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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229170/molecular-insight-of-arsenic-induced-carcinogenesis-and-its-prevention
#1
REVIEW
Paramita Mandal
Population of India and Bangladesh and many other parts of the world are badly exposed to arsenic through drinking water. Due to non-availability of safe drinking water, they are dependent on arsenic-contaminated water. Generally, poverty level is high in those areas with lack of proper nutrition. Arsenic is considered to be an environmental contaminant and widely distributed in the environment due to its natural existence and anthropogenic applications. Contamination of arsenic in both human and animal could occur through air, soil, and other sources...
February 22, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222982/ecotoxicological-assessment-of-cobalt-using-hydra-model-ros-oxidative-stress-dna-damage-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis-as-mechanisms-of-toxicity
#2
Mohammed Zeeshan, Anbazhagan Murugadas, Surendra Ghaskadbi, Babu Rajendran Ramaswamy, Mohammad Abdulkader Akbarsha
The mechanisms underlying cobalt toxicity in aquatic species in general and cnidarians in particular remain poorly understood. Herein we investigated cobalt toxicity in a Hydra model from morphological, histological, developmental, and molecular biological perspectives. Hydra, exposed to cobalt (0-60 mg/L), were altered in morphology, histology, and regeneration. Exposure to standardized sublethal doses of cobalt impaired feeding by affecting nematocytes, which in turn affected reproduction. At the cellular level, excessive ROS generation, as the principal mechanism of action, primarily occurred in the lysosomes, which was accompanied by the upregulation of expression of the antioxidant genes SOD, GST, GPx, and G6PD...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197868/plasma-levels-of-immune-factors-and-sex-steroids-in-the-male-seahorse-hippocampus-erectus-during-a-breeding-cycle
#3
Tingting Lin, Xin Liu, Dongxue Xiao, Dong Zhang
To better understand the endocrine- and immune-response pattern during reproduction in a fish species having parental care behaviors and also to accumulate the endocrine- and immune-related data for future explanations of the low reproductive efficiency in seahorse species, the variations of immune factors and sex steroids in the plasma of the male lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus at different breeding stages, i.e., pre-pregnancy, pregnancy (early, middle, and late periods), and post-pregnancy, were investigated in the present study...
February 14, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185435/evidence-that-a-mitochondrial-death-spiral-underlies-antagonistic-pleiotropy
#4
REVIEW
Michael Stern
The antagonistic pleiotropy (AP) theory posits that aging occurs because alleles that are detrimental in older organisms are beneficial to growth early in life and thus are maintained in populations. Although genes of the insulin signaling pathway likely participate in AP, the insulin-regulated cellular correlates of AP have not been identified. The mitochondrial quality control process called mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy), which is inhibited by insulin signaling, might represent a cellular correlate of AP...
February 9, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178941/implications-of-human-evolution-and-admixture-for-mitochondrial-replacement-therapy
#5
Lavanya Rishishwar, I King Jordan
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial replacement (MR) therapy is a new assisted reproductive technology that allows women with mitochondrial disorders to give birth to healthy children by combining their nuclei with mitochondria from unaffected egg donors. Evolutionary biologists have raised concerns about the safety of MR therapy based on the extent to which nuclear and mitochondrial genomes are observed to co-evolve within natural populations, i.e. the nuclear-mitochondrial mismatch hypothesis...
February 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130408/hormone-deprivation-alters-mitochondrial-function-and-lipid-profile-in-the-hippocampus
#6
Sandra Zárate, Mariana Astiz, Natalia Magnani, Mercedes Imsen, Florencia Merino, Silvia Álvarez, Analía Reinés, Adriana Seilicovich
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common hallmark in aging. In the female, reproductive senescence is characterized by loss of ovarian hormones, many of whose neuroprotective effects converge upon mitochondria. The functional integrity of mitochondria is dependent on membrane fatty acid and phospholipid composition, which are also affected during aging. The effect of long-term ovarian hormone deprivation upon mitochondrial function and its putative association with changes in mitochondrial membrane lipid profile in the hippocampus, an area primarily affected during aging and highly responsive to ovarian hormones, is unknown...
April 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093283/lipophilic-triphenylphosphonium-derivatives-enhance-radiation-induced-cell-killing-via-inhibition-of-mitochondrial-energy-metabolism-in-tumor-cells
#7
Hironobu Yasui, Kumiko Yamamoto, Motofumi Suzuki, Yuri Sakai, Tomoki Bo, Masaki Nagane, Eri Nishimura, Tohru Yamamori, Toshihide Yamasaki, Ken-Ichi Yamada, Osamu Inanami
It has recently been reported that radiation enhances mitochondrial energy metabolism in various tumor cell lines. To examine how this radiation-induced alteration in mitochondrial function influences tumor cell viability, various lipophilic triphenylphosphonium (TPP(+)) cation derivatives and related compounds such as 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-oxy-piperidin (Tempol) with TPP(+) (named "Mito-") were designed to inhibit the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Mito-(CH2)10-Tempol (M10T) and its derivatives, Mito-(CH2)5-Tempol (M5T), Mito-(CH2)10-Tempol-Methyl (M10T-Me), Mito-C10H21 (M10), and C10H21-Tempol (10T), were prepared...
April 1, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065674/mitochondria-in-teleost-spermatozoa
#8
REVIEW
Patricio Ulloa-Rodríguez, Elías Figueroa, Rommy Díaz, Manuel Lee-Estevez, Stefania Short, Jorge G Farías
There is an extraordinary diversity of reproductive modes in teleost and this variability is related to the phylogenetic relationships and adaption to very different biotopes. As in all vertebrates, sperm is produced as the end product of the process of spermatogenesis, and regarding teleost the spermatozoa lack an acrosome in almost all species and motility is activated as a response to osmolarity and ion content of the aquatic medium where the sperm is released. In this context, mitochondria possess a fundamental role for fish spermatozoa motility and integrity, hence, fertilizing potential; they are the energy supplier that allows flagellar movement and their dysfunction could play a main role in structural and functional damage to the spermatozoa...
January 5, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062752/arabidopsis-seed-mitochondria-are-bioenergetically-active-immediately-upon-imbibition-and-specialize-via-biogenesis-in-preparation-for-autotrophic-growth
#9
Gaël Paszkiewicz, José M Gualberto, Abdelilah Benamar, David Macherel, David C Logan
Seed germination is a vital developmental transition for production of progeny by sexual reproduction in spermatophytes. Quiescent cells in nondormant dry embryos are reawakened first by imbibition and then by perception of germination triggers. Reanimated tissues enter into a germination program requiring energy for expansion growth. However, germination requires that embryonic tissues develop to support the more energy-demanding processes of cell division and organogenesis of the new seedling. Reactivation of mitochondria to supply the required energy is thus a key process underpinning germination and seedling survival...
January 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031523/protective-effects-of-resveratrol-against-mancozeb-induced-apoptosis-damage-in-mouse-oocytes
#10
Yu Liu, Ya-Long Wang, Shu-Wen He, Ming-Huang Chen, Zhen Zhang, Xian-Pei Fu, Bin-Bin Fu, Bao-Qiong Liao, Yan-Hong Lin, Zhong-Quan Qi, Hai-Long Wang
Mancozeb, a mixture of ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate manganese and zinc salts, is one of the most widely used fungicides in agriculture. Mancozeb could lead to mitochondria dysfunction, cellular anti-oxidation enzymes depletion and apoptotic pathways activation. Previous studies indicated the exposure of mancozeb through mother would lead to irregular estrous cycles, decreased progesterone levels, reduced litter sizes, and more frequent delivery of dead fetuses. In this study, we investigated mancozeb inducing reproductive toxicity, especially focusing on its apoptotic effect and epigenetic modifications...
January 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025277/uniparental-inheritance-promotes-adaptive-evolution-in-cytoplasmic-genomes
#11
Joshua R Christie, Madeleine Beekman
Eukaryotes carry numerous asexual cytoplasmic genomes (mitochondria and plastids). Lacking recombination, asexual genomes should theoretically suffer from impaired adaptive evolution. Yet, empirical evidence indicates that cytoplasmic genomes experience higher levels of adaptive evolution than predicted by theory. In this study, we use a computational model to show that the unique biology of cytoplasmic genomes-specifically their organization into host cells and their uniparental (maternal) inheritance-enable them to undergo effective adaptive evolution...
December 25, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003866/sirt1-3-activation-by-resveratrol-attenuates-acute-kidney-injury-in-a-septic-rat-model
#12
Siqi Xu, Youguang Gao, Qin Zhang, Siwei Wei, Zhongqing Chen, Xingui Dai, Zhenhua Zeng, Ke-Seng Zhao
Sepsis often results in damage to multiple organ systems, possibly due to severe mitochondrial dysfunction. Two members of the sirtuin family, SIRT1 and SIRT3, have been implicated in the reversal of mitochondrial damage. The aim of this study was to determine the role of SIRT1/3 in acute kidney injury (AKI) following sepsis in a septic rat model. After drug pretreatment and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model reproduction in the rats, we performed survival time evaluation and kidney tissue extraction and renal tubular epithelial cell (RTEC) isolation...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984162/glycidamide-inhibits-progesterone-production-through-reactive-oxygen-species-induced-apoptosis-in-r2c-rat-leydig-cells
#13
Mingwei Li, Jianxia Sun, Feiyan Zou, Shun Bai, Xinwei Jiang, Rui Jiao, Shiyi Ou, Hui Zhang, Zhijian Su, Yadong Huang, Weibin Bai
The food contaminant acrylamide (AA) is usually recognized as a probable human carcinogen. In addition, AA has also been found able to induce male infertility in animals. Interestingly, resent research work revealed that the toxic effect of AA on the ability of male reproduction in vivo may due to glycidamide (GA) which is the metabolite of AA. In this study, R2C Leydig cells was used to investigate the toxic effects of GA on progesterone production. GA caused dose-dependent inhibition on the cell growth, with IC25, IC50, and IC75 values found at 0...
October 27, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965440/cfap157-is-a-murine-downstream-effector-of-foxj1-that-is-specifically-required-for-flagellum-morphogenesis-and-sperm-motility
#14
Marina Weidemann, Karin Schuster-Gossler, Michael Stauber, Christoph Wrede, Jan Hegermann, Tim Ott, Karsten Boldt, Tina Beyer, Katrin Serth, Elisabeth Kremmer, Martin Blum, Marius Ueffing, Achim Gossler
Motile cilia move extracellular fluids or mediate cellular motility. Their function is essential for embryonic development, adult tissue homeostasis and reproduction throughout vertebrates. FOXJ1 is a key transcription factor for the formation of motile cilia but its downstream genetic programme is only partially understood. Here, we characterise a novel FOXJ1 target, Cfap157, that is specifically expressed in motile ciliated tissues in mouse and Xenopus in a FOXJ1-dependent manner. CFAP157 protein localises to basal bodies and interacts with tubulin and the centrosomal protein CEP350...
December 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911307/a-high-cholesterol-diet-increases-27-hydroxycholesterol-and-modifies-estrogen-receptor-expression-and-neurodegeneration-in-rabbit-hippocampus
#15
Sylwia W Brooks, Ava C Dykes, Bernard G Schreurs
Hypercholesterolemia has been implicated in numerous health problems from cardiovascular disease to neurodegeneration. High serum cholesterol levels in midlife have been associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) later in life which suggests that the pathways leading to AD pathology might be activated decades before the symptoms of the disease are detected. Cholesterol-fed animals, particularly cholesterol-fed rabbits, exhibit brain pathology similar to the changes found in brains of AD patients...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894913/the-regulation-of-cellular-apoptosis-by-the-ros-triggered-perk-eif2%C3%AE-chop-pathway-plays-a-vital-role-in-bisphenol-a-induced-male-reproductive-toxicity
#16
Li Yin, Yanlin Dai, Zhihong Cui, Xiao Jiang, Wenbin Liu, Fei Han, Ao Lin, Jia Cao, Jinyi Liu
Bisphenol A (2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, BPA) is ubiquitous in the environment, wildlife, and humans. Evidence from past studies suggests that BPA is associated with decreased semen quality. However, the molecular basis for the adverse effect of BPA on male reproductive toxicity remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of BPA on mouse spermatocytes GC-2 cells and adult mice, and we explored the potential mechanism of its action. The results showed that BPA inhibited cell proliferation and increased the apoptosis rate...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832638/effect-of-type-i-diabetes-on-the-proteome-of-mouse-oocytes
#17
Guangjian Jiang, Guangli Zhang, Tian An, Zhongchen He, Lihua Kang, Xiuyan Yang, Yujie Gu, Dongwei Zhang, Yangang Wang, Sihua Gao
BACKGROUND: Type I diabetes is a global public health concern that affects young people of reproductive age and can damage oocytes, reducing their maturation rate and blocking embryonic development. Understanding the effects of type I diabetes on oocytes is important to facilitate the maintenance of reproductive capacity in female diabetic patients. METHODS: To analyze the effects of type I diabetes on mammalian oocytes, protein profile changes in mice with streptozotocin-induced type I diabetes were investigated using proteomic tools; non-diabetic mouse oocytes were used as controls...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801704/vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-improves-indices-of-metabolic-disease-in-rodent-model-of-surgical-menopause
#18
William J Lawson, Kristin Shirey, Redin A Spann, Carlos A Zamarripa, Jonathan P Hosler, Bernadette E Grayson
OBJECTIVE: Although women are the most common recipients of weight loss surgeries for the amelioration of the comorbidities of obesity, few studies have addressed the efficacy of these procedures with specific attention to reproductive stage. Here we ask in a rodent model of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) whether improvements to metabolic health are realized in women having received surgical menopause. Specifically we were interested in knowing whether rats made menopausal through surgical means would exhibit persistent hepatic steatosis as reported in previously pregnant, freely cycling female VSG rats or if it is resolved as reported in male VSG rats...
October 31, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797954/comparative-phylogenomic-assessment-of-mitochondrial-introgression-among-several-species-of-chipmunks-tamias
#19
Brice A J Sarver, John R Demboski, Jeffrey M Good, Nicholas Forshee, Samuel S Hunter, Jack Sullivan
Many species are not completely reproductively isolated, resulting in hybridization and genetic introgression. Organellar genomes, such as those derived from mitochondria (mtDNA) and chloroplasts, introgress frequently in natural systems; however, the forces shaping patterns of introgression are not always clear. Here, we investigate extensive mtDNA introgression in western chipmunks, focusing on species in the Tamias quadrivittatus group from the central and southern Rocky Mountains. Specifically, we investigate the role of selection in driving patterns of introgression...
October 26, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796004/ultrastructural-studies-on-oocyte-development-and-vitellogenesis-associated-with-follicle-cells-in-female-scapharca-subcrenata-pelecypoda-arcidae-in-western-korea
#20
Sung Han Kim
Ultrastructural studies on oocyte development and vitellogenesis in oocytes, and the functions of follicle cells during oogenesis and oocyte degeneration were investigated to clarifyb the reproductive mechanism on vitellogenesis of Scapharca subcrenata using electron microscope observations. In this study, vitellogenesis during oogenesis in the oocytes occured by way of autosynthesis and heterosynthesis. Of two processes of vitellogenesis during oogenesis, the process of endogenous autosynthesis involved the combined activity of the Golgi complex, mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum...
September 2016: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
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