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Mitochondria reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340835/repurposed-fda-approved-drugs-targeting-genes-influencing-aging-can-extend-lifespan-and-healthspan-in-rotifers
#1
Terry W Snell, Rachel K Johnston, Amelia B Matthews, Hongyi Zhou, Mu Gao, Jeffrey Skolnick
Pharmaceutical interventions can slow aging in animals, and have advantages because their dose can be tightly regulated and the timing of the intervention can be closely controlled. They also may complement environmental interventions like caloric restriction by acting additively. A fertile source for therapies slowing aging is FDA approved drugs whose safety has been investigated. Because drugs bind to several protein targets, they cause multiple effects, many of which have not been characterized. It is possible that some of the side effects of drugs prescribed for one therapy may have benefits in retarding aging...
January 16, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325608/mitochondrial-diseases
#2
Ryan L Davis, Christina Liang, Carolyn M Sue
Mitochondrial diseases collectively describe a diverse group of heritable disorders that invariably affect mitochondrial respiratory chain function and cellular energy production. Together they represent the most common cause of inherited metabolic disease, may present at any age, have a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, may be insidious in onset, and potentially have high morbidity and mortality. Due to the presence of mitochondria in all nucleated cells, mitochondrial disease can affect many different tissues, with single or multiple systems being involved...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301906/a-role-for-respiration-in-regulating-meiosis-initiation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
Haichao Zhao, Qian Wang, Chao Liu, Yongliang Shang, Fuping Wen, Fang Wang, Weixiao Liu, Wei Xiao, Wei Li
Meiosis is a specific type of cell division that is essential for sexual reproduction in most eukaryotes. Mitochondria are crucial cellular organelles that play important roles in reproduction, though the detailed mechanism by which the mitochondrial respiratory chain functions during meiosis remains elusive. Here, we show that components of the respiratory chain (Complexes I-V) play essential roles in meiosis initiation during the sporulation of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Any functional defects in the complex I component Ndi1p resulted in the abolishment of sporulation...
January 4, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287896/mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-mitotempo-improves-the-post-thaw-sperm-quality
#4
Xilan Lu, Yingchun Zhang, Hongwei Bai, Jingjing Liu, Juntao Li, Bin Wu
Human spermatozoa cryopreservation is an important means of assisted reproductive technology and male fertility preservation. Although this technique is particularly useful, sperm cryopreservation significantly reduces the quality of spermatozoa after freezing and thawing. The objective of the study is to examine the efficacy of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTEMPO in improving sperm quality during semen cryopreservation processes. Semen samples were collected and cryopreserved in extenders containing different concentrations (0...
December 26, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281082/improved-chloroplast-energy-balance-during-water-deficit-enhances-plant-growth-more-crop-per-drop
#5
Keshav Dahal, Greg C Vanlerberghe
The non-energy conserving alternative oxidase (AOX) respiration of plant mitochondria is known to interact with chloroplast photosynthesis. This may have consequences for growth, particularly under sub-optimal conditions when energy imbalances can impede photosynthesis. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the metabolism and growth of wild-type (WT) Nicotiana tabacum with that of AOX knockdown and overexpression lines during a prolonged steady-state mild to moderate water deficit. Under moderate water deficit, AOX amount was an important determinant of the rate of both mitochondrial respiration in the light and net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A) at the growth irradiance...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247840/bisphenol-a-reduces-testosterone-production-in-tm3-leydig-cells-independently-of-its-effects-on-cell-death-and-mitochondrial-membrane-potential
#6
Gessica Dutra Gonçalves, Simone Cristine Semprebon, Bruna Isabela Biazi, Mario Sergio Mantovani, Glaura Scantamburlo Alves Fernandes
Leydig cells are the major testosterone-producing cells of the male reproductive system, and damage to these cells can impair fertility of men. Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the chemicals with the highest volume of production worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of BPA on the growth, viability, and testosterone production of TM3 murine Leydig cells after exposure to BPA for 24 or 48 h. BPA reduced testosterone production, cell viability and cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner...
December 13, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244163/regulation-of-chromosome-segregation-in-oocytes-and-the-cellular-basis-for-female-meiotic-errors
#7
Jessica Greaney, Zhe Wei, Hayden Homer
BACKGROUND: Meiotic chromosome segregation in human oocytes is notoriously error-prone, especially with ageing. Such errors markedly reduce the reproductive chances of increasing numbers of women embarking on pregnancy later in life. However, understanding the basis for these errors is hampered by limited access to human oocytes. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Important new discoveries have arisen from molecular analyses of human female recombination and aneuploidy along with high-resolution analyses of human oocyte maturation and mouse models...
December 13, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237855/sex-specific-adaptation-and-genomic-responses-to-y-chromosome-presence-in-female-reproductive-and-neural-tissues
#8
Alan T Branco, Rute M Brito, Bernardo Lemos
Y chromosomes typically harbour a small number of genes and an abundance of repetitive sequences. In Drosophila, the Y chromosome comprises multimegabase long segments of repetitive DNA and a handful of protein-coding genes. In mammals, the Y chromosome also harbours a disproportionally high abundance of repeats. Here, we built on a Drosophila melanogaster model in which the Y chromosome is decoupled from sexual determination. Genotypes were genetically identical for the autosomes, X chromosome, and mitochondria, but differ by the presence or dose of the Y chromosome...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210666/a-newly-synthetized-ferrocenyl-derivative-selectively-induces-apoptosis-in-all-lymphocytes-through-mitochondrial-estrogen-receptors
#9
Marjan Aghvami, Jalal Pourahmad, Afshin Zarghi, Peyman Eshghi, Mohammad Hadi Zarei, Shabnam Farzaneh, Fatemeh Sattari
BACKGROUND: Estrogens, as the main female steroid hormones have multiple proven effects on reproductive and non- reproductive systems. Expression of ERα and ERβ, two dominant estrogen receptors, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in certain B-cell malignancies and the existence of estrogens receptors on mitochondria is open to question that estrogen likely has an impact on the cancerous lymphocytes life span. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the frequent pediatric malignity which is recurrent and hardly curable in many cases...
December 5, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207474/emerging-roles-of-mitochondrial-ribosomal-proteins-in-plant-development
#10
REVIEW
Pedro Robles, Víctor Quesada
Mitochondria are the powerhouse of eukaryotic cells because they are responsible for energy production through the aerobic respiration required for growth and development. These organelles harbour their own genomes and translational apparatus: mitochondrial ribosomes or mitoribosomes. Deficient mitochondrial translation would impair the activity of this organelle, and is expected to severely perturb different biological processes of eukaryotic organisms. In plants, mitoribosomes consist of three rRNA molecules, encoded by the mitochondrial genome, and an undefined set of ribosomal proteins (mitoRPs), encoded by nuclear and organelle genomes...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199635/melatonin-elicits-stimulatory-action-on-the-adrenal-gland-of-soay-ram-morphometrical-immunohistochemical-and-ultrastructural-study
#11
Doaa M Mokhtar, Manal T Hussein, Ahmed H S Hassan
Endogenous melatonin is a hormone secreted by pineal gland; it has several roles in metabolism, reproduction, and remarkable antioxidant properties. Studies on the melatonin effect on the adrenal glands which are important endocrine organs, controlling essential physiological functions, are still deficient. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effect of exogenous melatonin treatment on the adrenal cortex and medulla using several approaches. Adrenal glands of 15 Soay ram were examined to detect the effect of melatonin treatment...
December 4, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198215/dietary-l-arginine-supplementation-improves-semen-quality-and-libido-of-boars-under-high-ambient-temperature
#12
J Q Chen, Y S Li, Z J Li, H X Lu, P Q Zhu, C M Li
l-Arginine is a nutritionally essential amino acid for spermatogenesis and plays versatile roles in animal health and can be utilized as a potential agent to improve reproductive performance of boars under high ambient temperature. The present study aimed to determine whether dietary l-arginine could alleviate heat stress-induced infertility in boars. In all, 20 boars (PIC 1040; 248.59±3.84 kg BW and 407.65±6.40 days of age) were selected and randomly assigned to four groups (group 0.0%, basal diet; group 0...
December 4, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194776/endosymbiosis-and-its-significance-in-dermatology
#13
REVIEW
Katarzyna Kubiak, Hanna Sielawa, Wenchieh Chen, Ewa Dzika
Proposed at the beginning of the 20th to explain the origin of eukaryotic organelles from prokaryotes, endosymbiosis is now medically defined by various interaction patterns between microorganisms and their residing hosts, best exemplified by the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia identified in arthropods and filarial nematodes, which can influence normal development, reproduction, survival, and transmission of the hosts. Based on the transmission modes, vertical or horizontal, and the function of the endosymbionts, the host-symbiont dependence can be divided into primary or secondary...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187900/the-cytotoxic-effects-of-dimethyl-sulfoxide-in-mouse-preimplantation-embryos-a-mechanistic-study
#14
Min-Hee Kang, Joydeep Das, Sangiliyandi Gurunathan, Hwan-Woo Park, Hyuk Song, Chankyu Park, Jin-Hoi Kim
Rationale: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used as a solvent for water-insoluble substances, a vehicle for drug therapy, and a cryoprotectant for cultured cells. DMSO induced embryonic defects and its mechanism of action remains unclear. The rationale is based on the assumption that DMSO supplementation should induce long-term negative effects on both pre- and post-implantation embryo development. Methods: DMSO induced oxidative stress, ER stress, autophagy, mitophagy, signaling responsible genes and proteins were determined by RT-qPCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and confocal microscopy...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170988/renaissance-reinvention-or-rhetoric-mitochondria-in-reproductive-medicine-2017
#15
EDITORIAL
David F Albertini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158290/a-comparative-proteome-profile-of-female-mouse-gonads-suggests-a-tight-link-between-the-electron-transport-chain-and-meiosis-initiation
#16
Cong Shen, Mingrui Li, Pan Zhang, Yueshuai Guo, Hao Zhang, Bo Zheng, Hui Teng, Tao Zhou, Xuejiang Guo, Ran Huo
Generation of haploid gametes by meiosis is a unique property of germ cells and is critical for sexual reproduction. Leaving mitosis and entering meiosis is a key step in germ cell development. Several inducers or intrinsic genes are known to be important for meiotic initiation, but the regulation of meiotic initiation, especially at the protein level, is still not well understood. We constructed a comparative proteome profile of female mouse fetal gonads at specific time points (11.5, 12.5, and 13.5 days post coitum), spanning a critical window for initiation of meiosis in female germ cells...
November 20, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149484/comparative-analysis-of-proteomes-between-diabetic-and-normal-human-sperm-insights-into-the-effects-of-diabetes-on-male-reproduction-based-on-the-regulation-of-mitochondria-related-proteins
#17
Tian An, Yue-Fen Wang, Jia-Xian Liu, Yan-Yun Pan, Yu-Fei Liu, Zhong-Chen He, Fang-Fang Mo, Jun Li, Li-Hua Kang, Yu-Jie Gu, Bo-Han Lv, Si-Huan Gao, Guang-Jian Jiang
This study sought to identify sources of the reduced fertility of men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Significant reductions in semen volume, sperm concentration, and total sperm count were observed in diabetic individuals, while transmission electron microscopy revealed that the structure of mitochondria in the tail of sperm from diabetic patients was damaged. Proteins potentially associated with these sperm defects were identified using proteomics. Isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation labeling and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry allowed us to identify 357 proteins significantly differentially expressed in diabetic versus control semen (>1...
November 17, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121011/assisted-reproductive-technologies-to-prevent-human-mitochondrial-disease-transmission
#18
Andy Greenfield, Peter Braude, Frances Flinter, Robin Lovell-Badge, Caroline Ogilvie, Anthony C F Perry
Mitochondria are essential cytoplasmic organelles that generate energy (ATP) by oxidative phosphorylation and mediate key cellular processes such as apoptosis. They are maternally inherited and in humans contain a 16,569-base-pair circular genome (mtDNA) encoding 37 genes required for oxidative phosphorylation. Mutations in mtDNA cause a range of pathologies, commonly affecting energy-demanding tissues such as muscle and brain. Because mitochondrial diseases are incurable, attention has focused on limiting the inheritance of pathogenic mtDNA by mitochondrial replacement therapy (MRT)...
November 9, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117555/mitochondrial-stress-restores-the-heat-shock-response-and-prevents-proteostasis-collapse-during-aging
#19
Johnathan Labbadia, Renee M Brielmann, Mario F Neto, Yi-Fan Lin, Cole M Haynes, Richard I Morimoto
In Caenorhabditis elegans, the programmed repression of the heat shock response (HSR) accompanies the transition to reproductive maturity, leaving cells vulnerable to environmental stress and protein aggregation with age. To identify the factors driving this event, we performed an unbiased genetic screen for suppressors of stress resistance and identified the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) as a central regulator of the age-related decline of the HSR and cytosolic proteostasis. Mild downregulation of ETC activity, either by genetic modulation or exposure to mitochondria-targeted xenobiotics, maintained the HSR in adulthood by increasing HSF-1 binding and RNA polymerase II recruitment at HSF-1 target genes...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112874/the-origin-and-diversification-of-mitochondria
#20
REVIEW
Andrew J Roger, Sergio A Muñoz-Gómez, Ryoma Kamikawa
Mitochondria are best known for their role in the generation of ATP by aerobic respiration. Yet, research in the past half century has shown that they perform a much larger suite of functions and that these functions can vary substantially among diverse eukaryotic lineages. Despite this diversity, all mitochondria derive from a common ancestral organelle that originated from the integration of an endosymbiotic alphaproteobacterium into a host cell related to Asgard Archaea. The transition from endosymbiotic bacterium to permanent organelle entailed a massive number of evolutionary changes including the origins of hundreds of new genes and a protein import system, insertion of membrane transporters, integration of metabolism and reproduction, genome reduction, endosymbiotic gene transfer, lateral gene transfer and the retargeting of proteins...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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