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Macrophage biology in development homeostasis and disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858786/production-of-gfp-and-luciferase-expressing-reporter-macrophages-for-in-vivo-bioluminescence-imaging
#1
Jukka Pajarinen, Tzu-Hua Lin, Stuart B Goodman
Macrophages have emerged as crucial regulators of tissue homeostasis, inflammation, and tissue regeneration. In vivo bioluminescence imaging could offer a powerful tool to study many poorly understood aspects of macrophage biology. Thus, we recently developed a straightforward method for the production of large numbers of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and firefly luciferase (fLUC)-expressing reporter macrophages for various in vivo bioluminescence imaging applications. Lentivirus vector containing the GFP/fLUC reporter gene is produced and mouse bone marrow macrophages are isolated following established protocols...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551552/non-coding-rna-regulation-of-endothelial-and-macrophage-functions-during-atherosclerosis
#2
REVIEW
Binod Aryal, Yajaira Suárez
The endothelial lining can be viewed as the first line of defense against risk factors of vascular disease. Endothelial dysfunction is regarded as an initial event for atherogenesis since defects in vascular integrity and homeostasis are responsible for lipid infiltration and recruitment of monocytes into the vessel wall. Monocytes-turned-macrophages, which possess astounding inflammatory plasticity, perpetuate chronic inflammation and growth of atherosclerotic plaques and, are therefore central for the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
March 15, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482037/biology-and-function-of-adipose-tissue-macrophages-dendritic-cells-and-b-cells
#3
REVIEW
Stoyan Ivanov, Johanna Merlin, Man Kit Sam Lee, Andrew J Murphy, Rodolphe R Guinamard
The increasing incidence of obesity and its socio-economical impact is a global health issue due to its associated co-morbidities, namely diabetes and cardiovascular disease [1-5]. Obesity is characterized by an increase in adipose tissue, which promotes the recruitment of immune cells resulting in low-grade inflammation and dysfunctional metabolism. Macrophages are the most abundant immune cells in the adipose tissue of mice and humans. The adipose tissue also contains other myeloid cells (dendritic cells (DC) and neutrophils) and to a lesser extent lymphocyte populations, including T cells, B cells, Natural Killer (NK) and Natural Killer T (NKT) cells...
April 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427795/cellular-senescence-immunosurveillance-and-future-immunotherapy
#4
REVIEW
Dominick G A Burton, Alexandra Stolzing
In response to persistent DNA damage, induction into cell senescence promotes an immunogenic program which facilitates immune clearance of these damaged cells. Under physiological conditions, senescent cells can activate both innate and adaptive immune responses, functioning to maintain tissue homeostasis. In addition, emerging findings suggest that programmed induction of cell senescence may be important for regulating reproductive processes, partly facilitated by immune clearance. However, likely owing to ageing of the immune system, a failure to eliminate senescent cells can contribute to their persistence in tissues, leading to the development and progression of age-related diseases...
May 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371994/microglia-at-center-stage-a-comprehensive-review-about-the-versatile-and-unique-residential-macrophages-of-the-central-nervous-system
#5
REVIEW
Nils Lannes, Elisabeth Eppler, Samar Etemad, Peter Yotovski, Luis Filgueira
Microglia cells are the unique residential macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS). They have a special origin, as they derive from the embryonic yolk sac and enter the developing CNS at a very early stage. They play an important role during CNS development and adult homeostasis. They have a major contribution to adult neurogenesis and neuroinflammation. Thus, they participate in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and contribute to aging. They play an important role in sustaining and breaking the blood-brain barrier...
December 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238347/langerhans-cells-programmed-by-the-epidermis
#6
REVIEW
Kalum Clayton, Andres F Vallejo, James Davies, Sofia Sirvent, Marta E Polak
Langerhans cells (LCs) reside in the epidermis as a dense network of immune system sentinels. These cells determine the appropriate adaptive immune response (inflammation or tolerance) by interpreting the microenvironmental context in which they encounter foreign substances. In a normal physiological, "non-dangerous" situation, LCs coordinate a continuous state of immune tolerance, preventing unnecessary and harmful immune activation. Conversely, when they sense a danger signal, for example during infection or when the physical integrity of skin has been compromised as a result of a trauma, they instruct T lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system to mount efficient effector responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151590/microglia-and-macrophages-in-brain-homeostasis-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Qingyun Li, Ben A Barres
Microglia and non-parenchymal macrophages in the brain are mononuclear phagocytes that are increasingly recognized to be essential players in the development, homeostasis and diseases of the central nervous system. With the availability of new genetic, molecular and pharmacological tools, considerable advances have been made towards our understanding of the embryonic origins, developmental programmes and functions of these cells. These exciting discoveries, some of which are still controversial, also raise many new questions, which makes brain macrophage biology a fast-growing field at the intersection of neuroscience and immunology...
April 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146235/macrophages-their-role-activation-and-polarization-in-pulmonary-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Shweta Arora, Kapil Dev, Beamon Agarwal, Pragnya Das, Mansoor Ali Syed
Macrophages, circulating in the blood or concatenated into different organs and tissues constitute the first barrier against any disease. They are foremost controllers of both innate and acquired immunity, healthy tissue homeostasis, vasculogenesis and congenital metabolism. Two hallmarks of macrophages are diversity and plasticity due to which they acquire a wobbling array of phenotypes. These phenotypes are appropriately synchronized responses to a variety of different stimuli from either the tissue microenvironment or - microbes or their products...
April 2018: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054529/development-of-amide-based-fluorescent-probes-for-selective-measurement-of-carboxylesterase-1-activity-in-tissue-extracts
#9
Sean D Kodani, Morgane Barthélemy, Shizuo G Kamita, Bruce Hammock, Christophe Morisseau
Carboxylesterases are well known for their role in the metabolism of xenobiotics. However, recent studies have also implicated carboxylesterases in regulating a number of physiological processes including metabolic homeostasis and macrophage development, underlying the need to quantify them individually. Unfortunately, current methods for selectively measuring the catalytic activity of individual carboxylesterases are not sufficiently sensitive to support many biological studies. In order to develop a more sensitive and selective method to measure the activity of human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1), we generated and tested novel substrates with a fluorescent aminopyridine leaving group...
December 15, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930556/osteoimmunology-the-nexus-between-bone-and-immune-system
#10
Hamid Y Dar, Zaffar Azam, Rajaneesh Anupam, Rajesh K Mondal, Rupesh K Srivastava
Osteoimmunology is an interdisciplinary research field which combines the existing fields of osteology (bone biology) and immunology under one umbrella. The observation that contributed enormously to the emergence of osteoimmunology as an independent field of investigation was the enhanced bone loss in various inflammatory bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and periodontitis. T helper cells (Th1, Th2, Treg and Th17) along with various other immune cells (B cells, DC, macrophages etc.) are actively involved in bone homeostasis...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891095/biological-and-clinical-implications-of-herbal-medicine-and-natural-products-for-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
REVIEW
Bao-Jian Guo, Zhao-Xiang Bian, Hong-Cong Qiu, Yi-Tao Wang, Ying Wang
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory disorders that includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Homeostasis of various regulatory factors involved with intestinal immunity is disrupted in IBD, including the intestinal epithelial barrier, macrophages, and cellular mediators such as cytokines and chemokines. No successful treatment is currently available for the management of IBD. Natural products and herbal medicines have exhibited efficacy for UC and CD in experimental models and clinical trials with the following activities: (1) maintenance of integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier, (2) regulation of macrophage activation, (3) modulation of innate and adaptive immune response, and (4) inhibition of TNF-α activity...
August 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667556/the-role-of-cardiac-tissue-macrophages-in-homeostasis-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Alexei Ilinykh, Alexander R Pinto
Macrophages are principally recognized as an important cell type for removal of tissue debris and as sentinels for tissue damage and foreign antigens. However, macrophages also participate in a diverse range of biological processes including angiogenesis, fibrosis, immune modulation, cell survival, and stem cell mobilization. Cardiac tissue macrophages (cTMs) are a heterogeneous population of phagocytic cells with distinct ontogenetic, phenotypic, and functional characteristics. While our understanding of cTMs has increased substantially over the last 5 years, large gaps in our knowledge regarding the cell biology of cTMs exist, in particular, the development of their unique phenotype and their roles in cardiac homeostasis and tissue stress...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613937/cell-removal-efferocytosis
#13
Peter M Henson
In metazoans, removal of cells in situ is involved in larval maturation, metamorphosis, and embryonic development. In adults, such cell removal plays a role in the homeostatic maintenance of cell numbers and tissue integrity as well as in the response to cell injury and damage. This removal involves uptake of the whole or fragmented target cells into phagocytes. Depending on the organism, these latter may be near-neighbor tissue cells and/or professional phagocytes such as, in vertebrates, members of the myeloid family of cells, especially macrophages...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430017/two-nramp6-isoforms-function-as-iron-and-manganese-transporters-and-contribute-to-disease-resistance-in-rice
#14
Cristina Peris-Peris, Albert Serra-Cardona, Ferrán Sánchez-Sanuy, Sonia Campo, Joaquin Ariño, Blanca San Segundo
Metal ions are essential elements for all living organisms. However, metals can be toxic when present in excess. In plants, metal homeostasis is partly achieved through the function of metal transporters, including the diverse natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins (NRAMP). Among them, the OsNramp6 gene encodes a previously uncharacterized member of the rice NRAMP family that undergoes alternative splicing to produce different NRAMP6 proteins. In this work, we determined the metal transport activity and biological role of the full-length and the shortest NRAMP6 proteins (l-NRAMP6 and s-NRAMP6, respectively)...
May 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323268/ontogeny-and-homeostasis-of-cns-myeloid-cells
#15
REVIEW
Marco Prinz, Daniel Erny, Nora Hagemeyer
Myeloid cells in the central nervous system (CNS) represent a heterogeneous class of innate immune cells that contribute to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis differentially during development and adulthood. The subsets of CNS myeloid cells identified so far, including parenchymal microglia and non-parenchymal meningeal, perivascular and choroid-plexus macrophages, as well as disease-associated monocytes, have classically been distinguished on the basis of their surface epitope expression, localization and morphology...
March 22, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226226/microglia-function-in-the-central-nervous-system-during-health-and-neurodegeneration
#16
REVIEW
Marco Colonna, Oleg Butovsky
Microglia are resident cells of the brain that regulate brain development, maintenance of neuronal networks, and injury repair. Microglia serve as brain macrophages but are distinct from other tissue macrophages owing to their unique homeostatic phenotype and tight regulation by the central nervous system (CNS) microenvironment. They are responsible for the elimination of microbes, dead cells, redundant synapses, protein aggregates, and other particulate and soluble antigens that may endanger the CNS. Furthermore, as the primary source of proinflammatory cytokines, microglia are pivotal mediators of neuroinflammation and can induce or modulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses...
April 26, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057547/intracellular-signaling-modifications-involved-in-the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-4-alkoxy-6-9-dichloro-1-2-4-triazolo-4-3-a-quinoxalines-on-macrophages
#17
Antonio J Ruiz-Alcaraz, María Tristán-Manzano, Antonio Guirado, Jesús Gálvez, María Martínez-Esparza, Pilar García-Peñarrubia
Inflammation is part of a complex biological response directed by the immune system to fight pathogens and maintain homeostasis. Dysregulation of the inflammatory process leads to development of chronic inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. Several cell types, such as macrophages, and cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are involved in the regulation of inflammation. The important role played by these cytokines as mediators of the inflammatory process and the side effects of current therapies have promoted the search of new therapeutic alternatives...
March 1, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040509/integration-of-proteomics-and-metabolomics-to-elucidate-metabolic-adaptation-in-leishmania
#18
Snezhana Akpunarlieva, Stefan Weidt, Dhilia Lamasudin, Christina Naula, David Henderson, Michael Barrett, Karl Burgess, Richard Burchmore
Leishmania parasites multiply and develop in the gut of a sand fly vector in order to be transmitted to a vertebrate host. During this process they encounter and exploit various nutrients, including sugars, and amino and fatty acids. We have previously generated a mutant Leishmania line that is deficient in glucose transport and which displays some biologically important phenotypic changes such as reduced growth in axenic culture, reduced biosynthesis of hexose-containing virulence factors, increased sensitivity to oxidative stress, and dramatically reduced parasite burden in both insect vector and macrophage host cells...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862351/p2y-12-receptor-is-expressed-on-human-microglia-under-physiological-conditions-throughout-development-and-is-sensitive-to-neuroinflammatory-diseases
#19
Alexander Mildner, Hao Huang, Josefine Radke, Werner Stenzel, Josef Priller
Microglia are resident immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS), which are essential for immune defence and critically contribute to neuronal functions during homeostasis. Until now, little is known about microglia biology in humans in part due to the lack of microglia-specific markers. We therefore investigated the expression of the purinergic receptor P2Y12 in human brain tissue. Compared to classical markers used to identify microglia such as Iba1, CD68 or MHCII, we found that P2Y12 is expressed on parenchymal microglia but is absent from perivascular or meningeal macrophages...
February 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757989/identification-of-a-conserved-and-acute-neurodegeneration-specific-microglial-transcriptome-in-the-zebrafish
#20
Nynke Oosterhof, Inge R Holtman, Laura E Kuil, Herma C van der Linde, Erik W G M Boddeke, Bart J L Eggen, Tjakko J van Ham
Microglia are brain resident macrophages important for brain development, connectivity, homeostasis and disease. However, it is still largely unclear how microglia functions and their identity are regulated at the molecular level. Although recent transcriptomic studies have identified genes specifically expressed in microglia, the function of most of these genes in microglia is still unknown. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on microglia acutely isolated from healthy and neurodegenerative zebrafish brains...
January 2017: Glia
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