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Yue Zhu, Jing Cheng, Zhenli Min, Tingzi Yin, Rong Zhang, Wei Zhang, Ling Hu, Zhiwen Cui, Chengzhi Gao, Shiqiang Xu, Chunxiang Zhang, Xiamin Hu
Autophagy and apoptosis are involved in the development of a variety of cancers. Fucoxanthin is a natural compound known to have antitumor effects, so we aimed to explore its effects on autophagy and apoptosis in gastric cancer SGC7901 cells. Specifically, we performed methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, transmission electron microscopy, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence assay, and cell apoptosis analysis to clarify the role of fucoxanthin in SGC-7901 cells. Our results indicate that fucoxanthin significantly inhibits the viability of SGC-7901 cells, effectively inducing both autophagy and apoptosis by up-regulating the expressions of beclin-1, LC3, and cleaved caspase-3 (CC3), and by down regulating Bcl-2...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Awanis Azizan, Muhammad Safwan Ahamad Bustamam, M Maulidiani, Khozirah Shaari, Intan Safinar Ismail, Norio Nagao, Faridah Abas
Microalgae are promising candidate resources from marine ecology for health-improving effects. Metabolite profiling of the microalgal diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans was conducted by using robust metabolomics tools, namely ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis (MVDA). The unsupervised data analysis, using principal component analysis (PCA), resolved the five types of extracts made by solvents ranging from polar to non-polar into five different clusters. Collectively, with various extraction solvents, 11 amino acids, cholesterol, 6 fatty acids, 2 sugars, 1 osmolyte, 6 carotenoids and 2 chlorophyll pigments were identified...
May 7, 2018: Marine Drugs
Masaru Terasaki, Masatoshi Mima, Satoki Kudoh, Tetsuya Endo, Hayato Maeda, Junichi Hamada, Kazumi Osada, Kazuo Miyashita, Michihiro Mutoh
Fucoxanthinol (FxOH) is a strong anticancer metabolite of fucoxanthin that accumulates in abundance in edible brown algae and promises human health benefits. FxOH has been shown to suppress tumorigenicity and sphere formation in human colorectal cancer stem cell (CCSC)-like spheroids (colonospheres, Csps). In the present study, we aimed to clarify the inhibitory activity of FxOH on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is essential for cancer recurrence and distant metastasis, and to identify intracellular low-molecular-weight metabolites that may be useful for evaluating the cellular effects of FxOH on CCSCs...
April 24, 2018: Oncology Reports
Ryo Nagao, Yoshifumi Ueno, Makio Yokono, Jian-Ren Shen, Seiji Akimoto
Maintenance of energy balance under changeable light conditions is an essential function of photosynthetic organisms to achieve efficient photochemical reactions. Among the photosynthetic organisms, diatoms possess light-harvesting fucoxanthin chlorophyll (Chl) a/c-binding protein (FCP) as peripheral antennas. However, how diatoms regulate excitation energy distribution between FCP and the two photosystem cores during light adaptation is poorly understood. In this study, we examined spectroscopic properties of a marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis adapted in the dark and at photosynthetic photon flux density at 30 and 300 μmol photons m-2  s-1 ...
April 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Il-Kyoon Mok, Jae Kwon Lee, Jeong Hwa Kim, Cheol-Ho Pan, Sang Min Kim
Our previous study reported the improved stability of fucoxanthin (FX) fortified in whole milk (WM) and skimmed milk (SM). In this study, in vivo and in vitro FX bioavailability were investigated using FX-fortified milk (FX-SM and FX-WM) and microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum biomass (Pt-powder). Organ tissue accumulation of FX and its metabolites (FXOH: fucoxanthinol, AXA: amarouciaxanthin A) after repeated oral administration was in the following order: FX-SM > FX-WM > Pt-powder. In vivo pharmacokinetic study with a single oral administration also demonstrated that the absorption of FXOH and AXA was the highest for FX-SM...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Hui Wang, Yan Zhang, Lin Chen, Wentao Cheng, Tianzhong Liu
Fucoxanthin and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) provide significant health benefits for human population. Diatom is a potential natural livestock for the combined production of EPA and fucoxanthin. In this study, first, the effects of three important parameters including light intensity, nitrogen concentration and salinity were evaluated for the production of EPA and fucoxanthin in two diatom strains Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Cylindrotheca fusiformis. And then, two steps method based on light intensity were applied to produce EPA and fucoxanthin in large scale...
April 4, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Christen M Klinger, Lucas Paoli, Robert J Newby, Matthew Yu-Wei Wang, Hyrum D Carroll, Jeffrey D Leblond, Christopher J Howe, Joel B Dacks, Chris Bowler, Aubery Bruce Cahoon, Richard G Dorrell, Elisabeth Richardson
Dinoflagellates are a group of unicellular protists with immense ecological and evolutionary significance and cell biological diversity. Of the photosynthetic dinoflagellates, the majority possess a plastid containing the pigment peridinin, whereas some lineages have replaced this plastid by serial endosymbiosis with plastids of distinct evolutionary affiliations, including a fucoxanthin pigment-containing plastid of haptophyte origin. Previous studies have described the presence of widespread substitutional RNA editing in peridinin and fucoxanthin plastid genes...
April 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
S Agatonovic-Kustrin, E Kustrin, M J Angove, D W Morton
The interaction of bioactive compounds from ethanolic extracts of selected marine algae samples, separated on chromatographic plates, with nitric/nitrous acid was investigated. The nature of bioactive compounds in the marine algae extracts was characterised using UV absorption spectra before and after reaction with diluted nitric acid, and from the characteristic colour reaction after derivatization with anisaldehyde. It was found that diterpenes from Dictyota dichotoma, an edible brown algae, and sterols from green algae Caulerpa brachypus, bind nitric oxide and may act as a nitric oxide carrier...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Yuqing Yang, Irene Yang, Mingnan Cao, Zheng-Yuan Su, Renyi Wu, Yue Guo, Mingzhu Fang, Ah-Ng Kong
Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2 or NFE2L2) is a master regulator of the anti-oxidative stress response, which is involved in the defense against many oxidative stress/inflammation-mediated diseases, including anticancer effects elicited by an increasing number of natural products. Our previous studies showed that the epigenetic modification of the Nrf2 gene plays a key role in restoring the expression of Nrf2. In this study, we aimed to investigate the epigenetic regulation of Nrf2 by astaxanthin (AST) and fucoxanthin (FX), carotenoids which are abundant in microalgae and seaweeds, in mouse skin epidermal JB6 P+ cells...
February 20, 2018: AAPS Journal
Masaru Terasaki, Yuki Ogawa, Tetsuya Endo, Hayato Maeda, Junichi Hamada, Kazumi Osada, Kazuo Miyashita, Michihiro Mutoh
BACKGROUND/AIM: Fucoxanthinol (FxOH), a metabolite of fucoxanthin, is known to inhibit tumorigenicity of human colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs) and their sphere formation. Hypoxic conditions and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are essential to maintain the stemness of CCSCs. We investigated effects of FxOH on sphere formation, intercellular energy metabolites in colonospheres formed from human colorectal HT-29 cells under hypoxic conditions. RESULTS: FxOH at 50 μM suppressed HIF1α expression and activation of integrin, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Wingless/integrated (WNT) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signals...
April 2018: Anticancer Research
Meiko Ito, Kaisei Koba, Risako Hikihara, Mami Ishimaru, Toshiyuki Shibata, Hideo Hatate, Ryusuke Tanaka
The functional chemical substances and the antioxidant activity of lipids in 21 marine algae along the Japanese coast were investigated. Principal component analysis was performed to detect any correlation between the chemical substances and algae phylum. Chlorophyta contained a high level of β-carotene. Rhodophyta contained high amounts of cholesterol, β-sitosterol, and saturated fatty acids. Phaeophyta were rich in fucosterol, α-tocopherol, fucoxanthin, and polyphenol. Phaeophyta algae also showed the highest antioxidant activity compared with other phylum...
July 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Eun Jeong Jang, Sang Chan Kim, Ju-Hee Lee, Jong Rok Lee, Il Kon Kim, Su Youn Baek, Young Woo Kim
BACKGROUND: Laminaria japonica has frequently been used as a food supplement and drug in traditional oriental medicine. Among the major active constituents responsible for the bioactivities of L. japonica, fucoxanthin (FX) has been considered as a potential antioxidant. This study was conducted to examine the effects of L. japonica extract (LJE) or FX against oxidative stress on hepatocytes and to elucidate the overall their cellular mechanisms of the effects. METHODS: We constructed an in vitro model with the treatment of arachidonic acid (AA) + iron in HepG2 cells to stimulate the oxidative damage...
March 20, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Tânia Patrícia Almeida, Joana Ferreira, Ariane Vettorazzi, Amaia Azqueta, Eduardo Rocha, Alice Abreu Ramos
In the present study, we evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of fucoxanthin (Fx) on two human leukemia cell lines, K562 and TK6, alone and in combination with the conventional anticancer drugs imatinib (Imat) and doxorubicin (Dox). For the purpose, we assessed the cytotoxic and proliferation effects by cell count, induction of DNA damage by comet assay, and cell death by nuclear condensation, annexin V staining, coupled with propidium iodide uptake, and protein expression of Bax, caspase-3, and Bcl-2 (western blot)...
April 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Alexey Moskalev, Mikhail Shaposhnikov, Nadezhda Zemskaya, Alexey Belyi, Eugenia Dobrovolskaya, Anna Patova, Zulfiya Guvatova, Elena Lukyanova, Anastasiya Snezhkina, Anna Kudryavtseva
BACKGROUND: We have previously showed that the carotenoid fucoxanthin can increase the lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the geroprotective effect of fucoxanthin have not been studied so far. RESULTS: Here, we studied the effects of fucoxanthin on the Drosophila aging process at the molecular and the whole organism levels. At the organismal level, fucoxanthin increased the median lifespan and had a positive effect on fecundity, fertility, intestinal barrier function, and nighttime sleep...
February 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
Robert G West, David Bína, Marcel Fuciman, Valentyna Kuznetsova, Radek Litvín, Tomáš Polívka
We have applied femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy in pump-probe and pump-dump-probe regimes to study energy transfer between fucoxanthin and Chl a in fucoxanthin-Chl a complex from the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Experiments were carried out at room temperature and 77 K to reveal temperature dependence of energy transfer. At both temperatures, the ultrafast (<100 fs) energy transfer channel from the fucoxanthin S2 state is active and is complemented by the second pathway via the combined S1 /ICT state...
May 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Peipei Sun, Ka-Wing Cheng, Yongjin He, Bin Liu, Xuemei Mao, Feng Chen
The formation and accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, such as aging, Alzheimer' s disease, diabetes and diabetic complications. The present study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of the extracts from nine microalgae on the formation of AGEs by using in vitro models and identify key antiglycation constituents of the microalgae. A BSA-glucose model with simulated physiological conditions was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect on total AGE formation...
March 1, 2018: Food & Function
Hristina Staleva-Musto, Valentyna Kuznetsova, Robert G West, Gürkan Keşan, Babak Minofar, Marcel Fuciman, David Bína, Radek Litvín, Tomáš Polívka
We used ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy to study excited-state dynamics of the keto-carotenoid fucoxanthin (Fx) and its two derivatives: 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin (bFx) and 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin (hFx). These derivatives occur in some light-harvesting systems of photosynthetic microorganisms, and their presence is typically related to stress conditions. Even though the hexanoyl (butanoyl) moiety is not a part of the conjugated system of hFx (bFx), their absorption spectra in polar solvents exhibit more pronounced vibrational bands of the S2 state than for Fx...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Li-Juan Wang, Yong Fan, Ronald L Parsons, Guang-Rong Hu, Pei-Yu Zhang, Fu-Li Li
Fucoxanthin is a natural pigment found in microalgae, especially diatoms and Chrysophyta . Recently, it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and anti-obesityactivity in humans. Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a diatom with high economic potential due to its high content of fucoxanthin and eicosapentaenoic acid. In order to improve fucoxanthin production, physical and chemical mutagenesis could be applied to generate mutants. An accurate and rapid method to assess the fucoxanthin content is a prerequisite for a high-throughput screen of mutants...
January 22, 2018: Marine Drugs
Ye Jin, Shuang Qiu, Na Shao, Jianhua Zheng
BACKGROUND Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid present in the chloroplasts of brown seaweeds. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a cytokine that selectively induces apoptosis in many tumor cells and is an attractive candidate for antitumor therapies. MATERIAL AND METHODS After human cervical cancer cell lines HeLa, SiHa, and CaSki were treated with fucoxanthin or TRAIL. Cell viability was determined by 2,3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2-tetrazolium 5-carboxanilide (XTT) method...
January 1, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Tjaart P J Krüger, Pavel Malý, Maxime T A Alexandre, Tomáš Mančal, Claudia Büchel, Rienk van Grondelle
Strong excitonic interactions are a key design strategy in photosynthetic light harvesting, expanding the spectral cross-section for light absorption and creating considerably faster and more robust excitation energy transfer. These molecular excitons are a direct result of exceptionally densely packed pigments in photosynthetic proteins. The main light-harvesting complexes of diatoms, known as fucoxanthin-chlorophyll proteins (FCPs), are an exception, displaying surprisingly weak excitonic coupling between their chlorophyll (Chl) a 's, despite a high pigment density...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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