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Wall deformity

Zhen Wang, Zhiyu Xiao, Chuanshou Huang, Liping Wen, Weiwen Zhang
The present article studied the effect of ultrasonic surface rolling process (USRP) on the microstructure and wear behavior of a selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Surface characteristics were investigated using optical microscope, nano-indentation, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and laser scanning confocal microscope. Results indicated that the thickness of pore-free surfaces increased to 100~200 μm with the increasing ultrasonic surface rolling numbers. Severe work hardening occurred in the densified layer, resulting in the formation of refined grains, dislocation walls and deformation twins...
October 19, 2017: Materials
N M Alekhin
Analysis of diagnostic and prognostic possibilities of echocardiography in patients with Takotsubo syndrome is given in this review. Special characteristics of local wall motion abnormalities of the left ventricle are presented and main variants of transitory derangements of local contractility are described. Changes of parameters of deformation of left and right ventricles in acute period and during follow-up are analyzed in detail. A spectrum of complications of the syndrome in detection of which echocardiography plays the leading role is outlined...
July 2017: Kardiologiia
Samanta Bianchi Vearick, Kétner Bendo Demétrio, Rogério Gastal Xavier, Alexandre Heitor Moreschi, André Frotta Muller, Paulo Roberto Stefani Sanches, Luis Alberto Loureiro Dos Santos
A trachea is a tubular structure composed of smooth muscle that is reinforced with cartilage rings. Some diseases can cause sagging in smooth muscle and cartilaginous tissue. The end result is reduction (narrowing) of the trachea diameter. A solution to this problem is the use of tracheal stents, which are small tubular devices made of silicone. One is inserted into the trachea to prevent or correct its constriction. The purpose of tracheal stent use is to maintain cartilage support that would otherwise be lost in the airway...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Shun Wu, Ke Guo, Peng Xiao, Jiaming Sun
BACKGROUND: Repairing body wall defects is a critical step in the treatment of some congenital deformities, and this procedure may need the help from plastic surgeons. Although there are many articles about congenital deformities, body wall defects of these malformations are rarely studied as independent targets. METHODS: In this article, the authors present an LDT classification for congenital body wall defects according to the position of the defects, the tissue layers involved, and the surgical urgency, each of which is represented by letters L, D, and T, respectively...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
A V Kurkov, A B Shekhter, V S Paukov
Congenital chest wall deformities (CCWDs) in children are severe diseases leading to cosmetic defects and diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The most common of these deformities are funnel-shaped (pectus excavatum, FD) and keeled (pectus carinatum, KD) ones. The pathogenesis of CCWDs and the role of costal cartilage structural and functional changes in their pathogenesis have now been not well studied, which makes it difficult to elaborate pathogenetic approaches to correcting these diseases...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
Jinsup Kim, Sung Yoon Cho, Aram Yang, Ja-Hyun Jang, Youngbin Choi, Ji-Eun Lee, Dong-Kyu Jin
Noonan syndrome (NS) is a genetic disorder caused by autosomal dominant inheritance and is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, short stature, chest deformity, and congenital heart disease. In individuals with NS, germline mutations have been identified in several genes involved in the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway. Because of its clinical and genetic heterogeneity, the conventional diagnostic protocol with Sanger sequencing requires a multistep approach. Therefore, molecular genetic diagnosis using targeted exome sequencing (TES) is considered a less expensive and faster method, particularly for patients who do not fulfill the clinical diagnostic criteria of NS...
September 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Hoyeon Kim, U Kei Cheang, Min Jun Kim
In order to broaden the use of microrobots in practical fields, autonomous control algorithms such as obstacle avoidance must be further developed. However, most previous studies of microrobots used manual motion control to navigate past tight spaces and obstacles while very few studies demonstrated the use of autonomous motion. In this paper, we demonstrated a dynamic obstacle avoidance algorithm for bacteria-powered microrobots (BPMs) using electric field in fluidic environments. A BPM consists of an artificial body, which is made of SU-8, and a high dense layer of harnessed bacteria...
2017: PloS One
Ting Zhou, Yingpeng Hua, Baocai Zhang, Xiuqing Zhang, Yihua Zhou, Lei Shi, Fangsen Xu
Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for the growth and development of plants. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is a staple oleaginous crop, which is greatly susceptible to B deficiency. Significant differences in the tolerance to low-B stresses are observed in rapeseed genotypes, whereas the underlying mechanism remains unclear, particularly at the single-cell level. Here, we provide novel insights into the pectin-mediated cell wall (CW) mechanical properties implicated in the differential tolerance to low-B in rapeseed genotypes...
September 15, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Natalia M Yudintceva, Irina O Bogolubova, Alexandr N Muraviov, Magomed G Sheykhov, Tatiana I Vinogradova, Evgenii G Sokolovich, Igor A Samusenko, Maxim A Shevtsov
Urogenital tuberculosis (TB) often leads to contraction of the bladder, a reduction of the urinary reservoir capacity and, in the latest stage, to real microcystitis up to full obliteration. Bladder TB stage 4 is unsuitable for conservative therapy and cystectomy with subsequent enteroplasty is indicated. In the present study, using a model of bladder TB in New Zealand rabbits, the therapeutic efficacy of the interstitial injection of autologous bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with standard anti-TB treatment in the restoration of the bladder function was demonstrated...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Rodrigo Tomazetto de Carvalho, Gustavo Miranda Rocha, Wladimir Costa Paradas, Angélica Ribeiro Soares, Gláucia Ank Guarino, Raoni Moreira Ferreira Passos, Gilberto Menezes Amado Filho, Marcos Farina, Leonardo Tavares Salgado
Approximately half of the Padina (Dictyotales, Phaeophyceae) species mineralize aragonite needles over the adaxial thallus surface, where mineral bands are interspersed with non-mineralized regions along the thallus from the apical to basal end. However, this calcification pattern and the related algal properties are not well understood. Therefore, this work was performed to elucidate a potential role of cell walls in the inhibition/induction of mineralization in the brown alga Padina gymnospora. In a comparison of specific thallus regions, differences were identified in the cellulose distribution, microfibrils arrangement and thickness, distribution and abundance of phenolic substances, and physical differences among the surfaces of the thallus (deformation, adhesion, topography and nano-rugosity)...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Guowei Chen, Hongyun Luo, Haoyu Yang, Tao Zhang, Sijie Li
Natural bamboo with different water weight contents (0%, 6% and 22%) had distinguishingly different mechanical properties, where samples with water contents of 22% had tensile strength and elongations increased by ∼30% and ∼200% than the dry (0%), respectively. The deformation and fracture process was synchronously recorded and analyzed with the aid of the acoustic emission (AE), during which there were three kinds of real time fracture behaviors recognized: matrix (multi-walled parenchyma cells) failure, interfacial (fiber/fiber or fiber/parenchyma cell walls) dissociations and fiber breakage...
October 5, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Michal Schäfer, Vitaly O Kheyfets, Alex J Barker, Kurt Stenmark, Kendall S Hunter, P Mason McClatchey, J Kern Buckner, T Brett Reece, Omid Jazaeri, Brett E Fenster
OBJECTIVE: Central aortic stiffness and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with increased incidence of devastating aortopathies. However, the exact mechanism leading to elevated aortic stiffness in patients with COPD is unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify flow and shear hemodynamic indices, known markers of vascular remodeling, in the thoracic aorta of patients with mild to moderate COPD (n = 16) and to compare these results with an age-matched control group (n = 10)...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Ming-Jui Hung, Ta Ko, Chung-Yu Liang, Yu-Cheng Kao
RATIONALE: Although transient reduction in the left ventricular ejection fraction is characteristic of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, little is known about the time-course changes of myocardial deformation in coronary vasospasm-related Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. PATIENT CONCERNS: We retrospectively analyzed the time-course changes in left ventricle, right ventricle, and left atrium strain values in a patient with coronary vasospasm-related Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We found that not only left ventricular strain but also left atrial strain was abnormal during acute Takotsubo cardiomyopathy due to coronary vasospasm...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Stefania Marconi, Ettore Lanzarone, Hector De Beaufort, Michele Conti, Santi Trimarchi, Ferdinando Auricchio
INTRODUCTION: Predicting aortic growth in acute type B dissection is fundamental in planning interventions. Several factors are considered to be growth predictors in the literature and, among them, size and location of entry tears have been recognized to particularly influence the false lumen pressure. In this study, we develop an in vitro setting to analyze the actual impact of size and location of the entry tears on false lumen pressure, in the absence of other confounding factors such as the deformability of the aortic wall...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Xi-Qiong Liu, Cheng-Yu Yu, Jun-Gang Dong, Sheng-Wu Hu, Ai-Xia Xu
Background: Acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides amidosulfuron (Hoestar) is an efficient gametocide that can induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). We conducted an integrated study of cytological, transcriptomic, and physiological analysis to decipher the gametocidal effect of amidosulfuron. Results: In the first several days after exposure to amidosulfuron at a gametocidal dose of ca. 1 μg per plant, the plants showed the earliest symptoms including short retard of raceme elongation, slight chlorosis on leaf, and decrease of photosynthesis rate...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Darshil U Shah, Thomas P S Reynolds, Michael H Ramage, Christine Raines
From the stems of agricultural crops to the structural trunks of trees, studying the mechanical behaviour of plant stems is critical for both commerce and science. Plant scientists are also increasingly relying on mechanical test data for plant phenotyping. Yet there are neither standardized methods nor systematic reviews of current methods for the testing of herbaceous stems. We discuss the architecture of plant stems and highlight important micro- and macrostructural parameters that need to be controlled and accounted for when designing test methodologies, or that need to be understood in order to explain observed mechanical behaviour...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Kegan J Moneghetti, Genevieve Giraldeau, Matthew T Wheeler, Yukari Kobayashi, Bojan Vrtovec, David Boulate, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Ingela Schnittger, Joseph C Wu, Jonathan Myers, Euan Ashley, Francois Haddad
Aims: Risk stratification in heart failure (HF) relies on several established clinical risk scores, however, myocardial deformation, right heart metrics, and exercise performance have not usually been considered. This study sought to assess the incremental value of advanced echocardiographic and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) parameters to validated risk scores in HF. Methods and results: The Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure (MAGGIC) and Metabolic Exercise Test Data Combined with Cardiac and Kidney Indexes (MECKI) scores were applied to 208 ambulatory patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) who completed echocardiography in conjunction with CPX as part of the Stanford Exercise Testing registry...
July 21, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Douglas Fankell, Richard A Regueiro, Eric Kramer, Virginia L Ferguson, Mark E Rentschler
Understanding the impact of thermally and mechanically loading biological tissue to supraphysiological levels is becoming of increasing importance as complex multi-physical tissue-device interactions increase. The ability to conduct accurate, patient specific computer simulations would provide surgeons with valuable insight into the physical processes occurring within the tissue as it is heated or cooled. Several studies have modeled tissue as porous media, yet fully coupled thermo-poromechanics (TPM) models are limited...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Masafumi Kidoh, Daisuke Utsunomiya, Yoshinori Funama, Hiroshi Ashikaga, Takeshi Nakaura, Seitaro Oda, Hideaki Yuki, Kenichiro Hirata, Yuji Iyama, Yasunori Nagayama, Toshihiro Fukui, Yasuyuki Yamashita, Katsuyuki Taguchi
BACKGROUND: Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has the potential for fully four-dimensional (4D for 3D plus time) motion analysis of the heart. We aimed at developing a method for assessment and presentation of the 4D motion for multi-phase, contrast-enhanced cardiac CT data sets and demonstrating its clinical applicability. METHODS: Four patients with normal cardiac function, old myocardial infarction (OMI), takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) underwent contrast-enhanced cardiac CT for one heartbeat using a 320-row CT scanner with no tube current modulation...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Matthew S Hoehler, Christopher M Smith, Tara C Hutchinson, Xiang Wang, Brian J Meacham, Praveen Kamath
A series of tests was conducted on six 2.7 m × 3.7 m shear wall specimens consisting of cold-formed steel framing sheathed on one side with sheet steel adhered to gypsum board and on the opposite side with plain gypsum board. The specimens were subjected to various sequences of simulated seismic shear deformation and fire exposure to study the influence of multi-hazard interactions on the lateral load resistance of the walls. The test program was designed to complement a parallel effort at the University of California, San Diego to investigate a six-story building subjected to earthquakes and fires...
July 2017: Fire Safety Journal
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