these probiotics in the vagina of healthy women. Therefore, we examined whether vaginal colonization of the PM ingredients L1 and L2 could attenuate bacterial vaginosis (BV). BV was induced in mice via β-estradiol-3-benzoate-induced immunosuppression and intravaginal inoculation with Gardnerella vaginalis (GV)...
May 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544095/phenotypic-assays-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#15
Ok-Ryul Song, Nathalie Deboosere, Vincent Delorme, Christophe J Queval, Gaspard Deloison, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Frank Lafont, Alain Baulard, Raffaella Iantomasi, Priscille Brodin
Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major global threat, killing more than one million persons each year. With the constant increase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to first- and second-line drugs, there is an urgent need for the development of new drugs to control the propagation of TB. Although screenings of small molecules on axenic M. tuberculosis cultures were successful for the identification of novel putative anti-TB drugs, new drugs in the development pipeline remains scarce. Host-directed therapy may represent an alternative for drug development against TB...
May 19, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543773/degradation-of-heme-oxygenase-1-by-the-immunoproteasome-in-astrocytes-a-potential-interferon-%C3%AE-dependent-mechanism-contributing-to-hiv-neuropathogenesis
#16
Colleen E Kovacsics, Alexander J Gill, Surendra S Ambegaokar, Benjamin B Gelman, Dennis L Kolson
Induction of the detoxifying enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a critical protective host response to cellular injury associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. We previously found that HO-1 protein expression is reduced in brains of HIV-infected individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and in HIV-infected macrophages, where this reduction associates with enhanced glutamate release and neurotoxicity. Because HIV-infected macrophages are a small component of the cellular content of the brain, the reduction of macrophage HO-1 expression likely accounts for a small portion of brain HO-1 loss in HIV infection...
May 22, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543681/activation-of-mmps-in-macrophages-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-via-the-mir-223-bmal1-signaling-pathway
#17
Jun Lou, Yongli Wang, Zhimin Zhang, Weiqiang Qiu
An interaction between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and macrophages constitutes an essential step in tuberculosis development, as macrophages exert both positive and negative effects on M. tuberculosis-triggered organ lesions. In this study, we focused on the regulation of the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which is responsible for lung matrix degradation and bacteria dissection, in macrophages following M. tuberculosis infection. Female BALB/c mice were intravenously injected with the M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv at 0h zeitgeber time (ZT0) or 12 h zeitgeber time (ZT12)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543600/liposomes-or-traditional-adjuvants-induction-of-bactericidal-activity-by-the-macrophage-infectivity-potentiator-protein-mip-of-neisseria-meningitidis
#18
Liliana Costoya, Juan Marzoa, Carlos Ferreirós, Maria Teresa Criado
Currently, one of the main approaches to achieve a vaccine for serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis is based on outer membrane proteins with low antigenic variability among strains. Since these proteins tend to be minor components of the outer membrane, recombinant production is required to obtain them in sufficient amounts for evaluation and development of vaccines. In this study, we analysed the ability of recombinant macrophage infectivity potentiator (rMip) protein to induce protective bactericidal activity in mice...
May 25, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542623/gallium-nanoparticles-facilitate-phagosome-maturation-and-inhibit-growth-of-virulent-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-macrophages
#19
Seoung-Ryoung Choi, Bradley E Britigan, David M Moran, Prabagaran Narayanasamy
New treatments and novel drugs are required to counter the growing problem of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Our approach against drug resistant M.tb, as well as other intracellular pathogens, is by targeted drug delivery using nanoformulations of drugs already in use, as well as drugs in development. Among the latter are gallium (III) (Ga)-based compounds. In the current work, six different types of Ga and rifampin nanoparticles were prepared in such a way as to enhance targeting of M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542613/suppression-of-il-12p70-formation-by-il-2-or-following-macrophage-depletion-causes-t-cell-autoreactivity-leading-to-cns-demyelination-in-hsv-1-infected-mice
#20
Dhong Hyun Lee, Mandana Zandian, Jane Kuo, Kevin R Mott, Shuang Chen, Moshe Arditi, Homayon Ghiasi
We have established two mouse models of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination that differ from most other available models of multiple sclerosis (MS) in that they represent a mixture of viral and immune triggers. In the first model, ocular infection of different strains of mice with a recombinant HSV-1 that expresses murine IL-2 constitutively (HSV-IL-2) causes CNS demyelination. In the second model, depletion of macrophages causes CNS demyelination in mice that are ocularly infected with wild-type (WT) HSV-1...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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