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Chronic traumatic encephalopathy

Timothy M Brenza, Shivani Ghaisas, Julia E Vela Ramirez, Dilshan Harischandra, Vellareddy Anantharam, Balaraman Kalyanaraman, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Balaji Narasimhan
A progressive loss of neuronal structure and function is a signature of many neurodegenerative conditions including chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Parkinson's, Huntington's and Alzheimer's diseases. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative and nitrative stress have been implicated as key pathological mechanisms underlying the neurodegenerative processes. However, current therapeutic approaches targeting oxidative damage are ineffective in preventing the progression of neurodegeneration. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants were recently shown to alleviate oxidative damage...
October 19, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Richard A Armstrong, Ann C McKee, Victor E Alvarez, Nigel J Cairns
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disorder which may result from repetitive brain injury. A variety of tau-immunoreactive pathologies are present, including neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), neuropil threads (NT), dot-like grains (DLG), astrocytic tangles (AT), and occasional neuritic plaques (NP). In tauopathies, cellular inclusions in the cortex are clustered within specific laminae, the clusters being regularly distributed parallel to the pia mater. To determine whether a similar spatial pattern is present in CTE, clustering of the tau-immunoreactive pathology was studied in the cortex, hippocampus, and dentate gyrus in 11 cases of CTE and 7 cases of Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic change (ADNC) without CTE...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Zachary C Merz, Ryan Van Patten, John Lace
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to assess current broad traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related knowledge in the general public, as well as understanding regarding specific TBI-related conditions including post-concussive syndrome (PCS) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). METHODS: Data were collected from 307 domestic and 73 international individuals via online researcher-developed survey instrumentation utilizing the Amazon Mechanical Turk marketplace, a recently developed website that allows for a streamlined process of survey-based participant recruitment and data collection...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Tanya Bogoslovsky, Jessica Gill, Andreas Jeromin, Cora Davis, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability around the world. The lack of validated biomarkers for TBI is a major impediment to developing effective therapies and improving clinical practice, as well as stimulating much work in this area. In this review, we focus on different settings of TBI management where blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers could be utilized for predicting clinically-relevant consequences and guiding management decisions. Requirements that the biomarker must fulfill differ based on the intended context of use (CoU)...
October 18, 2016: Diagnostics
A R Jayakumar, X Y Tong, N Shamaladevi, S Barcelona, G Gaidosh, A Agarwal, M D Norenberg
Transactivating DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) inclusions and the accumulation of phosphorylated and ubiquitinated tau proteins (p-tau) have been identified in postmortem brain specimens from patients with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). To examine whether these proteins contribute to the development of CTE, we utilized an in vitro trauma system known to reproduce many of the findings observed in humans and experimental animals with traumatic brain injury. Accordingly, we examined the role of TDP-43 and Tau in an in vitro model of trauma, and determined whether these proteins contribute to the defective neuronal integrity associated with CNS trauma...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Edward T Riley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: World Neurosurgery
Ryan C Turner, Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Matthew J Robson, John M Lee, Julian E Bailes
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) have long been recognized as sharing some similar neuropathological features, mainly the presence of neurofibrilary tangles and hyperphosphorylated tau, but have generally been described as distinct entities. Evidence indicates that neurotrauma increases the risk of developing dementia and accelerates the progression of disease. Findings are emerging that CTE and AD may be present in the same patients. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: This study presents a series of previously unpublished cases, with one case demonstrating possible neurotrauma-related AD, one pure CTE, and an example of a case exhibiting features of both AD and CTE...
August 11, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Aric F Logsdon, Linda Nguyen, Ahmed Eltanahay, Ryan C Turner, Patrick Bonasso, Chelsea Knotts, Adam Moeck, Joseph C Maroon, Julian E Bailes, Charles L Rosen
Studies using traditional treatment strategies for mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) have produced limited clinical success. Interest in treatment for mild TBI is at an all time high due to its association with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other neurodegenerative diseases, yet therapeutic options remain limited. Traditional pharmaceutical interventions have failed to transition to the clinic for the treatment of mild TBI. As such, many pre-clinical studies are now implementing non-pharmaceutical therapies for TBI...
October 5, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
David X Cifu, Olivia K Uchima, Alaina S Davis, Amy E Lower, Jingyu L Jin, Henry L Lew
Head injuries are a particular concern in Hawai'i given the large military population, the presence of many land and water sports such as football and surfing, and the lenient helmet laws for motorcycle and bicycle riders. Physical, psychological, and cognitive symptoms from single or repeated concussions can affect an individual's reentry to society and activity. Current literature indicates that repeated head injuries are associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) which is thought to lead to dementia...
September 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
Lyndsey E Collins-Praino, Frances Corrigan
A history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is linked to an increased risk for the later development of dementia. This encompasses a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), with AD linked to history of moderate-severe TBI and CTE to a history of repeated concussion. Of note, both AD and CTE are characterized by the abnormal accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates, which are thought to play an important role in the development of neurodegeneration...
September 28, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
D L Dickstein, M Y Pullman, C Fernandez, J A Short, L Kostakoglu, K Knesaurek, L Soleimani, B D Jordan, W A Gordon, K Dams-O'Connor, B N Delman, E Wong, C Y Tang, S T DeKosky, J R Stone, R C Cantu, M Sano, P R Hof, S Gandy
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disorder most commonly associated with repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI) and characterized by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein, known as a tauopathy. Currently, the diagnosis of CTE can only be definitively established postmortem. However, a new positron emission tomography (PET) ligand, [(18)F]T807/AV1451, may provide the antemortem detection of tau aggregates, and thus various tauopathies, including CTE. Our goal was to examine [(18)F]T807/AV1451 retention in athletes with neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with a history of multiple concussions...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Denise Isabelle Briggs, Mariana Angoa-Pérez, Donald Michael Kuhn
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI), resulting from insults caused by an external mechanical force that disrupts normal brain function, has been linked to the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and Alzheimer disease; however, neither the severity nor frequency of head injury required to trigger adverse behavioral outcomes is well understood. In this study, the administration of 30 head impacts using two different weights to lightly anesthetized, completely unrestrained mice established a paradigm that simulates the highly repetitive nature of sports- and military-related head injury...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Osman Hassan Ahmed, Eric E Hall
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Concussion is widely discussed in online sports news articles, but the terms used to report this injury vary. This study aimed to use a systematic search strategy and explore the description of sports concussion in online sports news articles. METHODS: A systematic approach was employed to obtain online articles related to sports concussion from four sports associated with concussion (hockey, football, soccer, and rugby). Included articles were evaluated for the descriptors used in relation to concussion and possible consequences associated with concussion...
July 15, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
Ann C McKee, Michael L Alosco, Bertrand R Huber
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a distinctive neurodegenerative disease that occurs as a result of repetitive head impacts. CTE can only be diagnosed by postmortem neuropathologic examination of brain tissue. CTE is a unique disorder with a pathognomonic lesion that can be reliably distinguished from other neurodegenerative diseases. CTE is associated with violent behaviors, explosivity, loss of control, depression, suicide, memory loss and cognitive changes. There is increasing evidence that CTE affects amateur athletes as well as professional athletes and military veterans...
October 2016: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow
Diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as concussion, remain a major unmet clinical need. Moderate to severe TBI can be diagnosed definitively by clinical assessment and standard neuroimaging techniques that detect the gross damage to the brain parenchyma. Diagnostic tools for mild TBI are lacking and, currently, the diagnosis has to be made on clinical grounds alone, because most patients show no gross pathological changes on CT. Most patients with mild TBI recover quickly, but about 15% develop an ill-defined condition called postconcussive syndrome (PCS)...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Andrew W Kuhn, Aaron M Yengo-Kahn, Zachary Y Kerr, Scott L Zuckerman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Steven Lehrer, Peter H Rheinstein
A derangement of brain wound healing may cause some cases of Alzheimer's disease. Wound healing, a highly complex process, has four stages: hemostasis, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. Hemostasis and the initial phases of inflammation in brain tissue are typical of all vascularized tissue, such as skin. However, distinct differences arise in brain tissue during the later stages of inflammation, repair, and remodeling, and closely parallel the changes of Alzheimer's disease. Our hypothesis -- Alzheimer's disease is brain wound healing gone awry at least in some cases -- could be tested by measuring progression with biomarkers for the four stages of wound healing in humans or appropriate animal models...
August 2016: Discovery Medicine
Cyrus A Raji, David A Merrill, Jorge R Barrio, Bennet Omalu, Gary W Small
Here a case is presented of a 51-year-old former high school football player with multiple concussions, including one episode with loss of consciousness. The patient experienced 6 years of cognitive and mood decline, and his wife corroborated increasing memory loss, attentional difficulties, and depressed mood without suicidal ideation. He had been unable to maintain full-time employment because of progressive decline. Based on his presentation, he had been previously diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder, type II...
October 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Breton M Asken, Molly J Sullan, Aliyah R Snyder, Zachary M Houck, Vaughn E Bryant, Loren P Hizel, Molly E McLaren, Duane E Dede, Michael S Jaffee, Steven T DeKosky, Russell M Bauer
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neuropathologically defined disease reportedly linked to a history of repetitive brain trauma. As such, retired collision sport athletes are likely at heightened risk for developing CTE. Researchers have described distinct pathological features of CTE as well a wide range of clinical symptom presentations, recently termed traumatic encephalopathy syndrome (TES). These clinical symptoms are highly variable, non-specific to individuals described as having CTE pathology in case reports, and are often associated with many other factors...
August 25, 2016: Neuropsychology Review
Shunsuke Koga, Dennis W Dickson, Kevin F Bieniek
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with repetitive traumatic brain injury. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a Parkinsonian disorder that can result in repetitive falls with associated head trauma. We hypothesized that patients with neurodegenerative disorders like MSA could develop CTE pathology. Therefore, we assessed CTE pathology in 139 MSA cases in our brain bank. Sections from convexity cerebral cortices were screened by immunohistochemistry with anti-phospho-tau antibody...
October 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
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