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cognition in multiple sclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206827/validity-of-the-symbol-digit-modalities-test-as-a-cognition-performance-outcome-measure-for-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Ralph Hb Benedict, John DeLuca, Glenn Phillips, Nicholas LaRocca, Lynn D Hudson, Richard Rudick
Cognitive and motor performance measures are commonly employed in multiple sclerosis (MS) research, particularly when the purpose is to determine the efficacy of treatment. The increasing focus of new therapies on slowing progression or reversing neurological disability makes the utilization of sensitive, reproducible, and valid measures essential. Processing speed is a basic elemental cognitive function that likely influences downstream processes such as memory. The Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Assessments Consortium (MSOAC) includes representatives from advocacy organizations, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), academic institutions, and industry partners along with persons living with MS...
February 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205364/altered-neural-mechanisms-of-cognitive-control-in-patients-with-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-an-effective-connectivity-study
#2
Ekaterina Dobryakova, Maria Assunta Rocca, Paola Valsasina, John DeLuca, Massimo Filippi
Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) leads to physical and cognitive disability. Specifically, cognitive deficits in PPMS have been explained by both grey matter atrophy and white matter lesions. However, existing research still lacks in the understanding of how the brain of a patient with PPMS functions under cognitive control demands. Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine information integration in patients with PPMS using a search-based effective connectivity method. Fourteen patients with PPMS and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) performed the Stroop task, a cognitively demanding interference task that taxes neural resources required for cognitive control and response inhibition...
February 16, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202372/gut-microbiota-implications-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Arun Parashar, Malairaman Udayabanu
Gut microbiota (GM) can influence various neurological outcomes, like cognition, learning, and memory. Commensal GM modulates brain development and behavior and has been implicated in several neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, anxiety, stress and much more. A recent study has shown that Parkinson's disease patients suffer from GM dysbiosis, but whether it is a cause or an effect is yet to be understood. In this review, we try to connect the dots between GM and PD pathology using direct and indirect evidence...
February 7, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193696/astrocytic-orosomucoid-2-modulates-microglial-activation-and-neuroinflammation
#4
Myungjin Jo, Jong-Heon Kim, Gyunjee Song, Minchul Seo, Eun Mi Hwang, Kyoungho Suk
Orosomucoid (ORM) is an acute-phase protein that belongs to the immunocalin subfamily, a group of small-molecule binding proteins with immunomodulatory functions. Little is known about the role of ORM proteins in the central nervous system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the brain expression of ORM and its role in neuroinflammation. Expression of Orm2, but not Orm1 or Orm3, was highly induced in the mouse brain after systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Plasma levels of ORM2 were also significantly higher in patients with cognitive impairment than in normal subjects...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185158/outcome-measures-in-clinical-trials-for-multiple-sclerosis
#5
REVIEW
Caspar E P van Munster, Bernard M J Uitdehaag
Due to the heterogeneous nature of the disease, it is a challenge to capture disease activity of multiple sclerosis (MS) in a reliable and valid way. Therefore, it can be difficult to assess the true efficacy of interventions in clinical trials. In phase III trials in MS, the traditionally used primary clinical outcome measures are the Expanded Disability Status Scale and the relapse rate. Secondary outcome measures in these trials are the number or volume of T2 hyperintense lesions and gadolinium-enhancing T1 lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain...
February 9, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179464/increased-default-mode-network-centrality-in-cognitively-impaired-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#6
Anand J C Eijlers, Kim A Meijer, Thomas M Wassenaar, Martijn D Steenwijk, Bernard M J Uitdehaag, Frederik Barkhof, Alle M Wink, Jeroen J G Geurts, Menno M Schoonheim
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how changes in functional network hierarchy determine cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: A cohort consisting of 332 patients with MS (age 48.1 ± 11.0 years, symptom duration 14.6 ± 8.4 years) and 96 healthy controls (HCs; age 45.9 ± 10.4 years) underwent structural MRI, fMRI, and extensive neuropsychological testing. Patients were divided into 3 groups: cognitively impaired (CI; n = 87), mildly cognitively impaired (MCI; n = 65), and cognitively preserved (CP; n = 180)...
February 8, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178867/the-relationship-between-white-matter-fiber-damage-and-gray-matter-perfusion-in-large-scale-functionally-defined-networks-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Ashley Y Ma, Rita C Vitorino, Seyed-Parsa Hojjat, Alannah D Mulholland, Liying Zhang, Liesly Lee, Timothy J Carroll, Charles G Cantrell, Chase R Figley, Richard I Aviv
BACKGROUND: Recent studies utilizing perfusion as a surrogate of cortical integrity show promise for overall cognition, but the association between white matter (WM) damage and gray matter (GM) integrity in specific functional networks is not previously studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between WM fiber integrity and GM node perfusion within six functional networks of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients...
January 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174058/the-expression-of-lnc-il-7r-long-non-coding-rna-dramatically-correlated-with-soluble-and-membrane-bound-isoforms-of-il-7ra-gene-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#8
Parinaz Bina, Majid Pahlevan Kakhki, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Mehrdad Behmanesh
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that causes physical and cognitive impairments. IL-7Ra is a key non-MHC gene associated with MS. IL-7Ra is a likely functional candidate for this complex disease because it is involved in the development, maturation, and homeostasis of T and B cells. Our aim was to evaluate the expression level and controlling role of lnc-IL-7R in the expression of two variants of IL-7Ra in MS patients versus healthy controls and their correlation with certain clinical features...
February 4, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169581/gray-matter-trophism-cognitive-impairment-and-depression-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Emanuele Pravatà, Maria A Rocca, Paola Valsasina, Gianna C Riccitelli, Claudio Gobbi, Giancarlo Comi, Andrea Falini, Massimo Filippi
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment and depression frequently affects patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the relationship between the occurrence of depression and cognitive impairment and the development of cortical atrophy has not been fully elucidated yet. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of cortical and deep gray matter (GM) volume with depression and cognitive impairment in MS. METHODS: Three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted scans were obtained from 126 MS patients and 59 matched healthy controls...
February 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167388/unplanned-gait-termination-in-individuals-with-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Kathleen L Roeing, Yaejin Moon, Jacob J Sosnoff
Despite the pervasive nature of gait impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS), there is limited information concerning the control of gait termination in individuals with MS. The purpose of this investigation was to examine unplanned gait termination with and without cognitive distractors in individuals with MS compared to healthy controls. Thirty-one individuals with MS and 14 healthy controls completed a series of unplanned gait termination tasks over a pressure sensitive walkway under distracting and non-distracting conditions...
January 30, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165143/potentially-modifiable-factors-associated-with-physical-activity-in-individuals-with-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Nadia Reider, Amber R Salter, Gary R Cutter, Tuula Tyry, Ruth Ann Marrie
Physical activity levels among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are worryingly low. We aimed to identify the factors associated with physical activity for people with MS, with an emphasis on factors that have not been studied previously (bladder and hand dysfunction) and are potentially modifiable. This study was a secondary analysis of data collected in the spring of 2012 during the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry. NARCOMS participants were surveyed regarding smoking using questions from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey; disability using the Patient Determined Disease Steps; fatigue, cognition, spasticity, sensory, bladder, vision and hand function using self-reported Performance Scales; health literacy using the Medical Term Recognition Test; and physical activity using questions from the Health Information National Trends Survey...
February 6, 2017: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153503/intake-of-tryptophan-enriched-whey-protein-acutely-enhances-recall-of-positive-loaded-words-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Cindy K Lieben, Arjan Blokland, Nicolaas E Deutz, Willemijn Jansen, Gang Han, Raymond M Hupperts
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Multiple sclerosis (MS) has physiological and/or immunological characteristics that diminish serotonin metabolism, a neurotransmitter associated with affective and cognitive functions. The aim was examine the acute and dose-dependent effects of a dietary tryptophan (TRP) enrichment on affective and cognitive functions in MS patients. We hypothesized that increased dietary availability of the amino acid TRP enhances serotonin concentrations and improves neuropsychological functions...
January 16, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150431/should-learners-reason-one-step-at-a-time-a-randomised-trial-of-two-diagnostic-scheme-designs
#13
Sarah Blissett, Deric Morrison, David McCarty, Matthew Sibbald
CONTEXT: Making a diagnosis can be difficult for learners as they must integrate multiple clinical variables. Diagnostic schemes can help learners with this complex task. A diagnostic scheme is an algorithm that organises possible diagnoses by assigning signs or symptoms (e.g. systolic murmur) to groups of similar diagnoses (e.g. aortic stenosis and aortic sclerosis) and provides distinguishing features to help discriminate between similar diagnoses (e.g. carotid pulse). The current literature does not identify whether scheme layouts should guide learners to reason one step at a time in a terminally branching scheme or weigh multiple variables simultaneously in a hybrid scheme...
February 2, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148589/lesson-of-the-month-2-transient-reversible-amnesia-in-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Priya Devi Shanmugarajah, Jane Alty, Oliver Lily, Helen L Ford
Transient amnestic syndromes are fascinating clinical entities and there are several subtypes. Transient global amnesia (TGA) is characterised by sudden onset of anterograde amnesia with repetitive questioning, lasting less than 24 hours. The pathophysiology of TGA involves the medial temporal lobes and hippocampi. Episodes of TGA are thought to involve venous congestion with Valsalva-like activities, vascular or migrainous mechanisms. In contrast, transient epileptic amnesia manifests as brief and frequent episodes of amnesia due to seizure activity in the temporal lobes...
February 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145395/composite-marker-of-cognitive-dysfunction-and-brain-atrophy-is-highly-accurate-in-discriminating-between-relapsing-remitting-and-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Rasa Kizlaitienė, Gintaras Kaubrys, Nataša Giedraitienė, Naglis Ramanauskas, Jūratė Dementavičienė
BACKGROUND With the advent of numerous new-generation disease-modifying drugs for multiple sclerosis (MS), the discrimination between relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS) has become a problem of high importance. The aim of our study was to find a simple way to accurately discriminate between RRMS and SPMS that is applicable in clinical practice as a composite marker, using the linear measures of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the results of cognitive tests. MATERIAL AND METHODS We included 88 MS patients in the study: 43 participants had RRMS and 45 had SPMS...
February 1, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131894/gaba-and-glutamate-levels-correlate-with-mtr-and-clinical-disability-insights-from-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Julia C Nantes, Sébastien Proulx, Jidan Zhong, Scott A Holmes, Sridar Narayanan, Robert A Brown, Richard D Hoge, Lisa Koski
Converging areas of research have implicated glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as key players in neuronal signalling and other central functions. Further research is needed, however, to identify microstructural and behavioral links to regional variability in levels of these neurometabolites, particularly in the presence of demyelinating disease. Thus, we sought to investigate the extent to which regional glutamate and GABA levels are related to a neuroimaging marker of microstructural damage and to motor and cognitive performance...
January 25, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131211/potential-pathophysiological-pathways-that-can-explain-the-positive-effects-of-exercise-on-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-scoping-review
#17
REVIEW
Martin Langeskov-Christensen, Etienne J Bisson, Marcia L Finlayson, Ulrik Dalgas
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is one of the most common and most disabling symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). It is a multidimensional and complex symptom with multifaceted origins, involving both central and peripheral fatigue mechanisms. Exercise has proven to be safe for people with MS, with cumulating evidence supporting significant reductions in fatigue. However, the potential pathophysiological pathways that can explain the positive effects of exercise on fatigue in MS remain elusive. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were, in PwMS (1) to update the knowledge on the pathophysiology underlying primary and secondary fatigue, and (2) to discuss potential pathophysiological pathways that can explain the positive effects of exercise on MS fatigue...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128426/-brief-neuropsychological-battery-for-multiple-sclerosis-normative-data-stratified-by-age-and-educational-level
#18
P Duque, J Oltra-Cucarella, O Fernandez, J Sepulcre, Grupo de Estudio de la Bateria Neuropsicologica Breve En la Esclerosis Multiple Grupo de Estudio de la Bateria Neuropsicologica Breve En la Esclerosis Multiple
INTRODUCTION: Interpretation of the performance on cognitive tests for neuropsychological assessment in multiple sclerosis (MS) differs according to the educational level of the examinee. AIMS: To provide normative data for the Brief Neuropsychological Battery (BNB) for MS stratified by age and education, as well as to demonstrate the utility of the battery for discriminating between healthy controls and patients with MS. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data from 701 healthy volunteers from the original normative sample were stratified by age and education using regression analyses of standard scores...
February 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127507/dalfampridine-effects-on-cognition-fatigue-and-dexterity
#19
Melanie Korsen, Rhina Kunz, Ulf Schminke, Uwe Runge, Thomas Kohlmann, Alexander Dressel
OBJECTIVES: Dalfampridine exerts beneficial effects on walking ability in a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). These patients are termed "responders". Here, we investigated whether the responder status with respect to mobility measures would determine whether dalfampridine treatment exerts a beneficial effect on other MS symptoms. We therefore assessed walking ability, upper limb function, cognition, fatigue, visual evoked potentials (VEPs), depression, and quality of life in patients before and after dalfampridine treatment...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122768/aggressive-traits-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-case-control-study
#20
Yara Dadalti Fragoso, Luana Caramillo Going, Amanda M Lourido, Leticia V Berlim, Marcia B A Egas, Mariani R Souza
OBJECTIVE: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuroimmunological disease that mainly affects young adults and leads to neurological disabilities. Depression, anxiety, cognitive dysfunction, and other psychiatric conditions have often been reported in patients with MS. Other, subtler aspects of psychosocial conditions in MS have been studied, but there is a paucity of papers on the subject. Remarkable degrees of aggression have been described in up to a quarter of patients with MS, but few studies have targeted this outcome in the psychopathological assessment on patients...
February 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
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