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Mitochondria reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938734/hyperspectral-microscopy-can-detect-metabolic-heterogeneity-within-bovine-post-compaction-embryos-incubated-under-two-oxygen-concentrations-7-versus-20
#1
Melanie L Sutton-McDowall, Martin Gosnell, Ayad G Anwer, Melissa White, Malcolm Purdey, Andrew D Abell, Ewa M Goldys, Jeremy G Thompson
STUDY QUESTION: Can we separate embryos cultured under either 7% or 20% oxygen atmospheres by measuring their metabolic heterogeneity? SUMMARY ANSWER: Metabolic heterogeneity and changes in metabolic profiles in morula exposed to two different oxygen concentrations were not detectable using traditional fluorophore and two-channel autofluorescence but were detectable using hyperspectral microscopy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Increased genetic and morphological blastomere heterogeneity is associated with compromised developmental competence of embryos and currently forms the basis for embryo scoring within the clinic...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894044/mitochondrial-functionality-in-female-reproduction
#2
Łukasz Gąsior, Regina Daszkiewicz, Mateusz Ogórek, Zbigniew Polański
In most animal species female germ cells are the source of mitochondrial genome for the whole body of individuals. As a source of mitochondrial DNA for future generations the mitochondria in the female germ line undergo dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes. In addition to maintaining the intact template of mitochondrial genome from one generation to another, mitochondrial role in oocytes is much more complex and pleiotropic. The quality of mitochondria determines the ability of meiotic divisions, fertilization ability, and activation after fertilization or sustaining development of a new embryo...
January 4, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880749/exposure-to-decabromodiphenyl-ether-bde-209-produces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-rat-liver-and-cell-death
#3
Lilian C Pereira, Alecsandra O Souza, Maria J Tasso, Alana M C Oliveira, Filipe V Duarte, Carlos M Palmeira, Daniel J Dorta
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. Exposure to these chemicals has been associated with developmental neurotoxicity, endocrine dysfunctions, reproductive disorders, and hepatotoxicity. The widespread use of PBDE as flame retardants has culminated in daily exposure of humans and wildlife to these contaminants and resulted in their banned use. Thus assessment of the potential effects of each PBDE congener on living organisms has become cause for concern. The aim of this study was to (1) examine the effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE)-209 on different functions of HepG2 cells and (2) investigate whether this congener is involved in mitochondrial toxicity...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820402/does-signaling-of-estrogen-related-receptors-affect-structure-and-function-of-bank-vole-leydig-cells
#4
P Pawlicki, A Milon, M Zarzycka, J Galas, W Tworzydlo, A Kaminska, L Pardyak, K Lesniak, A Pacwa, B Bilinska, E Gorowska-Wojtowicz, M Kotula-Balak
To get a deeper insight into the function of estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) and dissect underlying mechanism in Leydig cells, ERRs (type α, β and γ) were blocked or activated in testes of adult bank voles (Myodes glareolus) which show seasonal changes in the intratesticular sex hormones level. Both actively reproducing animals (long day conditions; LD) and those with regression of the reproductive system (short day conditions; SD) received intraperitoneal injections of selective ERRα antagonist 3-[4-(2,4-Bis-trifluoromethylbenzyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]-2-cyano-N-(5-trifluoromethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)acrylamide (XCT 790) or selective ERRβ/ERRγ agonist N-(4-(Diethylaminobenzylidenyl)-N'-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-hydrazine (DY131) (50 μ/kg bw; six doses every other day)...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757561/porcine-interferon-stimulated-gene-12a-restricts-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-replication-in-marc-145-cells
#5
Likai Ji, Xiang Zhou, Wan Liang, Jianjian Liu, Bang Liu
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes severe losses in the global pig industry. In the present study, we investigated the molecular characterization of porcine interferon stimulated gene 12a (ISG12A) and confirmed its anti-PRRSV ability for the first time. We found that porcine ISG12A was localized in mitochondria and significantly decreased the number of cells in G2/S phase. Porcine ISG12A mRNA was up-regulated in cells/tissues of Tongcheng (TC) pigs and Large White (LW) pigs after PRRSV challenge...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729386/dormancy-in-embryos-insight-from-hydrated-encysted-embryos-of-an-aquatic-invertebrate
#6
Tamar Ziv, Vered Chalifa-Caspi, Nadav Denekamp, Inbar Plaschkes, Sylwiya Sylwia Kierszniowska, Idit Blais, Arie Admon, Esther Lubzens
Numerous aquatic invertebrates remain dormant for decades in a hydrated state as encysted embryos. In search for functional pathways associated with this form of dormancy, we used label-free quantitative proteomics to compare the proteomes of hydrated encysted dormant embryos (resting eggs; RE) with non-dormant embryos (amictic eggs; AM) of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis</p> <p>A total of 2,631 proteins were identified in rotifer eggs. About 62% proteins showed higher abundance in AM relative to RE (Fold Change>3; p=0...
July 20, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721182/mitochondria-in-oocyte-aging-current-understanding
#7
REVIEW
D Zhang, D Keilty, Z F Zhang, R C Chian
The oocyte is the largest cell found in multicellular organisms. Mitochondria, as the energy factories for cells, are found in high numbers in oocytes, as they provide the energy for oocyte maturation, fertilization, and embryo formation via oxidative phosphorylation. Failure of assisted reproduction is mainly attributed to oocyte aging and increased aneuploidy. As the most numerous organelle in the oocyte, the mitochondrion has been confirmed as a crucial player in the process of oocyte aging, which is highly influenced by mitochondrion dysfunction...
March 2017: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708512/insulin-during-in%C3%A2-vitro-oocyte-maturation-has-an-impact-on-development-mitochondria-and-cytoskeleton-in-bovine-day-8-blastocysts
#8
Denise Laskowski, Renée Båge, Patrice Humblot, Göran Andersson, Marc-André Sirard, Ylva Sjunnesson
Insulin is a key metabolic hormone that controls energy homeostasis in the body, including playing a specific role in regulating reproductive functions. Conditions associated with hyperinsulinemia can lower developmental rates in bovine in vitro embryo production and are linked to decreased fertility in humans, as in cases of obesity or type 2 diabetes. Embryo quality is important for fertility outcome and it can be assessed by choosing scoring standards for various characteristics, such as developmental stage, quality grade, cell number, mitochondrial pattern or actin cytoskeleton structure...
June 13, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693629/resveratrol-has-dose-dependent-effects-on-dna-fragmentation-and-mitochondrial-activity-of-ovine-secondary-follicles-cultured-in-vitro
#9
T J S Macedo, V R P Barros, A P O Monte, B B Gouveia, M É S Bezerra, A Y P Cavalcante, R S Barberino, V G Menezes, M H T Matos
The worldwide consumption of red wine, nuts and grapes has resulted in increased human exposure to resveratrol, which could affect reproductive function. However, the effect of resveratrol on in vitro culture of early-stage ovarian follicles has never been investigated. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on sheep secondary follicle morphology, growth, DNA fragmentation, intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH) and active mitochondria. Secondary follicles were isolated from the ovaries and cultured for 18 days in supplemented α-MEM+ (control medium) or in control medium containing resveratrol (2, 10 or 30 µM)...
July 11, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662030/chemosensory-and-hyperoxia-circuits-in-c-elegans-males-influence-sperm-navigational-capacity
#10
Hieu D Hoang, Michael A Miller
The sperm's crucial function is to locate and fuse with a mature oocyte. Under laboratory conditions, Caenorhabditis elegans sperm are very efficient at navigating the hermaphrodite reproductive tract and locating oocytes. Here, we identify chemosensory and oxygen-sensing circuits that affect the sperm's navigational capacity. Multiple Serpentine Receptor B (SRB) chemosensory receptors regulate Gα pathways in gustatory sensory neurons that extend cilia through the male nose. SRB signaling is necessary and sufficient in these sensory neurons to influence sperm motility parameters...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651360/novel-reproductive-technologies-to-prevent-mitochondrial-disease
#11
Lyndsey Craven, Mao-Xing Tang, Gráinne S Gorman, Petra De Sutter, Björn Heindryckx
BACKGROUND: The use of nuclear transfer (NT) has been proposed as a novel reproductive treatment to overcome the transmission of maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Pathogenic mutations in mtDNA can cause a wide-spectrum of life-limiting disorders, collectively known as mtDNA disease, for which there are currently few effective treatments and no known cures. The many unique features of mtDNA make genetic counselling challenging for women harbouring pathogenic mtDNA mutations but reproductive options that involve medical intervention are available that will minimize the risk of mtDNA disease in their offspring...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646188/mitochondrial-haplotypes-influence-metabolic-traits-across-bovine-inter-and-intra-species-cybrids
#12
Jikun Wang, Hai Xiang, Langqing Liu, Minghua Kong, Tao Yin, Xingbo Zhao
In bovine species, mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms and their correlation to productive or reproductive performances have been widely reported across breeds and individuals. However, experimental evidence of this correlation has never been provided. In order to identify differences among bovine mtDNA haplotypes, transmitochondrial cybrids were generated, with the nucleus from MAC-T cell line, derived from a Holstein dairy cow (Bos taurus) and mitochondria from either primary cell line derived from a domestic Chinese native beef Luxi cattle breed or central Asian domestic yak (Bos grunniens)...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624941/does-static-electric-field-from-ultra-high-voltage-direct-current-transmission-lines-affect-male-reproductive-capacity-evidence-from-a-laboratory-study-on-male-mice
#13
Sixia Wu, Guoqing Di, Zhengguang Li
With the development of ultra-high-voltage direct-current (UHVDC) transmission technology and increase in transmission voltage, the issue of environmental static electric field (SEF) pollution is standing out and its possible health effects have caused much public attention. In this study, the effects of chronic exposure to SEF on reproductive capacity of male mice were investigated. Twenty Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were exposed to SEF (56.3 ± 1.4 kV/m, 49 days) generated by a high-voltage device...
June 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624766/dhea-protects-mitochondria-against-dual-modes-of-apoptosis-and-necroptosis-in-human-granulosa-ho23-cells
#14
Kuan-Hao Tsui, Peng-Hui Wang, Li-Te Lin, Chia-Jung Li
Because ovarian granulosa cells are essential for oocyte maturation and development, we validated human granulosa HO23 cells to evaluate the ability of the DHEA to prevent cell death after starvation. The present study was aimed to investigate whether DHEA could protect against starvation-induced apoptosis and necroptosis in human oocyte granulosa HO23 cells. The starvation was induced by treatment of serum-free (SF) medium for 4 h in vitro Starvation-induced mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation were largely prevented by DHEA in HO23 cells...
August 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608403/mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-mitoq-reduced-renal-damage-caused-by-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rodent-kidneys-longitudinal-observations-of-t2-weighted-imaging-and-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri
#15
Xiaoge Liu, Michael P Murphy, Wei Xing, Huanhuan Wu, Rui Zhang, Haoran Sun
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ in reducing the severity of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats using T2 -weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). METHODS: Ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced by temporarily clamping the left renal artery. Rats were pretreated with MitoQ or saline. The MRI examination was performed before and after IRI (days 2, 5, 7, and 14). The T2 -weighted standardized signal intensity of the outer stripe of the outer medulla (OSOM) was measured...
June 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596084/stem-cell-evolutionary-paradigm-and-cell-engineering
#16
Z Ivanovic
Studying hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells for almost three decades revealed some similarities between the stem cell entity and the single-celled eukaryotes exhibiting the anaerobic/facultative aerobic metabolic features. A careful analysis of nowadays knowledge concerning the early eukaryotic evolution allowed us to reveal some analogies between stem cells in the metazoan tissues and the single-celled eukaryotes which existed during the first phase of eukaryotes evolution in mid-Proterozoic era. In fact, it is possible to trace the principle of the self-renewal back to the first eukaryotic common ancestor, the first undifferentiated nucleated cell possessing the primitive, mostly anaerobically-respiring mitochondria and a capacity to reproduction by a simple cell division "à l'identique"...
June 5, 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579546/mono-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-induces-autophagy-dependent-apoptosis-through-lysosomal-mitochondrial-axis-in-human-endothelial-cells
#17
Xueyan Wu, Liping Jiang, Xiance Sun, Xiaofeng Yao, Yueran Bai, Xiaofang Liu, Nairong Liu, Xingyue Zhai, Shaopeng Wang, Guang Yang
Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), the active metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), has been known to have adverse effects on the reproductive system, urologic systems, hepatic, developmental toxicities and carcinogenicity. However, the effect of MEHP on cardiovascular toxicity remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of MEHP and the possible molecular mechanism. We found that treatment of EA.hy 926 cells with MEHP induced autophagy at earlier time (6 h) in this study...
August 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527625/cosmetic-micromanipulation-of-vitrified-warmed-cleavage-stage-embryos-does-not-improve-art-outcomes-an-ultrastructural-study-of-fragments
#18
Somayyeh Safari, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Zeinab Barekati, Iman Halvaei, Morteza Anvari, Stefania A Nottola
The aim was to study the ultrastructure of cytoplasmic fragments along with the effect of cosmetic micromanipulation (CM) on the morphology and development of vitrified-warmed embryos as well as assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes. A total of 96 frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles were included in this prospective randomized study. They were divided into three groups of CM (n=32), sham (n=32) and control (n=32). In the CM group, the vitrified- warmed embryos were subjected to fragments and coarse granules removal (cosmetic micromanipulation) after laser assisted zona hatching (LAH); sham group subjected only to LAH and no intervention was taken for the control group...
September 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498971/deletion-of-rhoa-in-progesterone-receptor-expressing-cells-leads-to-luteal-insufficiency-and-infertility-in-female-mice
#19
Ahmed E El Zowalaty, Rong Li, Yi Zheng, John P Lydon, Francesco J DeMayo, Xiaoqin Ye
RhoA is widely expressed throughout the female reproductive system. To assess its role in progesterone receptor (Pgr) expressing cells, we generated RhoA conditional knockout mice RhoAd/d (RhoAf/f-Pgr-Cre+/-). RhoAd/d females had comparable mating activity, serum LH, prolactin, and estradiol levels and ovulation with control but were infertile with progesterone insufficiency, indicating impaired steroidogenesis in RhoAd/d corpus luteum (CL). RhoA was highly expressed in wild type luteal cells and conditionally deleted in RhoAd/d CL...
May 11, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484474/transcriptomics-analyses-reveal-wheat-responses-to-drought-stress-during-reproductive-stages-under-field-conditions
#20
Jun Ma, Ruiqi Li, Hongguang Wang, Dongxiao Li, Xingyi Wang, Yuechen Zhang, Wenchao Zhen, Huijun Duan, Guijun Yan, Yanming Li
Drought is a major abiotic stress that limits wheat production worldwide. To ensure food security for the rapidly increasing world population, improving wheat yield under drought stress is urgent and relevant. In this study, an RNA-seq analysis was conducted to study the effect of drought on wheat transcriptome changes during reproductive stages under field conditions. Our results indicated that drought stress during early reproductive periods had a more severe impact on wheat development, gene expression and yield than drought stress during flowering...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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