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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938792/gastrointestinal-microbial-population-of-turkey-meleagris-gallopavo-affected-by-hemorrhagic-enteritis-virus
#1
Sara D'Andreano, Armand Sànchez Bonastre, Olga Francino, Anna Cuscó Martí, Cristina Lecchi, Guido Grilli, Davide Giovanardi, Fabrizio Ceciliani
Hemorrhagic enteritis (HE) is an acute viral disease that affects avian species, particularly turkeys, compromising their commercial production and having a negative effect on animal welfare. Turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3), is the main causal agent of the disease. In this study, we considered 3 groups of turkeys to achieve 2 purposes: 1) A preliminary investigation on the microbiota content in the 4 parts of healthy turkey's intestine (group A), namely duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and ceca was done; 2) an investigation on the relationship between natural infections with TAdV-3 and the intestinal microbiota in the jejunum, where HE mostly develops, comparing group A with animals with molecular positivity for the virus and with clinical signs of HE (group B) and animals with molecular positivity for the virus but without clinical signs (group C)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938791/effects-of-a-high-dose-of-microbial-phytase-and-myo-inositol-supplementation-on-growth-performance-tibia-mineralization-nutrient-digestibility-litter-moisture-content-and-foot-problems-in-broiler-chickens-fed-phosphorus-deficient-diets
#2
D Farhadi, A Karimi, Gh Sadeghi, J Rostamzadeh, M R Bedford
A total of 660 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed into eleven dietary treatments. Treatments included a maize-soybean meal-based diet with recommended calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) (positive control; PC), an nPP-deficient diet (negative control; NC), NC diets supplemented with different levels of phytase (0, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, 5,000, and 6,000 FTU/kg), a NC diet plus 0.15% myo-inositol, and a NC diet with reduced Ca level (Ca to nPP ratio same as PC)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938790/factors-affecting-adipose-tissue-development-in-chickens-a-review
#3
Guoqing Wang, Woo Kyun Kim, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The intense genetic selection for rapid growth in broilers has resulted in an increase in voluntary feed intake and growth rate, accompanied by increased fat deposition in adipose tissue depots throughout the body. Adipose tissue expansion is a result of the formation of adipocytes (several processes collectively referred to as adipogenesis) and cellular accumulation of triacylglycerols inside lipid droplets. In mammals, different anatomical depots are metabolically distinct. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying adipose tissue development have been characterized in mammalian models, whereas information in avian species is scarce...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938788/cd4-t-cells-dominate-the-leukocyte-infiltration-response-initiated-by-intra-dermal-injection-of-phytohemagglutinin-into-growing-feathers-in-chickens
#4
K S Sullivan, G F Erf
Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) is commonly used to evaluate cell-mediated immunocompetence. In chickens, PHA is typically injected intra-dermally (i.d.) into the skin (e.g., wing web, wattle, or footpad), and the tissue swelling response is monitored, whereby the extent of tissue swelling positively relates to the individual's cell-mediated immune system capabilities. Although i.d. injected PHA was shown to stimulate mononuclear cell and basophil infiltration to the site of injection, reports on temporal, qualitative, and quantitative aspects of the local cutaneous PHA response are limited...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938779/physical-and-chemical-characteristics-of-meat-from-broilers-raised-in-4-different-rearing-systems-stored-under-freezing-for-up-to-12-months
#5
A Giampietro-Ganeco, C M Owens, J L M Mello, R A Souza, F B Ferrari, P A Souza, H Borba
This study evaluated the effects of freezing (-18°C) for 12 mo on attributes related to the texture of breast, drumstick, and thigh from broilers raised in 4 different rearing systems. Five-hundred carcasses of male broilers raised in 4 rearing systems (Antibiotic-free, Cobb 500, n = 125; Free-range, Hubbard ISA, n = 125; Conventional, Cobb 500, n = 125; Organic, Cobb 500, n = 125) were divided into breast, drumstick, and thigh and stored under freezing (-18°C) for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Breast, drumstick, and thigh meat from broilers raised in all studied rearing systems showed reduction (P < 0...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938778/comparison-of-hatching-egg-characteristics-embryo-development-yolk-absorption-hatch-window-and-hatchability-of-pekin-duck-eggs-of-different-weights
#6
A Ipek, A Sozcu
This study was carried out to determine the hatching egg characteristics, embryo development and yolk absorption during incubation, hatch window, and hatchability of Pekin duck eggs of different weights. A total of 960 hatching eggs was obtained from a breeder flock 35 to 36 wk of age. The eggs were classed into 3 weight categories: "light" (L; <75 g), "medium" (M; 76 to 82 g), and "heavy" (H; >83 g). The albumen weight was the highest in the heavy eggs, whereas the yolk weight was higher in the medium and heavy eggs...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938774/evaluation-of-encapsulated-sodium-butyrate-on-growth-performance-energy-digestibility-gut-development-and-salmonella-colonization-in-broilers
#7
J D Liu, H O Bayir, D E Cosby, N A Cox, S M Williams, J Fowler
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of an encapsulated sodium butyrate (Na-B) with targeted releasing times on broiler performance, energy digestibility, intestinal morphology, and ceca Salmonella colonization. In experiment 1, 3 different Na-B products (CMA, CMP, and CMS) were evaluated following a challenge with a nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella typhimurium (STNAR). Cobb-Cobb male birds were placed 8 per pen into 6 replicates for each treatment. Treatments included 6 Na-B treatments (500 and 1,000 ppm of each product) plus 2 control (non-challenged and challenged)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938773/characteristics-of-global-organic-matrix-in-normal-and-pimpled-chicken-eggshells
#8
Z Liu, L Song, F Zhang, W He, R J Linhardt
The organic matrix from normal and pimpled calcified chicken eggshells were dissociated into acid-insoluble, water-insoluble, and facultative-soluble (both acid- and water-soluble) components, to understand the influence of shell matrix on eggshell qualities. A linear correlation was shown among these 3 matrix components in normal eggshells but was not observed in pimpled eggshells. In pimpled eggshells, the percentage contents of all 4 groups of matrix (the total matrix, acid-insoluble matrix, water-insoluble matrix, and facultative-soluble matrix) were significantly higher than that in normal eggshells...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938769/recent-advances-in-avian-egg-science-a-review
#9
Philippe B Wilson
Eggs and egg products form an integral part of the food chain. As such, research into egg structure, function, and production has made an important contribution to the field of poultry science. The past decade has seen significant advances in avian egg science research, with work supplementing our understanding of the nature of the avian egg, and its biological, chemical, and physical properties. Eggshell color, strength, and chemical composition, poultry nutrition, and genetics have all been intensively studied recently, with significant progress being made in a number of these areas...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938763/abnormal-histopathology-fat-percent-and-hepatic-apolipoprotein-a-i-and-apolipoprotein-b100-mrna-expression-in-fatty-liver-hemorrhagic-syndrome-and-their-improvement-by-soybean-lecithin
#10
Yalu Song, Jiming Ruan, Junrong Luo, Tiancheng Wang, Fei Yang, Huabin Cao, Jianzhen Huang, Guoliang Hu
To investigate the etiopathogenesis of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) and the protective effects of soybean lecithin against FLHS in laying hens, 135 healthy 300-day-old Hyline laying hens were randomly divided into groups: control (group 1), diseased (group 2), and protected (group 3). Each group contained 45 layers with 3 replicates. The birds in these 3 groups were fed a control diet, a high-energy/low-protein (HELP) diet or the HELP diet supplemented with 3% soybean lecithin instead of maize. The fat percent in the liver was calculated...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938751/new-permeable-cryoprotectant-free-vitrification-method-for-native-human-sperm
#11
J Aizpurua, L Medrano, M Enciso, J Sarasa, A Romero, M A Fernández, M J Gómez-Torres
STUDY QUESTION: Is permeable cryoprotectant-free vitrification of native sperm samples a good alternative to conventional slow freezing? SUMMARY ANSWER: The permeable cryoprotectant-free sperm vitrification protocol tested in this study renders considerably better recovery rates of good quality sperm compared to slow freezing. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Slow freezing is currently the most commonly used technique for sperm cryopreservation, though this method has been repeatedly shown to have negative effects on both structural and functional sperm features...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938750/allowable-warm-ischemic-time-and-morphological-and-biochemical-changes-in-uterine-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-cynomolgus-macaque-a-basic-study-for-uterus-transplantation
#12
Iori Kisu, Kiyoko Umeneo, Masataka Adachi, Katsura Emoto, Yuya Nogami, Kouji Banno, Iori Itagaki, Ikuo Kawamoto, Takahiro Nakagawa, Hayato Narita, Atsushi Yoshida, Hideaki Tsuchiya, Kazumasa Ogasawara, Daisuke Aoki
STUDY QUESTION: How long is the allowable warm ischemic time of the uterus and what morphological and biochemical changes are caused by uterine ischemia/reperfusion injury in cynomolgus macaques? SUMMARY ANSWER: Warm ischemia in the uterus of cynomolgus macaques is tolerated for up to 4 h and reperfusion after uterine ischemia caused no further morphological and biochemical changes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Uterus transplantation is a potential option for women with uterine factor infertility...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938737/complex-catsper-dependent-and-independent-ca2-i-signalling-in-human-spermatozoa-induced-by-follicular-fluid
#13
Sean G Brown, Sarah Costello, Mark C Kelly, Mythili Ramalingam, Ellen Drew, Stephen J Publicover, Christopher L R Barratt, Sarah Martins Da Silva
STUDY QUESTION: Does progesterone in human follicular fluid (hFF) activate CatSper and do other components of hFF modulate this effect and/or contribute separately to hFF-induced Ca2+ signaling? SUMMARY ANSWER: hFF potently stimulates CatSper and increases [Ca2+]i, primarily due to high concentrations of progesterone, however, other components of hFF also contribute to [Ca2+]i signaling, including modulation of CatSper channel activity and inhibition of [Ca2+]i oscillations...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938736/deep-sequencing-shows-that-oocytes-are-not-prone-to-accumulate-mtdna-heteroplasmic-mutations-during-ovarian-ageing
#14
L Boucret, C Bris, V Seegers, D Goudenège, V Desquiret-Dumas, M Domin-Bernhard, V Ferré-L'Hotellier, P E Bouet, P Descamps, P Reynier, V Procaccio, P May-Panloup
STUDY QUESTION: Does ovarian ageing increase the number of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations in oocytes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our results suggest that oocytes are not subject to the accumulation of mtDNA point mutations during ovarian ageing. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Ageing is associated with the alteration of mtDNA integrity in various tissues. Primary oocytes, present in the ovary since embryonic life, may accumulate mtDNA mutations during the process of ovarian ageing...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938731/the-importance-of-genetic-parenthood-for-infertile-men-and-women
#15
S Hendriks, K Peeraer, H Bos, S Repping, E A F Dancet
STUDY QUESTION: Do men and women beginning to attend a fertility clinic prefer genetic over non-genetic parenthood? SUMMARY ANSWER: Nearly, all infertile men and women prefer genetic parenthood. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Clinicians assume that all infertile couples prefer genetic parenthood over non-genetic parenthood and, therefore, consider treatments with donor gametes an option of last resort. Previous studies of the desire for parenthood identified 30 motivations for genetic parenthood, and 51 motivations for which having a genetically related child is not strictly necessary but might be deemed required...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938722/novel-transcriptome-resources-for-three-scleractinian-coral-species-from-the-indo-pacific
#16
Carly D Kenkel, Line K Bay
Transcriptomic resources for coral species can provide insight into coral evolutionary history and stress-response physiology. Goniopora columna, Galaxea astreata, and Galaxea acrhelia are scleractinian corals of the Indo-Pacific, representing a diversity of morphologies and life-history traits. G. columna and G. astreata are common and cosmopolitan, while G. acrhelia is largely restricted to the coral triangle and Great Barrier Reef. Reference transcriptomes for these species were assembled from replicate colony fragments exposed to elevated (31°C) and ambient (27°C) temperatures...
September 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938720/deep-whole-genome-sequencing-of-90-han-chinese-genomes
#17
Tianming Lan, Haoxiang Lin, Wenjuan Zhu, Tellier Christian Asker Melchior Laurent, Mengcheng Yang, Xin Liu, Jun Wang, Jian Wang, Huanming Yang, Xun Xu, Xiaosen Guo
Next-generation sequencing provides a high-resolution insight into human genetic information. However, the focus of previous studies has primarily been on low-coverage data due to the high cost of sequencing. Although the 1000 Genomes Project and the Haplotype Reference Consortium have both provided powerful reference panels for imputation, low-frequency and novel variants remain difficult to discover and call with accuracy on the basis of low-coverage data. Deep sequencing provides an optimal solution for the problem of these low-frequency and novel variants...
September 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938719/population-wide-sampling-of-retrotransposon-insertion-polymorphisms-using-deep-sequencing-and-efficient-detection
#18
Qichao Yu, Wei Zhang, Xiaolong Zhang, Yongli Zeng, Yeming Wang, Yanhui Wang, Liqin Xu, Xiaoyun Huang, Nannan Li, Xinlan Zhou, Jie Lu, Xiaosen Guo, Guibo Li, Yong Hou, Shiping Liu, Bo Li
Active retrotransposons play important roles during evolution and continue to shape our genomes today, especially in genetic polymorphisms underlying a diverse set of diseases. However, studies of human retrotransposon insertion polymorphisms (RIPs) based on whole-genome deep sequencing at the population level have not been sufficiently undertaken, despite the obvious need for a thorough characterization of RIPs in the general population. Herein, we present a novel and efficient computational tool called Specific Insertions Detector (SID) for the detection of non-reference RIPs...
September 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938702/correction-endothelial-microparticles-delivering-microrna-155-into-t-lymphocytes-are-involved-in-the-initiation-of-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
Ran Zhang, Xiaoxiao Wang, Mei Hong, Ting Luo, Miaomiao Zhao, Haorui Shen, Jun Fang, Xiaojie Li, Sibin Zang, Ping Chen, Dimin Nie, Peng Zheng, Qiuling Wu, Linghui Xia
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.15579.].
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938688/drag-reducing-polymers-decrease-hepatic-injury-and-metastases-after-liver-ischemia-reperfusion
#20
Samer Tohme, Marina V Kameneva, Hamza O Yazdani, Vikas Sud, Julie Goswami, Patricia Loughran, Hai Huang, Richard L Simmons, Allan Tsung
INTRODUCTION: Surgery, a crucial therapeutic modality in the treatment of solid tumors, can induce sterile inflammatory processes which can result in metastatic progression. Liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury, an inevitable consequence of hepatic resection of metastases, has been shown to foster hepatic capture of circulating cancer cells and accelerate metastatic growth. Efforts to reduce these negative consequences have not been thoroughly investigated. Drag reducing polymers (DRPs) are blood-soluble macromolecules that can, in nanomolar concentrations, increase tissue perfusion, decrease vascular resistance and decrease near-wall microvascular concentration of neutrophils and platelets thereby possibly reducing the inflammatory microenvironment...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
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