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Mitochondria reproduction

Te-Sha Tsai, Sonika Tyagi, Justin C St John
STUDY QUESTION: What are the molecular differences between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-deficient and mtDNA-normal oocytes and how does mitochondrial supplementation alter these? SUMMARY ANSWER: Changes to DNA methylation in a 5' cytosine-phosphate-guanine 3' (CpG) island in the mtDNA-specific replication factor (DNA polymerase gamma (POLG)) of mtDNA-deficient oocytes mediates an increase in mtDNA copy number by the 2-cell stage that positively modulates the expression of nuclear genes, which affect cellular and metabolic processes, following autologous mitochondrial supplementation...
March 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
Souhir Marsit, Anne-Marie Dion-Côté, Daniel A Barbash
Genomic divergence can cause reproductive isolation between species. The molecular mechanisms underlying reproductive isolation can thus reveal which genomic features evolve rapidly and become unstable or incompatible in hybrids. In a recent paper in Nature, Gibeaux et al. (2018) report paternal genome instability and metabolic imbalance in hybrids between frog species.
March 12, 2018: Developmental Cell
Yufeng Zhang, Adam L Brasher, Noel R Park, Halie A Taylor, Andreas N Kavazis, Wendy R Hood
Understanding of physiological responses of organisms is typically based on data collected during an isolated event. Although many fundamental insights have been gained from these studies, evaluating the response to a single event ignores the fact that each individual has experienced a unique set of events throughout its life that may have altered its physiology. The idea that prior experiences can influence subsequent performance is known as a carry-over effect. Carry-over effects may explain much of the variation in performance found among individuals...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
M V Skulachev, V P Skulachev
(i) In 2015-2017 we compared possible reasons for longevity of two mammalian highly social species, i.e. naked mole rats and humans. We proposed that in both cases longevity is a result of neoteny, prolongation of youth by deceleration of late ontogeny (Skulachev, V. P. (2015) Abst. 11th Conf. on Mitochondrial Physiology (MiP2015), Lucni Bouda, Czech Republic, pp. 64-66; Skulachev, V. P., Holtze, S., Vyssokikh, M. Y., Bakeeva, L. E., Skulachev, M. V., Markov, A. V., Hildebrandt, T. B., and Sadovnichii, V. A...
December 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Li Xie, Tânia Gomes, Knut Asbjørn Solhaug, You Song, Knut Erik Tollefsen
Standard chemical toxicity testing guidelines using aquatic plant Lemna minor have been developed by several international standardisation organisations. Although being highly useful for regulatory purposes by focusing on traditional adverse endpoints, these tests provide limited information about the toxic mechanisms and modes of action (MoA). The present study aimed to use selected functional assays in L. minor after exposure to 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP) as a model to characterise the toxic mechanisms causing growth inhibition and lethality in primary producers...
February 10, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Qi-Hui Lyu, Bei-Bei Zhang, Bao-Zhen Hua
The fine structure of the seminal vesicle and reproductive accessory glands was investigated in Bittacidae of Mecoptera using light and transmission electron microscopy. The male reproductive system of Bittacidae mainly consists of a pair of testes, a pair of vasa deferentia, and an ejaculatory sac. The vas deferens is greatly expanded for its middle and medio-posterior parts to form a well-developed seminal vesicle. The seminal vesicle is composed of layers of developed muscles and a mono-layered epithelium surrounding the small central lumen...
February 6, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Alexandra M Huffman, Haotian Wu, Allyson Rosati, Tayyab Rahil, Cynthia K Sites, Brian W Whitcomb, J Richard Pilsner
BACKGROUND: Phthalates, a chemical class of plasticizers, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have been associated with oxidative stress. Mitochondria DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and DNA deletions (mtDNAdel) are emerging biomarkers for cellular oxidative stress and environment exposures. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of urinary phthalate metabolite and isoprostane concentrations on sperm mtDNAcn and mtDNAdel in male partners undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ART)...
February 5, 2018: Environmental Research
Ruo-Hong Xiong, Shi-Lei Wen, Qiang Wang, Hong-Ying Zhou, Shi Feng
Female athletes may experience difficulties in achieving pregnancy due to athletic amenorrhea (AA); however, the underlying mechanisms of AA remain unknown. The present study focuses on the mitochondrial alteration and its function in detecting the possible mechanism of AA. An AA rat model was established by excessive swimming. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, and transmission electron microscopic methods were performed to evaluate the morphological changes of the ovary, immunohistochemical examinations and radioimmunoassays were used to detect the reproductive hormones and corresponding receptors...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Zvi Roth
Stress can affect reproductive performance of lactating cows by targeting the ovarian pool of follicles and their enclosed oocytes. Among the documented stressors are heat stress (i.e., high temperature-humidity index) as well as environmental and food toxins. Oocytes collected during the hot season are of lower quality than those collected in the winter, expressed by reduced oocyte maturation and developmental competence. A similar pattern has been reported for oocytes exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
André F Camargo, Marina M Chioda, Ana P C Rodrigues, Geovana S Garcia, Emily A McKinney, Howard T Jacobs, Marcos T Oliveira
The mitochondrial respiratory chain in vertebrates and arthropods is different from that of most other eukaryotes because they lack alternative enzymes that provide electron transfer pathways additional to the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. However, the use of diverse experimental models, such as human cells in culture, Drosophila melanogaster and the mouse, has demonstrated that the transgenic expression of these alternative enzymes can impact positively many phenotypes associated with human mitochondrial and other cellular dysfunction, including those typically presented in complex IV deficiencies, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's...
January 31, 2018: Cell Biology International
Mary Herbert, Doug Turnbull
Mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited, and pathogenic mutations cause a range of life-limiting conditions. Recent studies indicate that transmission of pathogenic mutations may be prevented by reproductive technologies designed to replace the mitochondria in eggs from affected women.
January 23, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Terry W Snell, Rachel K Johnston, Amelia B Matthews, Hongyi Zhou, Mu Gao, Jeffrey Skolnick
Pharmaceutical interventions can slow aging in animals, and have advantages because their dose can be tightly regulated and the timing of the intervention can be closely controlled. They also may complement environmental interventions like caloric restriction by acting additively. A fertile source for therapies slowing aging is FDA approved drugs whose safety has been investigated. Because drugs bind to several protein targets, they cause multiple effects, many of which have not been characterized. It is possible that some of the side effects of drugs prescribed for one therapy may have benefits in retarding aging...
January 16, 2018: Biogerontology
Ryan L Davis, Christina Liang, Carolyn M Sue
Mitochondrial diseases collectively describe a diverse group of heritable disorders that invariably affect mitochondrial respiratory chain function and cellular energy production. Together they represent the most common cause of inherited metabolic disease, may present at any age, have a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, may be insidious in onset, and potentially have high morbidity and mortality. Due to the presence of mitochondria in all nucleated cells, mitochondrial disease can affect many different tissues, with single or multiple systems being involved...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Haichao Zhao, Qian Wang, Chao Liu, Yongliang Shang, Fuping Wen, Fang Wang, Weixiao Liu, Wei Xiao, Wei Li
Meiosis is a specific type of cell division that is essential for sexual reproduction in most eukaryotes. Mitochondria are crucial cellular organelles that play important roles in reproduction, though the detailed mechanism by which the mitochondrial respiratory chain functions during meiosis remains elusive. Here, we show that components of the respiratory chain (Complexes I-V) play essential roles in meiosis initiation during the sporulation of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Any functional defects in the complex I component Ndi1p resulted in the abolishment of sporulation...
January 4, 2018: Genetics
Xilan Lu, Yingchun Zhang, Hongwei Bai, Jingjing Liu, Juntao Li, Bin Wu
Human spermatozoa cryopreservation is an important means of assisted reproductive technology and male fertility preservation. Although this technique is particularly useful, sperm cryopreservation significantly reduces the quality of spermatozoa after freezing and thawing. The objective of the study is to examine the efficacy of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTEMPO in improving sperm quality during semen cryopreservation processes. Semen samples were collected and cryopreserved in extenders containing different concentrations (0...
December 26, 2017: Cryobiology
Keshav Dahal, Greg C Vanlerberghe
The non-energy conserving alternative oxidase (AOX) respiration of plant mitochondria is known to interact with chloroplast photosynthesis. This may have consequences for growth, particularly under sub-optimal conditions when energy imbalances can impede photosynthesis. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the metabolism and growth of wild-type (WT) Nicotiana tabacum with that of AOX knockdown and overexpression lines during a prolonged steady-state mild to moderate water deficit. Under moderate water deficit, AOX amount was an important determinant of the rate of both mitochondrial respiration in the light and net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A) at the growth irradiance...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Gessica Dutra Gonçalves, Simone Cristine Semprebon, Bruna Isabela Biazi, Mario Sergio Mantovani, Glaura Scantamburlo Alves Fernandes
Leydig cells are the major testosterone-producing cells of the male reproductive system, and damage to these cells can impair fertility of men. Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the chemicals with the highest volume of production worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of BPA on the growth, viability, and testosterone production of TM3 murine Leydig cells after exposure to BPA for 24 or 48 h. BPA reduced testosterone production, cell viability and cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner...
December 13, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Jessica Greaney, Zhe Wei, Hayden Homer
BACKGROUND: Meiotic chromosome segregation in human oocytes is notoriously error-prone, especially with ageing. Such errors markedly reduce the reproductive chances of increasing numbers of women embarking on pregnancy later in life. However, understanding the basis for these errors is hampered by limited access to human oocytes. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Important new discoveries have arisen from molecular analyses of human female recombination and aneuploidy along with high-resolution analyses of human oocyte maturation and mouse models...
December 13, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
Alan T Branco, Rute M Brito, Bernardo Lemos
Y chromosomes typically harbour a small number of genes and an abundance of repetitive sequences. In Drosophila, the Y chromosome comprises multimegabase long segments of repetitive DNA and a handful of protein-coding genes. In mammals, the Y chromosome also harbours a disproportionally high abundance of repeats. Here, we built on a Drosophila melanogaster model in which the Y chromosome is decoupled from sexual determination. Genotypes were genetically identical for the autosomes, X chromosome, and mitochondria, but differ by the presence or dose of the Y chromosome...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Marjan Aghvami, Jalal Pourahmad, Afshin Zarghi, Peyman Eshghi, Mohammad Hadi Zarei, Shabnam Farzaneh, Fatemeh Sattari
BACKGROUND: Estrogens, as the main female steroid hormones have multiple proven effects on reproductive and non- reproductive systems. Expression of ERα and ERβ, two dominant estrogen receptors, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in certain B-cell malignancies and the existence of estrogens receptors on mitochondria is open to question that estrogen likely has an impact on the cancerous lymphocytes life span. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the frequent pediatric malignity which is recurrent and hardly curable in many cases...
December 5, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
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