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Chronic traumatic encephalopathy

Jennifer Kosoy, Ronald Feinstein
Learning about concussion diagnosis and management is important for all individuals who will be taking care of young athletes. There are about 1.7million reported concussions per year, and, of these, about 20% are sports related. There are risks in all sports, but the highest rates of concussions are from football, rugby, and hockey, with soccer being the highest cause for girls. An on-field assessment includes evaluating airway, breathing, and circulation, followed by cervical spine assessment. Then, concussion evaluation tools can be used to aid in making the diagnosis...
July 14, 2018: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
Nicole Schwab, Lili-Naz Hazrati
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is considered to be a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Recently there has been a significant amount of media attention surrounding the commonness of CTE in professional athletes, particularly American football, based on several postmortem case series. However, despite the persuasive claims made by the media about CTE, research on the disease and the effects of mTBI in general remain in its infancy. Commonly cited case series studying CTE are limited by methodological biases, pathological inconsistencies, insufficient clinical data, and a reliance on inherently biased postmortem data...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Benoit Christian Mouzon, Corbin Bachmeier, Joseph Ojo, Christopher Acker, Scott Ferguson, Gogce Crynen, Peter Davies, Michael Mullan, William Stewart, Fiona C Crawford
Tau pathology associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy has been documented in the brains of individuals with a history of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI). At this stage, the pathobiological role of tau in r-mTBI has not been extensively explored in appropriate preclinical models. Herein, we describe the acute and chronic behavioral and histopathological effects of single and repetitive mild TBI (five injuries given at 48 h intervals) in young adult (3 months old) hTau mice that express all six isoforms of human tau on a null murine background...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Christopher C Giza, William Stewart, Mayumi L Prins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Karen Misquitta, Mahsa Dadar, Apameh Tarazi, Mohammed W Hussain, Mohammed K Alatwi, Ahmed Ebraheem, Namita Multani, Mozhgan Khodadadi, Ruma Goswami, Richard Wennberg, Charles Tator, Robin Green, Brenda Colella, Karen Deborah Davis, David Mikulis, Mark Grinberg, Christine Sato, Ekaterina Rogaeva, D Louis Collins, Maria Carmela Tartaglia
Multiple concussions, particularly in contact sports, have been associated with cognitive deficits, psychiatric impairment and neurodegenerative diseases like chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We used volumetric and deformation-based morphometric analyses to test the hypothesis that repeated concussions may be associated with smaller regional brain volumes, poorer cognitive performance and behavioural symptoms among former professional football players compared to healthy controls. This study included fifty-three retired Canadian Football League players, 25 age- and education-matched healthy controls, and controls from the Cambridge Centre for Aging and Neuroscience database for validation...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Tharmegan Tharmaratnam, Mina A Iskandar, Tyler C Tabobondung, Iqdam Tobbia, Prasaanthan Gopee-Ramanan, Taylor A Tabobondung
Repetitive head trauma provides a favorable milieu for the onset of inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes. The result of long-lasting head trauma is chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a disease process well-recognized in boxers, military personnel, and more recently, in American football players. CTE is a chronic neurodegenerative disease with hallmarks of hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) aggregates and intercellular lesions of neurofibrillary tangles. The criteria for CTE diagnosis requires at least 1-2 focal perivascular lesions of p-tau in the cerebral cortex, at the depth of the sulci...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Milos D Ikonomovic, Eric E Abrahamson, Shaun W Carlson, Steven H Graham, C Edward Dixon
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a risk factor for development of chronic neurodegenerative disorders later in life. This review summarizes the current knowledge and concepts regarding the connection between long-term consequences of TBI and aging-associated neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), and Parkinsonism, with implications for novel therapy targets. Several aggregation-prone proteins such as the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, tau proteins, and α-synuclein protein are involved in secondary pathogenic cascades initiated by a TBI and are also major building blocks of the hallmark pathological lesions in chronic human neurodegenerative diseases with dementia...
June 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Eric M Gold, Vitaly Vasilevko, Jonathan Hasselmann, Casey Tiefenthaler, Danny Hoa, Kasuni Ranawaka, David H Cribbs, Brian J Cummings
An estimated 5.3 million Americans are living with a disability from a traumatic brain injury (TBI). There is emerging evidence of the detrimental effects from repeated mild TBIs (rmTBIs). rmTBI manifests its own unique set of behavioral and neuropathological changes. A subset of individuals exposed to rmTBI develop permanent behavioral and pathological consequences, defined postmortem as chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We have combined components of two classic rodent models of TBI, the controlled cortical impact model and the weight drop model, to develop a repeated mild closed head injury (rmCHI) that produces long-term deficits in several behaviors that correlate with neuropathological changes...
January 2018: ASN Neuro
Liam Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Kristen M Craven, William R Kochen, Carlos M Hernandez, Jane M Flinn
Hyperphosphorylated tau protein is a key pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and Parkinson's disease. The essential trace element zinc exacerbates tauopathy in vitro as well as in a Drosophila model of AD. However, the interaction has never been assessed behaviorally or biochemically in mammals. Zinc supplementation is prevalent in society, finding use as a treatment for macular degeneration and cataracts, and is also taken as an immune system booster with high levels appearing in multivitamins marketed toward the elderly...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Scott R Laker, Christine Greiss, Jonathan T Finnoff, Jaspal R Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Wen Hu, Yunn Chyn Tung, Yanchong Zhang, Fei Liu, Khalid Iqbal
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an established risk factor for the development of neurodegeneration and dementia late in life. Repetitive mild TBI (r-mTBI) is directly associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by focal perivascular to widespread Alzheimer-type neurofibrillary pathology of hyperphosphorylated tau. Studies in animal models have shown hyperphosphorylation of tau after TBI. However, the molecular mechanisms by which TBI leads to tau pathology are not understood...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Michael J Hylin, Ryan C Holden, Aidan C Smith, Aric F Logsdon, Rabia Qaiser, Brandon P Lucke-Wold
The leading cause of death in the juvenile population is trauma, and in particular neurotrauma. The juvenile brain response to neurotrauma is not completely understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been shown to contribute to injury expansion and behavioral deficits in adult rodents and furthermore has been seen in adult postmortem human brains diagnosed with chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Whether endoplasmic reticulum stress is increased in juveniles with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is poorly delineated...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Christian Lepage, Marc Muehlmann, Yorghos Tripodis, Jakob Hufschmidt, Julie Stamm, Katie Green, Pawel Wrobel, Vivian Schultz, Isabelle Weir, Michael L Alosco, Christine M Baugh, Nathan G Fritts, Brett M Martin, Christine Chaisson, Michael J Coleman, Alexander P Lin, Ofer Pasternak, Nikos Makris, Robert A Stern, Martha E Shenton, Inga K Koerte
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with exposure to repetitive head impacts. CTE has been linked to disruptions in cognition, mood, and behavior. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of CTE can only be made post-mortem. Neuropathological evidence suggests limbic structures may provide an opportunity to characterize CTE in the living. Using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging, we compared select limbic brain regional volumes - the amygdala, hippocampus, and cingulate gyrus - between symptomatic former National Football League (NFL) players (n = 86) and controls (n = 22)...
May 19, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Ye Xiong, Asim Mahmood, Michael Chopp
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Increasing evidence indicates that TBI is an important risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Despite improved supportive and rehabilitative care of TBI patients, unfortunately, all late phase clinical trials in TBI have yet to yield a safe and effective neuroprotective treatment. The disappointing clinical trials may be attributed to variability in treatment approaches and heterogeneity of the population of TBI patients as well as a race against time to prevent or reduce inexorable cell death...
June 2018: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Ross D Zafonte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Annals of Neurology
Alexander J Moszczynski, Matthew A Hintermayer, Michael J Strong
Approximately 50-60% of all patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) will develop a deficit of frontotemporal function, ranging from frontotemporal dementia (FTD) to one or more deficits of neuropsychological, speech or language function which are collectively known as the frontotemporal spectrum disorders of ALS (ALS-FTSD). While the neuropathology underlying these disorders is most consistent with a widespread alteration in the metabolism of transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), in both ALS with cognitive impairment (ALSci) and ALS with FTD (ALS-FTD; also known as MND-FTD) there is evidence for alterations in the metabolism of the microtubule associated protein tau...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Rahel Ruprecht, Eva Scheurer, Claudia Lenz
BACKGROUND: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease that is found in people who have suffered from chronic traumatic brain injury (TBI). Up to now, diagnosis of CTE could only be made based on postmortem histopathological examinations. The application of MR techniques might offer a promising possibility for in vivo diagnoses. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To provide a critical systematic review of the characterization of chronic TBI and CTE by considering the range of MR techniques...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Heather S Spader, Douglas C Dean, W Curt LaFrance, Neha P Raukar, G Rees Cosgrove, Stephanie A Eyerly-Webb, Anna Ellermeier, Stephen Correia, Sean C L Deoni, Jeffrey Rogg
OBJECTIVE Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in athletes, including concussion, is increasingly being found to have long-term sequelae. Current imaging techniques have not been able to identify early damage caused by mTBI that is predictive of long-term symptoms or chronic traumatic encephalopathy. In this preliminary feasibility study, the authors investigated the use of an emerging magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, multicomponent driven equilibrium single pulse observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT), in visualizing acute and chronic white matter changes after mTBI in collegiate football and rugby players...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Michael L Alosco, Jesse Mez, Yorghos Tripodis, Patrick T Kiernan, Bobak Abdolmohammadi, Lauren Murphy, Neil W Kowall, Thor D Stein, Bertrand Russell Huber, Lee E Goldstein, Robert C Cantu, Douglas I Katz, Christine E Chaisson, Brett Martin, Todd M Solomon, Michael D McClean, Daniel H Daneshvar, Christopher J Nowinski, Robert A Stern, Ann C McKee
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of age of first exposure to tackle football on chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) pathological severity and age of neurobehavioral symptom onset in tackle football players with neuropathologically confirmed CTE. METHODS: The sample included 246 tackle football players who donated their brains for neuropathological examination. Two hundred eleven were diagnosed with CTE (126 of 211 were without comorbid neurodegenerative diseases), and 35 were without CTE...
May 2018: Annals of Neurology
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