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Mahesha M Poojary, Francisco J Barba, Bahar Aliakbarian, Francesco Donsì, Gianpiero Pataro, Daniel A Dias, Pablo Juliano
Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae) represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield), selectivity (purity), high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies...
November 22, 2016: Marine Drugs
Hiromi Tokushima, Natsuko Inoue-Kashino, Yukine Nakazato, Atsunori Masuda, Kentaro Ifuku, Yasuhiro Kashino
BACKGROUND: Diatoms have attracted interest as biofuel producers. Here, the contents of lipids and photosynthetic pigments were analyzed in a marine centric diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis. This diatom can be genetically engineered using our previously reported transformation technique and has a potential to produce valuable materials photosynthetically. Sustainable culture conditions for cost-effective production of biological materials under autotrophic conditions with atmospheric carbon dioxide were investigated in the laboratory...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Kipras Redeckas, Vladislava Voiciuk, Mikas Vengris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2016: Photosynthesis Research
Snezana Agatonovic-Kustrin, David W Morton, Petar Ristivojević
The aim of this study was to develop and validate a rapid and simple high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method to screen for antioxidant activity in algal samples. 16 algal species were collected from local Victorian beaches. Fucoxanthin, one of the most abundant marine carotenoids was quantified directly from the HPTLC plates before derivatization, while derivatization either with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used to analyze antioxidants in marine algae, based on their ability to scavenge non biological stable free radical (DPPH) or to chelate iron ions...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Md Wahadoszamen, Erica Belgio, Md Ashiqur Rahman, Anjue Mane Ara, Alexander V Ruban, Rienk van Grondelle
Aggregation induced conformational change of light harvesting antenna complexes is believed to constitute one of the pathways through which photosynthetic organisms can safely dissipate the surplus of energy while exposed to saturating light. In this study, Stark fluorescence (SF) spectroscopy is applied to minor antenna complexes (CP24, CP26 and CP29) both in their light-harvesting and energy-dissipating states to trace and characterize different species generated upon energy dissipation through aggregation (in-vitro) induced conformational change...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Lili Chu, Daniela Ewe, Carolina Río Bártulos, Peter G Kroth, Ansgar Gruber
An essential prerequisite for a controlled transgene expression is the choice of a suitable promoter. In the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, the most commonly used promoters for trans-gene expression are the light dependent lhcf1 promoters (derived from two endogenous genes encoding fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c binding proteins) and the nitrate dependent nr promoter (derived from the endogenous nitrate reductase gene). In this study, we investigated the time dependent expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter under control of the nitrate reductase promoter in independently genetically transformed P...
2016: PeerJ
Mio Matsui, Kosuke Tanaka, Naoki Higashiguchi, Hisato Okawa, Yoichi Yamada, Ken Tanaka, Soichiro Taira, Tomoko Aoyama, Misaki Takanishi, Chika Natsume, Yuuki Takakura, Norihisa Fujita, Takeshi Hashimoto, Takashi Fujita
Mild exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is also harmful and hazardous to the skin and often causes a photosensitivity disorder accompanied by sunburn. To understand the action of UV on the skin we performed a microarray analysis to isolate UV-sensitive genes. We show here that UV irradiation promoted sunburn and downregulated filaggrin (Flg); fucoxanthin (FX) exerted a protective effect. In vitro analysis showed that UV irradiation of human dermal fibroblasts caused production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) without cellular toxicity...
September 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Ameyalli Grasa-López, Ángel Miliar-García, Lucía Quevedo-Corona, Norma Paniagua-Castro, Gerardo Escalona-Cardoso, Elba Reyes-Maldonado, María-Eugenia Jaramillo-Flores
Brown algae and its carotenoids have been shown to have a positive influence on obesity and its comorbidities. This study evaluated the effect of Undaria pinnatifida and fucoxanthin on biochemical, physiological and inflammation markers related to obesity and on the expression of genes engaged on white adipose tissue lipid metabolism in a murine model of diet-induced obesity. The treatments improved energy expenditure, β-oxidation and adipogenesis by upregulating PPARα, PGC1α, PPARγ and UCP-1. Adipogenesis was also confirmed by image analysis of the retroperitoneal adipose tissue, by measuring cell area, perimeter and cellular density...
2016: Marine Drugs
Emily K Cira, Hans W Paerl, Michael S Wetz
Nitrogen availability and form are important controls on estuarine phytoplankton growth. This study experimentally determined the influence of urea and nitrate additions on phytoplankton growth throughout the growing season (March 2012, June 2011, August 2011) in a temperate, eutrophied estuary (Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, USA). Photopigments (chlorophyll a and diagnostic photopigments: peridinin, fucoxanthin, alloxanthin, zeaxanthin, chlorophyll b) and microscopy-based cell counts were used as indicators of phytoplankton growth...
2016: PloS One
Tao Jiang, Feiyu Chen, Zonghe Yu, Lin Lu, Zhaohui Wang
In this study, we conducted a 14-month investigation in Daya Bay, southern China to understand the effects of oyster farming on phytoplankton community and biomass by using size-fractionated phytopigments. Results proved the filtering effects of oysters on phytoplankton biomass. During the oyster culture period, the average concentration of total chlorophyll a (sum of size-fractionated Chl a) within the farming area was approximately 60% lower than that at the reference site. Phytoplankton depletion in the aquaculture zone mainly occurred in micro-sized fractions (>20 μm) of Chl a, fucoxanthin, and peridinin...
August 1, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Pai-An Hwang, Nam Nhut Phan, Wen-Jung Lu, Bui Thi Ngoc Hieu, Yen-Chang Lin
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMF) and high-stability fucoxanthin (HS-Fucox) in a lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory Caco-2 cell line co-culture with B. lactis. METHODS: We used various methods such as transepithelial resistance (TER) assay, cytokine secretion assay, and tight junction protein mRNA expression assay to examine LMF and HS-Fucox anti-inflammatory properties. RESULTS: LMF and HS-Fucox activated probiotic growth and reduced the inflammation of the intestinal epithelial cells...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Wiktor Tokarek, Stanisław Listwan, Joanna Pagacz, Piotr Leśniak, Dariusz Latowski
Fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin are carotenoids found in brown algae and most other heterokonts. These pigments are involved in photosynthetic and photoprotective reactions, and they have many potential health benefits. They can be extracted from diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum by sonication, extraction with chloroform : methanol and preparative thin layer chromatography. We assessed the utility of an additional column chromatography step in purification of these pigments. This novel addition to the isolation protocol increased the purity of fucoxanthin and allowed for concentration of diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin before HPLC separation...
2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
M Luisa Bonet, Jose A Canas, Joan Ribot, Andreu Palou
Cell, animal and human studies dealing with carotenoids and carotenoid derivatives as nutritional regulators of adipose tissue biology with implications for the etiology and management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are reviewed. Most studied carotenoids in this context are β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, together with β-carotene-derived retinoids and some other apocarotenoids. Studies indicate an impact of these compounds on essential aspects of adipose tissue biology including the control of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), adipocyte metabolism, oxidative stress and the production of adipose tissue-derived regulatory signals and inflammatory mediators...
2016: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Il-Kyoon Mok, Jung-Ro Yoon, Cheol-Ho Pan, Sang Min Kim
To extend the scope of application of fucoxanthin, a marine carotenoid, whole milk (WM) and skimmed milk (SM) were fortified with fucoxanthin isolated from the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum to a final 8 μg/mL milk solution concentration. Using these liquid systems, a fucoxanthin analysis method implementing extraction and HPLC-DAD was developed and validated by accuracy, precision, system suitability, and robustness tests. The current method demonstrated good linearity over the range of 0.125-100 μg/mL fucoxanthin with R(2) = 1...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Dedi Noviendri, Irwandi Jaswir, Muhammad Taher, Farahidah Mohamed, Hamzah Mohd Salleh, Ibrahim Ali Noorbatcha, Fitri Octavianti, Widya Lestari, Ridar Hendri, Hasna Ahmad, Kazuo Miyashita, Alias Abdullah
Microencapsulation is a promising approach in drug delivery to protect the drug from degradation and allow controlled release of the drug in the body. Fucoxanthin-loaded microsphere (F-LM) was fabricated by two step w/o/w double emulsion solvent evaporation method with poly (L-lactic-coglycolic acid) (PLGA) as carrier. The effect of four types of surfactants (PVA, Tween-20, Span-20 and SDS), homogenization speed, and concentration of PLGA polymer and surfactant (PVA), respectively, on particle size and morphology of F-LM were investigated...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Oleo Science
Sangeetha Ravi Kumar, Bhaskar Narayan, Yuki Kizawa, Masashi Hosokawa, Kazuo Miyashita
Astaxanthin (Ax) and fucoxanthin/fucoxanthinol (FuOH) are marine xanthophylls exhibiting anti-oxidant effects. Squalene (SQ) is a triterpenoid and is a precursor of sterols. This study aimed to determine if SQ can improve the effect of Ax/FuOH on lipid peroxidation. RAW 264.7 cells were treated with different concentrations of Ax, FuOH and SQ and corresponding rate of cell survival was noted. In addition,combination groups - Ax + SQ and FuOH + SQ- were also run. Cells treated with Ax, FuOH, SQ, Ax + SQ and FuOH + SQ were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and lipid hydroperoxides were estimated...
April 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Min-Jung Seo, Young-Jin Seo, Cheol-Ho Pan, Ok-Hwan Lee, Kui-Jin Kim, Boo-Yong Lee
Fucoxanthin, a pigment from the chloroplasts of marine brown algae, has a number of effects against obesity, diabetes, inflammation and cancer and provides cerebrovascular protection. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of fucoxanthin on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis. Treatment with fucoxanthin suppresses protein levels of the adipogenic transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha C/EBPα and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and of their target protein, fatty acid binding protein 4...
July 13, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Bingbing Guo, Bin Liu, Bo Yang, Peipei Sun, Xue Lu, Jin Liu, Feng Chen
Fucoxanthin has been receiving ever-increasing interest due to its broad health beneficial effects. Currently, seaweeds are the predominant source of natural fucoxanthin. However, the disappointingly low fucoxanthin content has impeded their use, driving the exploration of alternative fucoxanthin producers. In the present study, thirteen diatom strains were evaluated with respect to growth and fucoxanthin production potential. Cyclotella cryptica (CCMP 333), which grew well for fucoxanthin production under both photoautotrophic and heterotrophic growth conditions, was selected for further investigation...
2016: Marine Drugs
Yugang Liu, Jian Zheng, Yan Zhang, Zhaotao Wang, Yang Yang, Miaochun Bai, Yiwu Dai
Fucoxanthin is rich in seaweed and considered as effective anti-cancer drug because of powerful antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of fucoxanthin on apoptosis, invasion and migration of glioma cells. Firstly, fucoxanthin showed obvious cytotoxicity against human glioma cancer cell line U87 and U251, however, there was no inhibitory effect on normal neuron. And then, fucoxanthin induced apoptotic cell death showed by the condensation of chromatin material stained with Hoechest 33342, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential via DIOC6(3) staining, and enhanced apoptosis by annexin V-FITC/SYTOX Green double staining on U87 and U251 cell lines...
July 9, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Giulia B Costa, Carmen Simioni, Débora T Pereira, Fernanda Ramlov, Marcelo Maraschin, Fungyi Chow, Paulo A Horta, Zenilda L Bouzon, Éder C Schmidt
Sargassum cymosum was exposed to cadmium (Cd) to determine any physiological and ultrastructural effects. To accomplish this, S. cymosum samples were cultivated under photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and Cd (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg L(-1)) during 7 and 14 days in laboratory-controlled conditions (0 mg L(-1) Cd at both exposure times as control). Seaweeds had high retention capacity (over 90 %) for both exposure times. Growth rates showed significant increases by 14 days, especially for 0.1 and 0...
June 28, 2016: Protoplasma
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