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Chronic traumatic encephalopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715400/a-novel-method-to-model-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-drosophila
#1
Mingkuan Sun, Liam L Chen
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is an established neurodegenerative disease that is closely associated with exposure to repetitive mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI). The mechanisms responsible for its complex pathological changes remain largely elusive, despite a recent consensus to define the neuropathological criteria. Here, we describe a novel method to develop a model of CTE in Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophila ) in an attempt to identify the key genes and pathways that lead to the characteristic hyperphosphorylated tau accumulation and neuronal death in the brain...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701496/the-spectrum-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Andrew R Mayer, Davin K Quinn, Christina L Master
OBJECTIVE: This review provides an in-depth overview of diagnostic schema and risk factors influencing recovery during the acute, subacute (operationally defined as up to 3 months postinjury), and chronic injury phases across the full spectrum of individuals (e.g., athletes to neurosurgery patients) with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Particular emphasis is placed on the complex differential diagnoses for patients with prolonged postconcussive symptoms. METHODS: Select literature review and synthesis...
July 12, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680303/an-autopsy-proven-child-onset-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#3
Kyuho Lee, Seong-Ik Kim, Yujin Lee, Jae Kyung Won, Sung-Hye Park
Here we present an autopsy case of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in a 36-year-old man. He had a history of febrile seizures at the age of four and was severely demented at age 10 when he was admitted to a mental hospital. He had suffered repetitive self-harm, such as frequent banging of the head on the wall in his hospital record, but he had no clear history between the ages of four and ten. Autopsy revealed global cerebral atrophy, including the basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, mammilary bodies and lateral geniculate bodies...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674990/traumatic-brain-injury-as-a-trigger-of-neurodegeneration
#4
Victoria E Johnson, William Stewart, John D Arena, Douglas H Smith
Although millions of individuals suffer a traumatic brain injury (TBI) worldwide each year, it is only recently that TBI has been recognized as a major public health problem. Beyond the acute clinical manifestations, there is growing recognition that a single severe TBI (sTBI) or repeated mild TBIs (rTBI) can also induce insidious neurodegenerative processes, which may be associated with early dementia, in particular chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Identified at autopsy examination in individuals with histories of exposure to sTBI or rTBI, CTE is recognized as a complex pathology featuring both macroscopic and microscopic abnormalities...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664614/evolving-concepts-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-as-a-neuropathological-entity
#5
Helen Ling, James W Neal, Tamas Revesz
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a long-term neurodegenerative consequence of repetitive head impacts which can only be definitively diagnosed in post-mortem. Recently, the consensus neuropathological criteria for the diagnosis of CTE was published requiring the presence of the accumulation of abnormal tau in neurons and astroglia distributed around small blood vessels at the depths of cortical sulci in an irregular pattern as the mandatory features. The clinical diagnosis and antemortem prediction of CTE pathology remain challenging if not impossible due to the common co-existing underlying neurodegenerative pathologies and the lack of specific clinical pointers and reliable biomarkers...
June 30, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653647/advances-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-new-diagnostic-criteria-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-approaches
#6
REVIEW
Adam L Boxer, Jin-Tai Yu, Lawrence I Golbe, Irene Litvan, Anthony E Lang, Günter U Höglinger
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), previously believed to be a common cause of atypical parkinsonism, is now recognised as a range of motor and behavioural syndromes that are associated with a characteristic 4-repeat tau neuropathology. New research criteria that recognise early presentations of PSP and operationalise diagnosis of the full spectrum of clinical phenotypes have been reported. The Movement Disorders Society PSP diagnostic criteria include syndromes with few or mild symptoms that are suggestive of underlying PSP pathology and could provide an opportunity for earlier therapeutic interventions in the future...
July 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637381/role-of-caspase-3-mediated-apoptosis-in-chronic-caspase-3-cleaved-tau-accumulation-and-blood-brain-barrier-damage-in-the-corpus-callosum-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#7
Olena Y Glushakova, Andriy O Glushakov, Cesar V Borlongan, Alex B Valadka, Ronald L Hayes, Alexander V Glushakov
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be a significant risk factor for development of neurodegenerative disorders such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), and Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases. Chronic TBI is associated with several pathological features that are also characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases, including tau pathologies, caspase-3-mediated apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and microvascular alterations. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes following TBI in cleaved-caspase-3 and caspase-3-cleaved tau truncated at Asp421, and their relationships to cellular markers potentially associated with inflammation and blood-brain (BBB) barrier damage...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620825/flow-cytometric-characterization-of-t-cell-subsets-and-microglia-after-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#8
Ruojing Bai, Huabin Gao, Zhaoli Han, Shan Huang, Xintong Ge, Fanglian Chen, Ping Lei
Although, there is growing awareness in the progressive neurodegeneration of chronic traumatic encephalopathy, changes of immune reactions remain equivocal at best. Thus, in a clinically relevant rat repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) model, some immunologic cells (T cell subsets, microglia) in the injured brain and peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. In the injured brain, CD3(+) T cells showed a bimodal increase during 42 days post-injury (dpi). CD3(+)CD4(+) T cells firstly increased and then decreased, while CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells had reversed tendency...
June 15, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620350/considerations-for-experimental-animal-models-of-concussion-traumatic-brain-injury-and-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-these-matters-matter
#9
REVIEW
Mark W Wojnarowicz, Andrew M Fisher, Olga Minaeva, Lee E Goldstein
Animal models of concussion, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) are widely available and routinely deployed in laboratories around the world. Effective animal modeling requires careful consideration of four basic principles. First, animal model use must be guided by clarity of definitions regarding the human disease or condition being modeled. Concussion, TBI, and CTE represent distinct clinical entities that require clear differentiation: concussion is a neurological syndrome, TBI is a neurological event, and CTE is a neurological disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615399/concussion-diagnosis-and-management-knowledge-and-attitudes-of-family-medicine-residents
#10
Aneetinder Mann, Charles H Tator, James D Carson
OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge of, attitudes toward, and learning needs for concussion diagnosis and management among family medicine residents. DESIGN: E-mail survey. SETTING: University of Toronto in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Family medicine residents (N = 348). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To describe relationships between awareness of concussion management and lifestyle, education background, and residency placement, t tests and (2) tests were used as appropriate...
June 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526435/the-bidirectional-gut-brain-microbiota-axis-as-a-potential-nexus-between-traumatic-brain-injury-inflammation-and-disease
#11
Mark H Sundman, Nan-Kuei Chen, Vignesh Subbian, Ying-Hui Chou
As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 17, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524178/transcriptome-analyses-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-show-alterations-in-protein-phosphatase-expression-associated-with-tauopathy
#12
Jeong-Sun Seo, Seungbok Lee, Jong-Yeon Shin, Yu Jin Hwang, Hyesun Cho, Seong-Keun Yoo, Yunha Kim, Sungsu Lim, Yun Kyung Kim, Eun Mi Hwang, Su Hyun Kim, Chong-Hyun Kim, Seung Jae Hyeon, Ji-Young Yun, Jihye Kim, Yona Kim, Victor E Alvarez, Thor D Stein, Junghee Lee, Dong Jin Kim, Jong-Il Kim, Neil W Kowall, Hoon Ryu, Ann C McKee
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is associated with repetitive head injury and has distinctive neuropathological features that differentiate this disease from other neurodegenerative diseases. Intraneuronal tau aggregates, although they occur in different patterns, are diagnostic neuropathological features of CTE, but the precise mechanism of tauopathy is not known in CTE. We performed whole RNA sequencing analysis of post-mortem brain tissue from patients with CTE and compared the results to normal controls to determine the transcriptome signature changes associated with CTE...
May 19, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520686/clinical-correlates-to-assist-with-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-diagnosis-insights-from-a-novel-rodent-repeat-concussion-model
#13
Gretchen M Thomsen, Ara Ko, Megan Y Harada, Annie Ma, Livia Wyss, Patricia Haro, Jean-Philippe Vit, Pablo Avalos, Navpreet K Dhillon, Noell Cho, Oksana Shelest, Eric J Ley
INTRODUCTION: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease linked to repetitive head injuries. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy symptoms include changes in mood, behavior, cognition, and motor function; however, CTE is currently diagnosed only postmortem. Using a rat model of recurrent traumatic brain injury (TBI), we demonstrate rodent deficits that predict the severity of CTE-like brain pathology. METHODS: Bilateral, closed-skull, mild TBI was administered once per week to 35 wild-type rats; eight rats received two injuries (2×TBI), 27 rats received five injuries (5×TBI), and 13 rats were sham controls...
June 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516328/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-identifying-those-at-risk-and-understanding-pathogenesis
#14
M D Willis, N P Robertson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511970/cleomedes-of-astypalaea-a-possible-early-sufferer-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#15
Rodolfo Savica, Mario Roberto Vaz Carneiro Filho, Christopher J Boes
Dementia pugilistica was the term adopted by H. Martland in 1928 to identify boxers with cognitive decline. In more recent years, the syndrome of dementia pugilistica with pathological correlates has been defined as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). A number of sportsmen have been recently diagnosed with CTE; and we may have identified an ancient Greek athlete of pankration who presented with the symptoms that have been associated with CTE. Our study reports the history and the known clinical information about Cleomedes of Astypalaea, possibly the first athlete ever affected by CTE...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511279/blast-associated-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-military-as-a-potential-trigger-for-dementia-and-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#16
James Hasoon
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) resulting from blast exposures have significantly affected US military personnel throughout the world, particularly in Iraq and Afghanistan. From 2000-2016, more than 350,000 military service members were diagnosed with a TBI. Since the majority of blast-related TBIs are classified as mild with no definitive findings on physical examination or diagnostic studies, it is difficult to accurately diagnose individuals inflicted with such injuries. There are likely far more mild TBIs that remain undiagnosed in the military...
January 2017: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502803/gene-co-expression-networks-identify-trem2-and-tyrobp-as-major-hubs-in-human-apoe-expressing-mice-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Emilie L Castranio, Anais Mounier, Cody M Wolfe, Kyong Nyon Nam, Nicholas F Fitz, Florent Letronne, Jonathan Schug, Radosveta Koldamova, Iliya Lefterov
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is strongly linked to an increased risk of developing dementia, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy and possibly Alzheimer's disease (AD). APOEε4 allele of human Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is the major genetic risk factor for late onset AD and has been associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy and unfavorable outcome following TBI. To determine if there is an APOE isoform-specific response to TBI we performed controlled cortical impact on 3-month-old mice expressing human APOE3 or APOE4 isoforms...
May 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490998/do-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-cognitive-decline-have-alzheimer-s-disease-or-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-cte
#18
COMMENT
William B Barr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487370/transactive-response-dna-binding-protein-43-tdp-43-regulates-alternative-splicing-of-tau-exon-10-implications-for-the-pathogenesis-of-tauopathies
#19
Jianlan Gu, Feng Chen, Khalid Iqbal, Cheng-Xin Gong, Xinglong Wang, Fei Liu
Hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of the neuronal protein tau are responsible for neurodegenerative diseases called tauopathies. Dysregulation of the alternative splicing of tau exon 10 results in alterations of the ratio of two tau isoforms, 3R-tau and 4R-tau, which have been seen in several tauopathies. Transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is involved in the regulation of RNA processing, including splicing. Cytoplasmic aggregation of TDP-43 has been observed in the brains of individuals with chronic traumatic encephalopathy or Alzheimer's disease, diseases in which neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau are hallmarks...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478818/the-multi-factorial-origins-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-cte-symptomology-in-post-career-athletes-the-athlete-post-career-adjustment-ap-ca-model
#20
Michael Gaetz
CTE has two prominent components: the pathophysiology that is detected in the brain postmortem and the symptomology that is present in the interval between retirement and end of life. CTE symptomology has been noted to include memory difficulties, aggression, depression, explosivity, and executive dysfunction at early stages progressing to problems with attention, mood swings, visuospatial difficulties, confusion, progressive dementia, and suicidality (e.g. McKee et al. (2012), Omalu et al. (2010a-c), McKee et al...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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