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Mitochondria reproduction

Renato Bacchetta, Nadia Santo, Marcello Marelli, Greta Nosengo, Paolo Tremolada
The chronic toxicity of ZnSO4 and ZnO nanoparticles has been studied in Daphnia magna also considering the life cycle parameters beyond the standard 21-day exposure time. Specimens have been individually followed until the natural end of their life, and some of them sampled for microscopic analyses at 48h, 9 and 21 days. Despite the low level of exposure (0.3mg Zn/L), ultrastructural analyses of the midgut epithelial cells revealed efficient internalization of nanoparticles between 48h and 9d, and translocation to other tissues as well...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Research
Xi Ling, Guowei Zhang, Lei Sun, Zhi Wang, Peng Zou, Jianfang Gao, Kaige Peng, Qing Chen, Huan Yang, Niya Zhou, Zhihong Cui, Ziyuan Zhou, Jinyi Liu, Jia Cao, Lin Ao
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants that have adverse effects on the male reproductive function. Many studies have confirmed that PAHs preferentially accumulate in mitochondria DNA relative to nuclear DNA and disrupt mitochondrial functions. However, it is rare whether exposure to PAHs is associated with mitochondrial damage and dysfunction in sperm. To evaluate the effects of PAHs on sperm mitochondria, we measured mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and mtDNA integrity in 666 individuals from the Male Reproductive Health in Chongqing College Students (MARHCS) study...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Leigh A M Demain, Gerard S Conway, William G Newman
Increasingly, mitochondria are being recognised as having an important role in fertility. Indeed in assisted reproductive technologies mitochondrial function is a key indicator of sperm and oocyte quality. Here, we review the literature regarding mitochondrial genetics and infertility. In many multisystem disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction death occurs prior to sexual maturity, or the clinical features are so severe that infertility may be under-reported. Interestingly, many of the genes linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and infertility have roles in the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA or in mitochondrial translation...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Ziye Xu, Jiaqi Liu, Tizhong Shan
Adipose tissues regulate energy metabolism and reproduction. There are three types of adipocytes (brown, white and beige adipocytes) in mammals. White adipocytes store energy and are closely associated with obesity and other metabolic diseases. The beige and brown adipocytes have numerous mitochondria and high levels of UCP1 that dissipates lipid to generate heat and defend against obesity. The global epidemic of obesity and its associated metabolic diseases urge an imperative need for understating the regulation of adipogenesis...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
A T Branco, L Schilling, K Silkaitis, D K Dowling, B Lemos
Reproduction and aging evolved to be intimately associated. Experimental selection for early-life reproduction drives the evolution of decreased longevity in Drosophila whereas experimental selection for increased longevity leads to changes in reproduction. Although life history theory offers hypotheses to explain these relationships, the genetic architecture and molecular mechanisms underlying reproduction-longevity associations remain a matter of debate. Here we show that mating triggers accelerated mortality in males and identify hundreds of genes that are modulated upon mating in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster...
October 12, 2016: Heredity
Dan Zhang, Kiera Robinson, Doina M Mihai, Ilyas Washington
Animals alter their physiological states in response to their environment. We show that the introduction of a chlorophyll metabolite, a light-absorbing pigment widely consumed in human diets, to Caenorhabditis elegans results in animals whose fat mass can be modulated by exposure to light, despite the worm consuming the same amount of food. In the presence of the chlorophyll metabolite, exposing the worms to light increased adenosine triphosphate, reduced oxidative damage, and increased median life spans, without an effect on animal reproduction...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chandra Prakash, S V Amitha Mithra, Praveen K Singh, T Mohapatra, N K Singh
BACKGROUND: Drought stress tolerance for crop improvement is an important goal worldwide. Drought is a complex trait, and it is vital to understand the complex physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance to tackle it effectively. Osmotic adjustment, oxidative stress management (OSM), and cell membrane stability (CMS) are major components of cellular tolerance under drought stress. In the current study, we explored the molecular basis of OSM in the drought tolerant rice variety, Nagina 22 and compared it with the popular drought sensitive rice variety, IR 64, under drought imposed at the reproductive stage, to understand how the parental polymorphisms correlate with the superiority of Nagina 22 and tolerant bulk populations under drought...
October 4, 2016: BMC Genomics
Liangyan Shi, Jinjin Zhang, Zhiwen Lai, Yong Tian, Li Fang, Meng Wu, Jiaqiang Xiong, Xian Qin, Aiyue Luo, Shixuan Wang
Ovarian aging is a long-term and complex process associated with a decrease in follicular quantity and quality. The damaging effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ovarian aging and ovarian aging-associated disorders have received relatively little attention. Thus, we assessed if the oxidative stress induced by long-term (defined by the Environmental Protection Agency as at least 30 days in duration) moderate ozone inhalation reduced ovarian reserves, decreased ovarian function and induced ovarian aging-associated disorders...
2016: PloS One
Hui Huang, Chuanrui Liu, Xiaoli Fu, Shenshen Zhang, Yongjuan Xin, Yang Li, Lijian Xue, Xuemin Cheng, Huizhen Zhang
Microcystins (MCs), the secondary metabolites of blue-green algae, are ubiquitous and major cyanotoxin contaminants. Besides the hepatopancreas/liver, the reproductive system is regarded as the most important target organ for MCs. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in MCs-induced reproductive toxicity, the role of MCs in this pathway remains unclear. In the present study, Sertoli cells were employed to investigate apoptotic death involved in male reproductive toxicity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Simone Hanna Brutsch, Marlena Rademacher, Sophia Regine Roth, Karin Muller, Susanne Eder, Dagmar Viertel, Christiane Franz, Hartmut Kuhn, Astrid Borchert
Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and arachidonic acid 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15) are antagonizing enzymes in the metabolism of hydroperoxy lipids. In spermatoid cells and/or in the male reproductive system both enzymes are apparently expressed and GPX4 serves as anti-oxidative enzyme but also as structural protein. In this study we explored whether germ-line inactivation of the Alox15 gene might rescue male subfertility induced by heterozygous expression of catalytically silent Gpx4. To address this question we employed Gpx4 knockin mice expressing the Sec46Ala-Gpx4 mutant, in which the catalytic selenocysteine was replaced by a redox inactive alanine...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Monika Fraczek, Magdalena Hryhorowicz, Kamil Gill, Marta Zarzycka, Dariusz Gaczarzewicz, Piotr Jedrzejczak, Barbara Bilinska, Malgorzata Piasecka, Maciej Kurpisz
Bacterial semen inflammation/infection is an important diagnostic and therapeutic problem in contemporary andrology. The molecular mechanism by which inflammatory mediators compromise the fertilizing potential of germ cells is complex and multifactorial, and it remains unclear. To improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of human subfertility/infertility caused or complicated by reproductive tract inflammation/infection, we simultaneously evaluated a set of conventional (standard semen analysis) and nonconventional sperm parameters, including subcellular changes in sperm membranes (phospholipid scrambling, peroxidative damage, and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization), mitochondria (mitochondrial transmembrane potential, ΔYm, and oxidoreductive capability), and DNA fragmentation in healthy young normozoospermic males with asymptomatic bacteriospermia and leukocytospermia...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
A Agha-Rahimi, M A Khalili, S A Nottola, S Miglietta, A Moradi
Vitrification is a new method that has been recently introduced in Assisted Reproduction Technique programs. The aim of this study was to design a new medium similar to normal human seminal fluid (SF), formulation artificial seminal fluid (ASF), and to compare the cryoprotective potency of this medium with SF and human tubal fluid (HTF) medium. Thirty normal ejaculates were processed with the swim-up technique and sperm suspensions were divided into four aliquots: (i) fresh sample (control); (ii) vitrification in HTF medium supplemented with 5 mg/mL human serum albumin and 0...
August 27, 2016: Andrology
Pascale May-Panloup, Lisa Boucret, Juan-Manuel Chao de la Barca, Valérie Desquiret-Dumas, Véronique Ferré-L'Hotellier, Catherine Morinière, Philippe Descamps, Vincent Procaccio, Pascal Reynier
BACKGROUND: There is a great inter-individual variability of ovarian ageing, and almost 20% of patients consulting for infertility show signs of premature ovarian ageing. This feature, taken together with delayed childbearing in modern society, leads to the emergence of age-related ovarian dysfunction concomitantly with the desire for pregnancy. Assisted reproductive technology is frequently inefficacious in cases of ovarian ageing, thus raising the economic, medical and societal costs of the procedures...
August 25, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Annelise V Mowry, Andreas N Kavazis, Aubrey E Sirman, Wayne K Potts, Wendy R Hood
Reproduction is thought to come at a cost to longevity. Based on the assumption that increased energy expenditure during reproduction is associated with increased free-radical production by mitochondria, oxidative damage has been suggested to drive this trade-off. We examined the impact of reproduction on liver mitochondrial function by utilizing post-reproductive and non-reproductive house mice (Mus musculus) living under semi-natural conditions. The age-matched post-reproductive and non-reproductive groups were compared after the reproductive females returned to a non-reproductive state, so that both groups were in the same physiological state at the time the liver was collected...
2016: PloS One
Elnur Babayev, Tianren Wang, Klara Szigeti-Buck, Katie Lowther, Hugh S Taylor, Tamas Horvath, Emre Seli
Mitochondria affect numerous aspects of mammalian reproduction. We investigated whether the decrease in oocyte quality associated with aging is related to altered mitochondria. Oocytes from old (12 months) and young (9 weeks) C57BL/6J mice were compared in relation to: mitochondria morphology and dynamics (mitochondria density, coverage, size and shape) throughout folliculogenesis; levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); mitochondrial stress reflected in the expression of mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mt-UPR) genes; and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under baseline conditions and following H2O2 treatment...
November 2016: Maturitas
Nisar Ahmed, Huang Yufei, Ping Yang, Waqas Muhammad Yasir, Qian Zhang, Tengfei Liu, Chen Hong, Hu Lisi, Chu Xiaoya, Qiusheng Chen
Sertoli cells (SCs) play a central role in the development of germ cells within functional testes and exhibit varying morphology during spermatogenesis. This present study investigated the seasonal morphological changes in SCs in the reproductive cycle of Pelodiscus sinensis by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and immunohistochemistry. During hibernation period with the quiescent of spermatogenesis, several autophagosomes were observed inside the SCs, the processes of which retracted...
June 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Terry W Snell, Rachel K Johnston, Bharath Srinivasan, Hongyi Zhou, Mu Gao, Jeffrey Skolnick
There is great interest in drugs that are capable of modulating multiple aging pathways, thereby delaying the onset and progression of aging. Effective strategies for drug development include the repurposing of existing drugs already approved by the FDA for human therapy. FDA approved drugs have known mechanisms of action and have been thoroughly screened for safety. Although there has been extensive scientific activity in repurposing drugs for disease therapy, there has been little testing of these drugs for their effects on aging...
November 2016: Biogerontology
Devi Balkrishnan Dhurga, Kumar Suresh, Tian Chye Tan
The role and function of the granular life cycle stage in Blastocystis sp, remains uncertain despite suggestions being made that the granules are metabolic, reproductive and lipid in nature. This present study aims to understand granular formation by triggering apoptosis in Blastocystis sp. by treating them with metronidazole (MTZ). Blastocystis sp.cultures of 4 sub-types namely 1, 2, 3 and 5 when treated with 0.01 and 0.0001 mg/ml of metronidazole (MTZ) respectively showed many of the parasites to be both viable and apoptotic (VA)...
2016: PloS One
Vladimir V Yushin, Myriam Claeys, Wim Bert
The nematode spermatozoa represent a highly modified (aberrant) type of male gametes that lack a flagellum but for which the process of spermatogenesis culminates in the production of a crawling spermatozoon on the basis of the cytoskeletal component known as "major sperm protein", or MSP. MSP is also known as an important hormone triggering oocyte maturation and ovulation in the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where this protein was first identified. However, direct evidence of MSP localization and of its fate in nematode spermatogenic cells is rare...
October 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Shuaifeng Li, Jiaxing Wang, Ao Zhou, Faheem Ahmed Khan, Lin Hu, Shujun Zhang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes acute mitochondrial dysfunction by elevating the level of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy are essential for the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis. Here we show that PRRSV infection stimulated mitochondrial fission and mitophagy to attenuate apoptosis in Marc145 cells. PRRSV infection induced the expression of Drp1, enhanced phosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser616 and its subsequent translocation to mitochondria...
July 24, 2016: Oncotarget
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