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Nadine Oppermann, Jürgen Weitz, Christoph Reißfelder, Sören Torge Mees
In Germany, medical students in their final year will work in hospitals or medical offices to gain clinical experience. The final year is designed to prepare medical students for their work as junior doctors. It is divided into three parts and includes internal medicine and general surgery as mandatory parts. Many students develop enthusiasm or lack of enthusiasm while working in specific disciplines and often apply for jobs based on their experience in their final year. Despite the importance of this educational phase, the 36 medical faculties have implemented several different curricula and there is significant heterogeneity...
March 16, 2018: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
Mariella G Filbin, Dominik Sturm
Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms in children and adolescents and are thought to arise from their glial progenitors or stem cells. Although the exact cells of origin for most pediatric gliomas remain to be identified, our current understanding is that specific cell populations during CNS development are susceptible to particular oncogenic events during certain time windows and thus give rise to pediatric gliomas with distinct histological, molecular, and clinical features...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Zachary J Reitman, Frank Winkler, Andrew E H Elia
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system. The current standard of care for GBM is maximal resection followed by postoperative radiation with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. Despite this multimodality treatment, the median survival for GBM remains marginally better than 1 year. In the past decade, genome-wide analyses have uncovered new molecular features of GBM that have refined its classification and provided new insights into the molecular basis for GBM pathogenesis...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Maria Martinez-Lage, Felix Sahm
The updated 2016 WHO classification of Central Nervous System tumors introduced a novel concept of neuropathology diagnostics. Molecular parameters are now included into the definition of several entities. This evolution from a previously purely histology-based classification to an integrated approach of histology and genetic characteristics has implications in daily diagnostic and clinical practice. Both the spectrum of diagnostic workup demanded from the neuropathologist and the range of relevant markers to be considered by clinicians and clinical investigators have increased...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Justin M Curley, Coleen Crouch, Joshua E Wilk
Introduction: Medical readiness for deployment is arguably the most important component of personnel readiness in the U.S. Army. Administrative documents called profiles provide individualized medical recommendations to the commander regarding how to best provide for a soldier's health and welfare, and contribute to an aggregated enumeration of a unit's overall readiness to deploy. Profiles that convey behavioral health (BH) limitations thus reflect what can be called the "behavioral health readiness" of the force...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Charles Cole, Ashley Byrne, Anna E Beaudin, E Camilla Forsberg, Christopher Vollmers
RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) is a powerful technique to investigate and quantify entire transcriptomes. Recent advances in the field have made it possible to explore the transcriptomes of single cells. However, most widely used RNA-seq protocols fail to provide crucial information regarding transcription start sites. Here we present a protocol, Tn5Prime, that takes advantage of the Tn5 transposase-based Smart-seq2 protocol to create RNA-seq libraries that capture the 5' end of transcripts. The Tn5Prime method dramatically streamlines the 5' capture process and is both cost effective and reliable...
March 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Antonella Sferra, Fabiana Fattori, Teresa Rizza, Elsabetta Flex, Emanuele Bellacchio, Alessandro Bruselles, Stefania Petrini, Serena Cecchetti, Massimo Teson, Fabrizia Restaldi, Andrea Ciolfi, Filippo M Santorelli, Ginevra Zanni, Sabina Barresi, Claudia Castiglioni, Marco Tartaglia, Enrico Bertini
Microtubules participate in fundamental cellular processes, including chromosomal segregation and cell division, migration, and intracellular trafficking. Their proper function is required for correct central nervous system development and operative preservation, and mutations in genes coding tubulins, the constituting units of microtubules, underlie a family of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, collectively known as "tubulinopathies", characterized by a wide range of neuronal defects resulting from defective proliferation, migration, and function...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Robin Patel, Ferric C Fang
Recent advances in microbial diagnostics are providing clinicians with information about microbes causing infections and their resistance to antimicrobial agents more rapidly than ever before. Diagnostic stewardship refers to the appropriate use of laboratory testing to guide patient management, including treatment, in order to optimize clinical outcomes and limit the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Fulfilling the promise of diagnostic stewardship requires a seamless partnership between clinical laboratories, pharmacists, and infectious diseases clinicians, so that appropriate tests are ordered and diagnostic information is translated into appropriate management in real time...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Zhanfeng Si, Hui Liu, Jiankun Zhu, Jiedan Chen, Qiong Wang, Lei Fang, Fengkai Gao, Yue Tian, Yali Chen, Lijing Chang, Bingliang Liu, Zegang Han, Baoliang Zhou, Yan Hu, Xianzhong Huang, Tianzhen Zhang
In cotton, the formation of fruiting branches affects both plant architecture and fiber yield. Here, we report map-based cloning of the Gossypium barbadense axillary flowering (GbAF) mutation gene, which causes bolls to be borne directly on the main plant stem, and of the G. hirsutum clustered boll (cl1) mutation gene. Both mutant alleles were found to represent point mutations at the Cl1 locus of the corresponding species, and therefore we propose that the GbAF mutation be referred to as cl1b. These Cl1 loci correspond to homologs of tomato SELF-PRUNING (SP), i...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Devin Ancona, Dan York, Robert J Higgins, Danika Bannasch, Peter J Dickinson
Choroid plexus tumors (CPTs) occur spontaneously in humans and dogs providing an opportunity for comparative cross species analysis of common tumor mechanisms. Large scale chromosomal copy number alterations are the hallmark of human CPTs and identification of driver genes within these regions is problematic. Copy number alterations in 12 spontaneous dog CPTs were defined using an Illumina 170 K single nucleotide polymorphism array and were characterized by highly recurrent whole chromosomal losses in up to 100% of cases with few chromosome wide gains...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Chad M Hodge, Scott P Narus
Objective: Problem list data is a driving force for many beneficial clinical tools, yet these data remain underutilized. We performed a systematic literature review, pulling insights from previous research, aggregating insights into themes, and distilling themes into actionable advice. We sought to learn what changes we could make to existing applications, to the clinical workflow, and to clinicians' perceptions that would improve problem list utilization and increase the prevalence of problems data in the electronic medical record...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Bryan W Heckman, K Michael Cummings, Georges J Nahas, Marc C Willemsen, Richard J O'Connor, Ron Borland, Alexander A Hirsch, Warren K Bickel, Matthew J Carpenter
Introduction: The demand for alternative nicotine/tobacco products is not well established. This paper uses a behavioral economic approach to test whether smokers have differential demand for conventional factory-made, electronic, and very low nicotine content cigarettes (FMCs/ECs/VLNCs) and uses the prospective cohort design to test the predictive validity of demand indices on subsequent use of commercially available FMCs and ECs. Methods: Daily smokers (>16 years) from the Netherlands completed an online survey in April 2014 (N=1215)...
March 14, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Bertine de Vries, Jooske T van Busschbach, Elisabeth C D van der Stouwe, André Aleman, Jan J M van Dijk, Paul H Lysaker, Johan Arends, Saskia A Nijman, Gerdina H M Pijnenborg
Psychotic disorders often have been linked with violence. However, studies have shown that people with a psychotic disorder are more often victim than perpetrator of violence. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review prevalence rates for different types of victimization and to identify risk factors associated with victimization. Based on a search in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science, 27 studies were found with samples consisting of adults with a psychotic disorder and possible victimization occurring during adulthood and data on "violent victimization," "sexual victimization," "non-violent victimization," and/or "victimization not otherwise specified...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Maxime Lamontagne, Jean-Christophe Bérubé, Ma'en Obeidat, Michael H Cho, Brian D Hobbs, Phuwanat Sakornsakolpat, Kim de Jong, H Marike Boezen, David Nickle, Ke Hao, Wim Timens, Maarten van den Berge, Philippe Joubert, Michel Laviolette, Don D Sin, Peter D Paré, Yohan Bossé
Causal genes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain elusive. The current study aims at integrating genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and lung expression quantitative loci (eQTL) data to map COPD candidate causal genes and gain biological insights into the recently discovered COPD susceptibility loci. Two complementary genomic datasets on COPD were studied. First, the lung eQTL dataset which included whole-genome gene expression and genotyping data from 1,038 individuals. Second, the largest COPD GWAS to date from the International COPD Genetics Consortium (ICGC) with 13,710 cases and 38,062 controls...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Gaby Aphram, Laurent De Kerchove, Stefano Mastrobuoni, Emiliano Navarra, Silvia Solari, Saadallah Tamer, Jerome Baert, Alain Poncelet, Jean Rubay, Parla Astarci, Philippe Noirhomme, Gebrine El Khoury
OBJECTIVES: Mitral valve (MV) repair is the gold standard for treatment of degenerative mitral regurgitation. A variety of surgical techniques allow surgeons to achieve a high rate of MV repair even with MV diseases of other aetiologies. However, a certain number of repairs fail over time. The aim of this study was to review our single-centre experience of MV re-repair and analyse the mode of repair failure, re-repair safety and efficiency in relation to the initial aetiology. METHODS: Between 1997 and 2015, 91 patients underwent redo MV re-repair...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Laura Miller, Gerardo J Pacheco, Jud C Janak, Rose C Grimm, Nicole A Dierschke, Janice Baker, Jean A Orman
Background: Military working dogs (MWDs) are a major asset in the theater of operations. Their unique abilities make them ideal for tasks such as tracking, patrol, and scent detection. MWDs deployed to a war zone are exposed to harsh environments and battlefield dangers that increase their risk of disease, injuries, and death. Although canines have been used extensively in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), no published studies have reported detailed causes of death among MWDs deployed to these conflicts...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Thorsten Tjardes, Markus Luecking
Introduction: To achieve the aim of zero preventable deaths on the battlefield a deeper understanding of uncontrolled hemorrhage from junctional or proximal extremity sources is mandatory. While tourniquet application to the extremities has drastically reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still room for improvement regarding the timing of tourniquet placement as the available evidence clearly points out a tight correlation between timing of tourniquet application and outcome. To save as many lives as possible the "point of no return" regarding the circulatory breakdown due to hemorrhage, colloquially addressed as platinum 5 min, needs to be determined...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Igor S Pessi, Yannick Lara, Benoit Durieu, Pedro de C Maalouf, Elie Verleyen, Annick Wilmotte
The terrestrial Antarctic Realm has recently been divided into 16 Antarctic Conservation Biogeographic Regions (ACBRs) based on environmental properties and the distribution of biota. Despite their prominent role in the primary production and nutrient cycling in Antarctic lakes, cyanobacteria were only poorly represented in the biological dataset used to delineate these ACBRs. Here we provide a first high-throughput sequencing (HTS) insight into the spatial distribution of benthic cyanobacterial communities in Antarctic lakes located in four distinct, geographically distant ACBRs and covering a range of limnological conditions...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Jiawei Wang, Bingjiao Yang, André Leier, Tatiana T Marquez-Lago, Morihiro Hayashida, Andrea Rocker, Zhang Yanju, Tatsuya Akutsu, Kuo-Chen Chou, Richard A Strugnell, Jiangning Song, Trevor Lithgow
Motivation: Many Gram-negative bacteria use type VI secretion systems (T6SS) to export effector proteins into adjacent target cells. These secreted effectors (T6SEs) play vital roles in the competitive survival in bacterial populations, as well as pathogenesis of bacteria. Although various computational analyses have been previously applied to identify effectors secreted by certain bacterial species, there is no universal method available to accurately predict T6SS effector proteins from the growing tide of bacterial genome sequence data...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Benedikt Hacker, Christoph Schultheiß, Michael Döring, Ursula Kurzik-Dumke
This study provides first insights into the involvement of hNOT/ALG3, the human counterpart of the Drosophila NOT and yeast ALG3 gene, in various putative molecular networks. HNOT/ALG3 encodes two translated transcripts encoding precursor proteins differing in their N-terminus and showing 33% identity with the yeast asparagine-linked glycosylation 3 (ALG3) protein. Experimental evidence for the functional homology of the proteins of fly and man in the N-glycosylation has still to be provided. In this study, using the yeast two-hybrid technique we identify 17 molecular partners of hNOT-1/ALG3-1...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
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