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Mitochondria reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911307/a-high-cholesterol-diet-increases-27-hydroxycholesterol-and-modifies-estrogen-receptor-expression-and-neurodegeneration-in-rabbit-hippocampus
#1
Sylwia W Brooks, Ava C Dykes, Bernard G Schreurs
Hypercholesterolemia has been implicated in numerous health problems from cardiovascular disease to neurodegeneration. High serum cholesterol levels in midlife have been associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) later in life which suggests that the pathways leading to AD pathology might be activated decades before the symptoms of the disease are detected. Cholesterol-fed animals, particularly cholesterol-fed rabbits, exhibit brain pathology similar to the changes found in brains of AD patients...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894913/the-regulation-of-cellular-apoptosis-by-the-ros-triggered-perk-eif2%C3%AE-chop-pathway-plays-a-vital-role-in-bisphenol-a-induced-male-reproductive-toxicity
#2
Li Yin, Yanlin Dai, Zhihong Cui, Xiao Jiang, Wenbin Liu, Fei Han, Ao Lin, Jia Cao, Jinyi Liu
Bisphenol A (2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, BPA) is ubiquitous in the environment, wildlife, and humans. Evidence from past studies suggests that BPA is associated with decreased semen quality. However, the molecular basis for the adverse effect of BPA on male reproductive toxicity remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of BPA on mouse spermatocytes GC-2 cells and adult mice, and we explored the potential mechanism of its action. The results showed that BPA inhibited cell proliferation and increased the apoptosis rate...
November 25, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832638/effect-of-type-i-diabetes-on-the-proteome-of-mouse-oocytes
#3
Guangjian Jiang, Guangli Zhang, Tian An, Zhongchen He, Lihua Kang, Xiuyan Yang, Yujie Gu, Dongwei Zhang, Yangang Wang, Sihua Gao
BACKGROUND: Type I diabetes is a global public health concern that affects young people of reproductive age and can damage oocytes, reducing their maturation rate and blocking embryonic development. Understanding the effects of type I diabetes on oocytes is important to facilitate the maintenance of reproductive capacity in female diabetic patients. METHODS: To analyze the effects of type I diabetes on mammalian oocytes, protein profile changes in mice with streptozotocin-induced type I diabetes were investigated using proteomic tools; non-diabetic mouse oocytes were used as controls...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801704/vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-improves-indices-of-metabolic-disease-in-rodent-model-of-surgical-menopause
#4
William J Lawson, Kristin Shirey, Redin A Spann, Carlos A Zamarripa, Jonathan P Hosler, Bernadette E Grayson
OBJECTIVE: Although women are the most common recipients of weight loss surgeries for the amelioration of the comorbidities of obesity, few studies have addressed the efficacy of these procedures with specific attention to reproductive stage. Here we ask in a rodent model of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) whether improvements to metabolic health are realized in women having received surgical menopause. Specifically we were interested in knowing whether rats made menopausal through surgical means would exhibit persistent hepatic steatosis as reported in previously pregnant, freely cycling female VSG rats or if it is resolved as reported in male VSG rats...
October 31, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797954/comparative-phylogenomic-assessment-of-mitochondrial-introgression-among-several-species-of-chipmunks-tamias
#5
Brice A J Sarver, John R Demboski, Jeffrey M Good, Nicholas Forshee, Samuel S Hunter, Jack Sullivan
Many species are not completely reproductively isolated, resulting in hybridization and genetic introgression. Organellar genomes, such as those derived from mitochondria (mtDNA) and chloroplasts, introgress frequently in natural systems; however, the forces shaping patterns of introgression are not always clear. Here, we investigate extensive mtDNA introgression in western chipmunks, focusing on species in the Tamias quadrivittatus group from the central and southern Rocky Mountains. Specifically, we investigate the role of selection in driving patterns of introgression...
October 26, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796004/ultrastructural-studies-on-oocyte-development-and-vitellogenesis-associated-with-follicle-cells-in-female-scapharca-subcrenata-pelecypoda-arcidae-in-western-korea
#6
Sung Han Kim
Ultrastructural studies on oocyte development and vitellogenesis in oocytes, and the functions of follicle cells during oogenesis and oocyte degeneration were investigated to clarifyb the reproductive mechanism on vitellogenesis of Scapharca subcrenata using electron microscope observations. In this study, vitellogenesis during oogenesis in the oocytes occured by way of autosynthesis and heterosynthesis. Of two processes of vitellogenesis during oogenesis, the process of endogenous autosynthesis involved the combined activity of the Golgi complex, mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum...
September 2016: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778315/divergent-evolution-of-lifespan-associated-with-mitochondrial-dna-evolution
#7
Biljana Stojković, Ahmed Sayadi, Mirko Đorđević, Jelena Jović, Uroš Savković, Göran Arnqvist
Mitochondria play a key role in ageing. The pursuit of genes that regulate variation in lifespan and ageing have shown that several nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes are important. However, the role of mitochondrial-encoded genes (mtDNA) is more controversial and our appreciation of the role of mtDNA for the evolution of lifespan is limited. We use replicated lines of seed beetles that have been artificially selected for long or short life for >190 generations, now showing dramatic phenotypic differences, to test for a possible role of mtDNA in the divergent evolution of ageing and lifespan...
October 25, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771567/chronic-toxicity-effects-of-znso4-and-zno-nanoparticles-in-daphnia-magna
#8
Renato Bacchetta, Nadia Santo, Marcello Marelli, Greta Nosengo, Paolo Tremolada
The chronic toxicity of ZnSO4 and ZnO nanoparticles has been studied in Daphnia magna also considering the life cycle parameters beyond the standard 21-day exposure time. Specimens have been individually followed until the natural end of their life, and some of them sampled for microscopic analyses at 48h, 9 and 21 days. Despite the low level of exposure (0.3mg Zn/L), ultrastructural analyses of the midgut epithelial cells revealed efficient internalization of nanoparticles between 48h and 9d, and translocation to other tissues as well...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751638/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-exposure-decreased-sperm-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-a-cross-sectional-study-marhcs-in-chongqing-china
#9
Xi Ling, Guowei Zhang, Lei Sun, Zhi Wang, Peng Zou, Jianfang Gao, Kaige Peng, Qing Chen, Huan Yang, Niya Zhou, Zhihong Cui, Ziyuan Zhou, Jinyi Liu, Jia Cao, Lin Ao
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants that have adverse effects on the male reproductive function. Many studies have confirmed that PAHs preferentially accumulate in mitochondria DNA relative to nuclear DNA and disrupt mitochondrial functions. However, it is rare whether exposure to PAHs is associated with mitochondrial damage and dysfunction in sperm. To evaluate the effects of PAHs on sperm mitochondria, we measured mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and mtDNA integrity in 666 individuals from the Male Reproductive Health in Chongqing College Students (MARHCS) study...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748512/genetics-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-infertility
#10
Leigh A M Demain, Gerard S Conway, William G Newman
Increasingly, mitochondria are being recognised as having an important role in fertility. Indeed in assisted reproductive technologies mitochondrial function is a key indicator of sperm and oocyte quality. Here, we review the literature regarding mitochondrial genetics and infertility. In many multisystem disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction death occurs prior to sexual maturity, or the clinical features are so severe that infertility may be under-reported. Interestingly, many of the genes linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and infertility have roles in the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA or in mitochondrial translation...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731500/new-roles-of-lkb1-in-regulating-adipose-tissue-development-and-thermogenesis
#11
Ziye Xu, Jiaqi Liu, Tizhong Shan
Adipose tissues regulate energy metabolism and reproduction. There are three types of adipocytes (brown, white and beige adipocytes) in mammals. White adipocytes store energy and are closely associated with obesity and other metabolic diseases. The beige and brown adipocytes have numerous mitochondria and high levels of UCP1 that dissipates lipid to generate heat and defend against obesity. The global epidemic of obesity and its associated metabolic diseases urge an imperative need for understating the regulation of adipogenesis...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731328/reproductive-activity-triggers-accelerated-male-mortality-and-decreases-lifespan-genetic-and-gene-expression-determinants-in-drosophila
#12
A T Branco, L Schilling, K Silkaitis, D K Dowling, B Lemos
Reproduction and aging evolved to be intimately associated. Experimental selection for early-life reproduction drives the evolution of decreased longevity in Drosophila whereas experimental selection for increased longevity leads to changes in reproduction. Although life history theory offers hypotheses to explain these relationships, the genetic architecture and molecular mechanisms underlying reproduction-longevity associations remain a matter of debate. Here we show that mating triggers accelerated mortality in males and identify hundreds of genes that are modulated upon mating in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster...
October 12, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731322/sequestration-of-ubiquitous-dietary-derived-pigments-enables-mitochondrial-light-sensing
#13
Dan Zhang, Kiera Robinson, Doina M Mihai, Ilyas Washington
Animals alter their physiological states in response to their environment. We show that the introduction of a chlorophyll metabolite, a light-absorbing pigment widely consumed in human diets, to Caenorhabditis elegans results in animals whose fat mass can be modulated by exposure to light, despite the worm consuming the same amount of food. In the presence of the chlorophyll metabolite, exposing the worms to light increased adenosine triphosphate, reduced oxidative damage, and increased median life spans, without an effect on animal reproduction...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716126/unraveling-the-molecular-basis-of-oxidative-stress-management-in-a-drought-tolerant-rice-genotype-nagina-22
#14
Chandra Prakash, S V Amitha Mithra, Praveen K Singh, T Mohapatra, N K Singh
BACKGROUND: Drought stress tolerance for crop improvement is an important goal worldwide. Drought is a complex trait, and it is vital to understand the complex physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance to tackle it effectively. Osmotic adjustment, oxidative stress management (OSM), and cell membrane stability (CMS) are major components of cellular tolerance under drought stress. In the current study, we explored the molecular basis of OSM in the drought tolerant rice variety, Nagina 22 and compared it with the popular drought sensitive rice variety, IR 64, under drought imposed at the reproductive stage, to understand how the parental polymorphisms correlate with the superiority of Nagina 22 and tolerant bulk populations under drought...
October 4, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676390/long-term-moderate-oxidative-stress-decreased-ovarian-reproductive-function-by-reducing-follicle-quality-and-progesterone-production
#15
Liangyan Shi, Jinjin Zhang, Zhiwen Lai, Yong Tian, Li Fang, Meng Wu, Jiaqiang Xiong, Xian Qin, Aiyue Luo, Shixuan Wang
Ovarian aging is a long-term and complex process associated with a decrease in follicular quantity and quality. The damaging effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ovarian aging and ovarian aging-associated disorders have received relatively little attention. Thus, we assessed if the oxidative stress induced by long-term (defined by the Environmental Protection Agency as at least 30 days in duration) moderate ozone inhalation reduced ovarian reserves, decreased ovarian function and induced ovarian aging-associated disorders...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667976/microcystin-lr-induced-apoptosis-in-rat-sertoli-cells-via-the-mitochondrial-caspase-dependent-pathway-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#16
Hui Huang, Chuanrui Liu, Xiaoli Fu, Shenshen Zhang, Yongjuan Xin, Yang Li, Lijian Xue, Xuemin Cheng, Huizhen Zhang
Microcystins (MCs), the secondary metabolites of blue-green algae, are ubiquitous and major cyanotoxin contaminants. Besides the hepatopancreas/liver, the reproductive system is regarded as the most important target organ for MCs. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in MCs-induced reproductive toxicity, the role of MCs in this pathway remains unclear. In the present study, Sertoli cells were employed to investigate apoptotic death involved in male reproductive toxicity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634046/male-subfertility-induced-by-heterozygous-expression-of-catalytically-inactive-glutathione-peroxidase-4-is-rescued-in-vivo-by-systemic-inactivation-of-the-alox15-gene
#17
Simone Hanna Brütsch, Marlena Rademacher, Sophia Regina Roth, Karin Müller, Susanne Eder, Dagmar Viertel, Christiane Franz, Hartmut Kuhn, Astrid Borchert
Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and arachidonic acid 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15) are antagonizing enzymes in the metabolism of hydroperoxy lipids. In spermatoid cells and/or in the male reproductive system both enzymes are apparently expressed, and GPX4 serves as anti-oxidative enzyme but also as a structural protein. In this study we explored whether germ line inactivation of the Alox15 gene might rescue male subfertility induced by heterozygous expression of catalytically silent Gpx4. To address this question we employed Gpx4 knock-in mice expressing the Sec46Ala-Gpx4 mutant, in which the catalytic selenocysteine was replaced by a redox inactive alanine...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606568/the-effect-of-bacteriospermia-and-leukocytospermia-on-conventional-and-nonconventional-semen-parameters-in-healthy-young-normozoospermic-males
#18
Monika Fraczek, Magdalena Hryhorowicz, Kamil Gill, Marta Zarzycka, Dariusz Gaczarzewicz, Piotr Jedrzejczak, Barbara Bilinska, Malgorzata Piasecka, Maciej Kurpisz
Bacterial semen inflammation/infection is an important diagnostic and therapeutic problem in contemporary andrology. The molecular mechanism by which inflammatory mediators compromise the fertilizing potential of germ cells is complex and multifactorial, and it remains unclear. To improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of human subfertility/infertility caused or complicated by reproductive tract inflammation/infection, we simultaneously evaluated a set of conventional (standard semen analysis) and nonconventional sperm parameters, including subcellular changes in sperm membranes (phospholipid scrambling, peroxidative damage, and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization), mitochondria (mitochondrial transmembrane potential, ΔYm, and oxidoreductive capability), and DNA fragmentation in healthy young normozoospermic males with asymptomatic bacteriospermia and leukocytospermia...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566065/cryoprotectant-free-vitrification-of%C3%A2-human-spermatozoa-in-new-artificial-seminal-fluid
#19
A Agha-Rahimi, M A Khalili, S A Nottola, S Miglietta, A Moradi
Vitrification is a new method that has been recently introduced in Assisted Reproduction Technique programs. The aim of this study was to design a new medium similar to normal human seminal fluid (SF), formulation artificial seminal fluid (ASF), and to compare the cryoprotective potency of this medium with SF and human tubal fluid (HTF) medium. Thirty normal ejaculates were processed with the swim-up technique and sperm suspensions were divided into four aliquots: (i) fresh sample (control); (ii) vitrification in HTF medium supplemented with 5 mg/mL human serum albumin and 0...
August 27, 2016: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562289/ovarian-ageing-the-role-of-mitochondria-in-oocytes-and-follicles
#20
Pascale May-Panloup, Lisa Boucret, Juan-Manuel Chao de la Barca, Valérie Desquiret-Dumas, Véronique Ferré-L'Hotellier, Catherine Morinière, Philippe Descamps, Vincent Procaccio, Pascal Reynier
BACKGROUND: There is a great inter-individual variability of ovarian ageing, and almost 20% of patients consulting for infertility show signs of premature ovarian ageing. This feature, taken together with delayed childbearing in modern society, leads to the emergence of age-related ovarian dysfunction concomitantly with the desire for pregnancy. Assisted reproductive technology is frequently inefficacious in cases of ovarian ageing, thus raising the economic, medical and societal costs of the procedures...
August 25, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
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