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Mitochondria reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093283/lipophilic-tetraphenylphosphonium-derivatives-enhance-radiation-induced-cell-killing-via-inhibition-of-mitochondrial-energy-metabolism-in-tumor-cells
#1
Hironobu Yasui, Kumiko Yamamoto, Motofumi Suzuki, Yuri Sakai, Tomoki Bo, Masaki Nagane, Eri Nishimura, Tohru Yamamori, Toshihide Yamasaki, Ken-Ichi Yamada, Osamu Inanami
It has recently been reported that radiation enhances mitochondrial energy metabolism in various tumor cell lines. To examine how this radiation-induced alteration in mitochondrial function influences tumor cell viability, various lipophilic triphenylphosphonium (TPP(+)) cation derivatives and related compounds such as 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-oxy-piperidin (Tempol) with TPP(+) (named "Mito-") were designed to inhibit the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Mito-(CH2)10-Tempol (M10T) and its derivatives, Mito-(CH2)5-Tempol (M5T), Mito-(CH2)10-Tempol-Methyl (M10T-Me), Mito-C10H21 (M10), and C10H21-Tempol (10T), were prepared...
January 13, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065674/mitochondria-in-teleost-spermatozoa
#2
REVIEW
Patricio Ulloa-Rodríguez, Elías Figueroa, Rommy Díaz, Manuel Lee-Estevez, Stefania Short, Jorge G Farías
There is an extraordinary diversity of reproductive modes in teleost and this variability is related to the phylogenetic relationships and adaption to very different biotopes. As in all vertebrates, sperm is produced as the end product of the process of spermatogenesis, and regarding teleost the spermatozoa lack an acrosome in almost all species and motility is activated as a response to osmolarity and ion content of the aquatic medium where the sperm is released. In this context, mitochondria possess a fundamental role for fish spermatozoa motility and integrity, hence, fertilizing potential; they are the energy supplier that allows flagellar movement and their dysfunction could play a main role in structural and functional damage to the spermatozoa...
January 5, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062752/arabidopsis-seed-mitochondria-are-bioenergetically-active-immediately-upon-imbibition-and-specialize-via-biogenesis-in-preparation-for-autotrophic-growth
#3
Gael Paszkiewicz, Jose Manuel Gualberto, Abdelilah Benamar, David Macherel, David C Logan
Seed germination is a vital developmental transition for production of progeny by sexual reproduction in spermatophytes. Quiescent cells in non-dormant dry embryos are reawakened first by imbibition and then by perception of germination triggers. Reanimated tissues enter into a germination program requiring energy for expansion growth. However, germination requires that embryonic tissues develop to support the more energy-demanding processes of cell division and organogenesis of the new seedling. Reactivation of mitochondria to supply the required energy is thus a key process underpinning germination and seedling survival...
January 6, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031523/protective-effects-of-resveratrol-against-mancozeb-induced-apoptosis-damage-in-mouse-oocytes
#4
Yu Liu, Ya-Long Wang, Shu-Wen He, Ming-Huang Chen, Zhen Zhang, Xian-Pei Fu, Bin-Bin Fu, Bao-Qiong Liao, Yan-Hong Lin, Zhong-Quan Qi, Hai-Long Wang
Mancozeb, a mixture of ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate manganese and zinc salts, is one of the most widely used fungicides in agriculture. Mancozeb could lead to mitochondria dysfunction, cellular anti-oxidation enzymes depletion and apoptotic pathways activation. Previous studies indicated the exposure of mancozeb through mother would lead to irregular estrous cycles, decreased progesterone levels, reduced litter sizes, and more frequent delivery of dead fetuses. In this study, we investigated mancozeb inducing reproductive toxicity, especially focusing on its apoptotic effect and epigenetic modifications...
December 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025277/uniparental-inheritance-promotes-adaptive-evolution-in-cytoplasmic-genomes
#5
Joshua R Christie, Madeleine Beekman
Eukaryotes carry numerous asexual cytoplasmic genomes (mitochondria and plastids). Lacking recombination, asexual genomes should theoretically suffer from impaired adaptive evolution. Yet, empirical evidence indicates that cytoplasmic genomes experience higher levels of adaptive evolution than predicted by theory. In this study, we use a computational model to show that the unique biology of cytoplasmic genomes-specifically their organization into host cells and their uniparental (maternal) inheritance-enable them to undergo effective adaptive evolution...
December 25, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003866/sirt1-3-activation-by-resveratrol-attenuates-acute-kidney-injury-in-a-septic-rat-model
#6
Siqi Xu, Youguang Gao, Qin Zhang, Siwei Wei, Zhongqing Chen, Xingui Dai, Zhenhua Zeng, Ke-Seng Zhao
Sepsis often results in damage to multiple organ systems, possibly due to severe mitochondrial dysfunction. Two members of the sirtuin family, SIRT1 and SIRT3, have been implicated in the reversal of mitochondrial damage. The aim of this study was to determine the role of SIRT1/3 in acute kidney injury (AKI) following sepsis in a septic rat model. After drug pretreatment and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model reproduction in the rats, we performed survival time evaluation and kidney tissue extraction and renal tubular epithelial cell (RTEC) isolation...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984162/glycidamide-inhibits-progesterone-production-through-reactive-oxygen-species-induced-apoptosis-in-r2c-rat-leydig-cells
#7
Mingwei Li, Jianxia Sun, Feiyan Zou, Shun Bai, Xinwei Jiang, Rui Jiao, Shiyi Ou, Hui Zhang, Zhijian Su, Yadong Huang, Weibin Bai
The food contaminant acrylamide (AA) is usually recognized as a probable human carcinogen. In addition, AA has also been found able to induce male infertility in animals. Interestingly, resent research work revealed that the toxic effect of AA on the ability of male reproduction in vivo may due to glycidamide (GA) which is the metabolite of AA. In this study, R2C Leydig cells was used to investigate the toxic effects of GA on progesterone production. GA caused dose-dependent inhibition on the cell growth, with IC25, IC50, and IC75 values found at 0...
October 27, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965440/cfap157-is-a-murine-downstream-effector-of-foxj1-that-is-specifically-required-for-flagellum-morphogenesis-and-sperm-motility
#8
Marina Weidemann, Karin Schuster-Gossler, Michael Stauber, Christoph Wrede, Jan Hegermann, Tim Ott, Karsten Boldt, Tina Beyer, Katrin Serth, Elisabeth Kremmer, Martin Blum, Marius Ueffing, Achim Gossler
Motile cilia move extracellular fluids or mediate cellular motility. Their function is essential for embryonic development, adult tissue homeostasis and reproduction throughout vertebrates. FOXJ1 is a key transcription factor for the formation of motile cilia but its downstream genetic programme is only partially understood. Here, we characterise a novel FOXJ1 target, Cfap157, that is specifically expressed in motile ciliated tissues in mouse and Xenopus in a FOXJ1-dependent manner. CFAP157 protein localises to basal bodies and interacts with tubulin and the centrosomal protein CEP350...
December 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911307/a-high-cholesterol-diet-increases-27-hydroxycholesterol-and-modifies-estrogen-receptor-expression-and-neurodegeneration-in-rabbit-hippocampus
#9
Sylwia W Brooks, Ava C Dykes, Bernard G Schreurs
Hypercholesterolemia has been implicated in numerous health problems from cardiovascular disease to neurodegeneration. High serum cholesterol levels in midlife have been associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) later in life which suggests that the pathways leading to AD pathology might be activated decades before the symptoms of the disease are detected. Cholesterol-fed animals, particularly cholesterol-fed rabbits, exhibit brain pathology similar to the changes found in brains of AD patients...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894913/the-regulation-of-cellular-apoptosis-by-the-ros-triggered-perk-eif2%C3%AE-chop-pathway-plays-a-vital-role-in-bisphenol-a-induced-male-reproductive-toxicity
#10
Li Yin, Yanlin Dai, Zhihong Cui, Xiao Jiang, Wenbin Liu, Fei Han, Ao Lin, Jia Cao, Jinyi Liu
Bisphenol A (2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, BPA) is ubiquitous in the environment, wildlife, and humans. Evidence from past studies suggests that BPA is associated with decreased semen quality. However, the molecular basis for the adverse effect of BPA on male reproductive toxicity remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of BPA on mouse spermatocytes GC-2 cells and adult mice, and we explored the potential mechanism of its action. The results showed that BPA inhibited cell proliferation and increased the apoptosis rate...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832638/effect-of-type-i-diabetes-on-the-proteome-of-mouse-oocytes
#11
Guangjian Jiang, Guangli Zhang, Tian An, Zhongchen He, Lihua Kang, Xiuyan Yang, Yujie Gu, Dongwei Zhang, Yangang Wang, Sihua Gao
BACKGROUND: Type I diabetes is a global public health concern that affects young people of reproductive age and can damage oocytes, reducing their maturation rate and blocking embryonic development. Understanding the effects of type I diabetes on oocytes is important to facilitate the maintenance of reproductive capacity in female diabetic patients. METHODS: To analyze the effects of type I diabetes on mammalian oocytes, protein profile changes in mice with streptozotocin-induced type I diabetes were investigated using proteomic tools; non-diabetic mouse oocytes were used as controls...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801704/vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-improves-indices-of-metabolic-disease-in-rodent-model-of-surgical-menopause
#12
William J Lawson, Kristin Shirey, Redin A Spann, Carlos A Zamarripa, Jonathan P Hosler, Bernadette E Grayson
OBJECTIVE: Although women are the most common recipients of weight loss surgeries for the amelioration of the comorbidities of obesity, few studies have addressed the efficacy of these procedures with specific attention to reproductive stage. Here we ask in a rodent model of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) whether improvements to metabolic health are realized in women having received surgical menopause. Specifically we were interested in knowing whether rats made menopausal through surgical means would exhibit persistent hepatic steatosis as reported in previously pregnant, freely cycling female VSG rats or if it is resolved as reported in male VSG rats...
October 31, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797954/comparative-phylogenomic-assessment-of-mitochondrial-introgression-among-several-species-of-chipmunks-tamias
#13
Brice A J Sarver, John R Demboski, Jeffrey M Good, Nicholas Forshee, Samuel S Hunter, Jack Sullivan
Many species are not completely reproductively isolated, resulting in hybridization and genetic introgression. Organellar genomes, such as those derived from mitochondria (mtDNA) and chloroplasts, introgress frequently in natural systems; however, the forces shaping patterns of introgression are not always clear. Here, we investigate extensive mtDNA introgression in western chipmunks, focusing on species in the Tamias quadrivittatus group from the central and southern Rocky Mountains. Specifically, we investigate the role of selection in driving patterns of introgression...
October 26, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796004/ultrastructural-studies-on-oocyte-development-and-vitellogenesis-associated-with-follicle-cells-in-female-scapharca-subcrenata-pelecypoda-arcidae-in-western-korea
#14
Sung Han Kim
Ultrastructural studies on oocyte development and vitellogenesis in oocytes, and the functions of follicle cells during oogenesis and oocyte degeneration were investigated to clarifyb the reproductive mechanism on vitellogenesis of Scapharca subcrenata using electron microscope observations. In this study, vitellogenesis during oogenesis in the oocytes occured by way of autosynthesis and heterosynthesis. Of two processes of vitellogenesis during oogenesis, the process of endogenous autosynthesis involved the combined activity of the Golgi complex, mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum...
September 2016: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778315/divergent-evolution-of-life-span-associated-with-mitochondrial-dna-evolution
#15
Biljana Stojković, Ahmed Sayadi, Mirko Đorđević, Jelena Jović, Uroš Savković, Göran Arnqvist
Mitochondria play a key role in ageing. The pursuit of genes that regulate variation in life span and ageing have shown that several nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes are important. However, the role of mitochondrial encoded genes (mtDNA) is more controversial and our appreciation of the role of mtDNA for the evolution of life span is limited. We use replicated lines of seed beetles that have been artificially selected for long or short life for >190 generations, now showing dramatic phenotypic differences, to test for a possible role of mtDNA in the divergent evolution of ageing and life span...
January 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771567/chronic-toxicity-effects-of-znso4-and-zno-nanoparticles-in-daphnia-magna
#16
Renato Bacchetta, Nadia Santo, Marcello Marelli, Greta Nosengo, Paolo Tremolada
The chronic toxicity of ZnSO4 and ZnO nanoparticles has been studied in Daphnia magna also considering the life cycle parameters beyond the standard 21-day exposure time. Specimens have been individually followed until the natural end of their life, and some of them sampled for microscopic analyses at 48h, 9 and 21 days. Despite the low level of exposure (0.3mg Zn/L), ultrastructural analyses of the midgut epithelial cells revealed efficient internalization of nanoparticles between 48h and 9d, and translocation to other tissues as well...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751638/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-exposure-decreased-sperm-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-a-cross-sectional-study-marhcs-in-chongqing-china
#17
Xi Ling, Guowei Zhang, Lei Sun, Zhi Wang, Peng Zou, Jianfang Gao, Kaige Peng, Qing Chen, Huan Yang, Niya Zhou, Zhihong Cui, Ziyuan Zhou, Jinyi Liu, Jia Cao, Lin Ao
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants that have adverse effects on the male reproductive function. Many studies have confirmed that PAHs preferentially accumulate in mitochondria DNA relative to nuclear DNA and disrupt mitochondrial functions. However, it is rare whether exposure to PAHs is associated with mitochondrial damage and dysfunction in sperm. To evaluate the effects of PAHs on sperm mitochondria, we measured mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and mtDNA integrity in 666 individuals from the Male Reproductive Health in Chongqing College Students (MARHCS) study...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748512/genetics-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-infertility
#18
L A M Demain, G S Conway, W G Newman
Increasingly, mitochondria are being recognized as having an important role in fertility. Indeed in assisted reproductive technologies mitochondrial function is a key indicator of sperm and oocyte quality. Here, we review the literature regarding mitochondrial genetics and infertility. In many multisystem disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction death occurs prior to sexual maturity, or the clinical features are so severe that infertility may be underreported. Interestingly, many of the genes linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and infertility have roles in the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA or in mitochondrial translation...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731500/new-roles-of-lkb1-in-regulating-adipose-tissue-development-and-thermogenesis
#19
Ziye Xu, Jiaqi Liu, Tizhong Shan
Adipose tissues regulate energy metabolism and reproduction. There are three types of adipocytes (brown, white and beige adipocytes) in mammals. White adipocytes store energy and are closely associated with obesity and other metabolic diseases. The beige and brown adipocytes have numerous mitochondria and high levels of UCP1 that dissipates lipid to generate heat and defend against obesity. The global epidemic of obesity and its associated metabolic diseases urge an imperative need for understating the regulation of adipogenesis...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731328/reproductive-activity-triggers-accelerated-male-mortality-and-decreases-lifespan-genetic-and-gene-expression-determinants-in-drosophila
#20
A T Branco, L Schilling, K Silkaitis, D K Dowling, B Lemos
Reproduction and aging evolved to be intimately associated. Experimental selection for early-life reproduction drives the evolution of decreased longevity in Drosophila whereas experimental selection for increased longevity leads to changes in reproduction. Although life history theory offers hypotheses to explain these relationships, the genetic architecture and molecular mechanisms underlying reproduction-longevity associations remain a matter of debate. Here we show that mating triggers accelerated mortality in males and identify hundreds of genes that are modulated upon mating in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster...
October 12, 2016: Heredity
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