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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211648/cognitive-development-in-preterm-infants-multi-faceted-deficits-reflect-vulnerability-of-rigorous-neurodevelopmental-pathways
#1
Jessie R Maxwell, Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Akosua Y Oppong, Jenny E Camacho, Jean R Lowe, Lauren L Jantzie, Robin K Ohls
Prematurity remains the major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, with 15 million preterm births occurring worldwide in 2010. Infants born less than 37 weeks gestation are at high risk of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes, given that the central nervous system is extremely sensitive to an abnormal intra- and extra-uterine environment. Children born preterm have multiple neurodevelopmental sequelae involving dynamic and complex cognitive deficits. Former preterm infants have difficulty with each domain of cognition, including executive function, language, learning and memory, complex attention, perceptual-motor function and social cognition when compared to children born at term...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193233/tacrolimus-in-the-prevention-of-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-and-diabetes-associated-embryopathies-in-obese-and-diabetic-mice
#2
Ahmad J H Albaghdadi, Melanie A Hewitt, Samantha M Putos, Michael Wells, Terence R S Ozolinš, Frederick W K Kan
BACKGROUND: T2DM is a high-risk pregnancy with adverse fetal and maternal outcomes including repeated miscarriages and fetal malformations. Despite the established association between placental insufficiency and poor maternal Th1-adaptability to the development of pregnancy complications in T2DM, there have been no established data to assess benefits of pre-pregnancy immunosuppression relative to gestational outcomes in T2DM. We hypothesized that pre-pregnancy macrolide immune suppression can re-establish normal placental development and uterine vascular adaptation in a mouse model of obesity-associated T2DM...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190919/heterogeneity-of-tumor-cells-in-terms-of-cancer-initiating-cells
#3
REVIEW
Eiichi Morii
Tumors derive from a single cell clone but consist of heterogeneous cell subpopulations with diverse features and functions. A limited number of subclones with a selective advantage can initiate tumors when inoculated into immunocompromised mice, and are called cancer-initiating cells (CICs). CICs can be isolated from the bulk of tumors on the basis of their characteristics, such as high reagent efflux, degradation of reactive oxygen species, and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. Under normal conditions, new CICs are produced by existing CICs rather than non-CICs...
January 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188843/rapid-expression-of-rasd1-is-regulated-by-estrogen-receptor-dependent-intracellular-signaling-pathway-in-the-mouse-uterus
#4
Hye-Ryun Kim, Kil-Sang Cho, Eunhye Kim, Ok-Hee Lee, Hyemin Yoon, Sangho Lee, Sohyeon Moon, Miseon Park, Kwonho Hong, Younghwa Na, Ji-Eun Shin, Hwang Kwon, Haengseok Song, Dong Hee Choi, Youngsok Choi
Dexamethasone-induced RAS-related protein 1 (RASD1) is a signaling protein that is involved in various cellular processes. In a previous study, we found that RASD1 expression was down-regulated in the uterine endometrium of repeated implantation failure patients. The study aim was to determine whether RASD1 is expressed in the endometrium of mouse uterus and how it is regulated by steroid hormones during the estrous cycle. In this study, we investigated RASD1 expression and regulation in an ovariectomized female mouse model...
February 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153658/first-trimester-alcohol-exposure-alters-placental-perfusion-and-fetal-oxygen-availability-affecting-fetal-growth-and-development-in-a-non-human-primate-model
#5
Jamie O Lo, Matthias C Schabel, Victoria H J Roberts, Xiaojie Wang, Katherine S Lewandowski, Kathleen A Grant, Antonio E Frias, Christopher D Kroenke
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure leads to impaired fetal growth, brain development, and stillbirth. Placental impairment likely contributes to these adverse outcomes, but the mechanisms and specific vasoactive effects of alcohol that links altered placental function to impaired fetal development remain areas of active research. OBJECTIVE: Recently, we developed magnetic resonance imaging techniques in nonhuman primates to characterize placental blood oxygenation through measurements of T2* and perfusion using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging...
January 30, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113360/accurate-cervical-cell-segmentation-from-overlapping-clumps-in-pap-smear-images
#6
Youyi Song, Ee-Leng Tan, Xudong Jiang, Jie-Zhi Cheng, Dong Ni, Siping Chen, Baiying Lei, Tianfu Wang
Accurate segmentation of cervical cells in Pap smear images is an important step in automatic pre-cancer identification in the uterine cervix. One of the major segmentation challenges is overlapping of cytoplasm, which has not been well-addressed in previous studies. To tackle the overlapping issue, this paper proposes a learning-based method with robust shape priors to segment individual cell in Pap smear images to support automatic monitoring of changes in cells, which is a vital prerequisite of early detection of cervical cancer...
September 7, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110753/cell-and-tissue-based-models-for-study-of-placental-development
#7
W R Huckle
Decades of research into the molecular mechanisms by which the placenta forms and functions have sought to improve prevention, diagnosis, and management of disorders of this vital tissue. This research has included development of experimental models intended to replicate behavior of the native placenta in both health and disease. Animal models devised in rodents, sheep, cattle, or other domestic animal species have the advantage of being biologically "complete," but all differ to some degree in developmental timing and anatomical details compared to the human, suggesting subtle differences in molecular mechanism...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110751/novel-regulators-of-hemodynamics-in-the-pregnant-uterus
#8
N C Clark, C A Pru, J K Pru
The uterus is a highly dynamic organ, undergoing dramatic physiological changes during normal cyclicity and pregnancy. Many of these changes involve remodeling of the uterine vasculature in order to provide oxygen and nutrients to the developing embryo/fetus. Vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, vasodilation/vasoconstriction, and vascular permeability are coordinated by a vast network of autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine-signaling factors that derive from a number of cellular sources at the maternal:fetal interface, as well as from tissue outside the uterus...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102332/dynamic-modeling-of-uteroplacental-blood-flow-in-iugr-indicates-vortices-and-elevated-pressure-in-the-intervillous-space-a-pilot-study
#9
Christian J Roth, Eva Haeussner, Tanja Ruebelmann, Franz V Koch, Christoph Schmitz, Hans-Georg Frank, Wolfgang A Wall
Ischemic placental disease is a concept that links intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and preeclampsia (PE) back to insufficient remodeling of uterine spiral arteries. The rheological consequences of insufficient remodeling of uterine spiral arteries were hypothesized to mediate the considerably later manifestation of obstetric disease. However, the micro-rheology in the intervillous space (IVS) cannot be examined clinically and rheological animal models of the human IVS do not exist. Thus, an in silico approach was implemented to provide in vivo inaccessible data...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077439/the-functional-expression-of-transient-receptor-potential-channels-in-the-mouse-endometrium
#10
Katrien De Clercq, Charlotte Van den Eynde, Aurélie Hennes, Rieta Van Bree, Thomas Voets, Joris Vriens
STUDY QUESTION: Does mouse endometrial epithelial cells and stromal cells have a similar transient receptor potential (TRP)-channel expression profile and to that found in the human endometrium? SUMMARY ANSWER: Mouse endometrial epithelial and stromal cells have a distinct TRP channel expression profile analogous to what has been found in human endometrium, and hence suggests the mouse a good model to investigate the role of TRP channels in reproduction. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: An optimal intercellular communication between epithelial and stromal endometrial cells is crucial for successful reproduction...
January 6, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066666/ct-guided-percutaneous-microwave-ablation-of-pulmonary-malignant-tumors
#11
Wei-Chun Ko, Yee-Fan Lee, Yi-Chang Chen, Ning Chien, Yu-Sen Huang, Yao-Hui Tseng, Jang-Ming Lee, Hsao-Hsun Hsu, Jin-Shing Chen, Yeun-Chung Chang
BACKGROUND: Microwave ablation (MWA) of lung tumors is a new approach for local tumor control. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the preliminary results of safety and efficacy of MWA with a dynamic frequency range (902-928 MHz) and power (10-32 W) for local tumor control of thoracic malignancies. METHODS: From December 1, 2013 to February 1, 2016, there were total 32 lung tumors among 15 patients (7 men, 8 women, age range 43-82 years, mean 57...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065695/perfusion-of-the-uterine-junctional-zone-in-nulliparous-and-primiparous-women-assessed-by-dce-mri-as-a-function-of-menstrual-cycle-and-hormonal-contraception
#12
L J Meylaerts, L Wijnen, M Bazot, M Grieten, W Ombelet, M Vandersteen
PURPOSE: To evaluate the perfusion parameters of inner and outer myometrium in healthy nulliparous and primiparous women who are and who are not currently using hormonal contraceptives by means of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed pelvic 1.5T DCE-MRI on 98 women: 18 nulliparous non-users, 30 nulliparous users, 12 primiparous non-users and 38 primiparous users of hormonal contraception (mean age respectively 26...
January 6, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997081/uterine-focal-adhesion-dynamics-during-pregnancy-in-a-marsupial-sminthopsis-crassicaudata-dasyuridae
#13
Melanie K Laird, Michaela Turancova, Bronwyn M McAllan, Christopher R Murphy, Michael B Thompson
Alterations to the basal attachment points between the epithelium of the uterus and the underlying tissue in early pregnancy affect how easily the epithelium can be invaded by the implanting embryo. Attachment points- focal adhesions- disassemble to facilitate highly invasive implantation in rats, but species with less invasive implantation, including marsupials, may require different basal alterations for successful pregnancy. Here we used immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting to conduct the first study of basal plasma membrane dynamics in the uterus during marsupial pregnancy...
December 20, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991743/vector-synthesis-high-resolution-electrocardiography-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-and-n-terminal-prohormone-brain-natriuretic-peptide-for-estimation-of-cardiac-load-in-pregnancy
#14
Shino Tanaka, Rie Oyama, Akimune Fukushima, Akihiko Kikuchi, Toru Sugiyama
AIM: We analyzed atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and vector synthesis high-resolution electrocardiography (ECG), to estimate cardiac load with circulatory dynamic change from pregnancy through the post-partum period. METHODS: The subjects were singleton pregnant women (n = 19), who were divided into three stages: stage 1, 34-36 weeks of gestation; stage 2, 2-6 post-partum days; and stage 3, 1-3 months after delivery...
December 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979878/implications-of-telomeres-and-telomerase-in-endometrial-pathology
#15
REVIEW
D K Hapangama, A Kamal, G Saretzki
BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic chromosomal ends are linear and are protected by nucleoprotein complexes known as telomeres. The complex structural anatomy and the diverse functions of telomeres as well as the unique reverse transcriptase enzyme, telomerase that maintains telomeres are under intensive scientific scrutiny. Both are involved in many human diseases including cancer, but also in ageing and chronic disease such as diabetes. Their intricate involvement in many cellular processes and pathways is being dynamically deciphered in many organs including the endometrium...
December 15, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957583/longitudinal-growth-dynamics-of-term-symmetric-and-asymmetric-small-for-gestational-age-infants
#16
Harvinder Kaur, Anil Kumar Bhalla, Praveen Kumar
Background: Available information on auxological attainments of symmetric and asymmetric SGA (small for gestational age) infants presents conflicting views. The complete absence of longitudinal data on growth patterns of both types of Indian SGA infants prompted us to undertake this study. Aim: To study distance and velocity growth pattern of weight and crown-heel length (CHL) of symmetric and asymmetric SGA infants. Subjects & Methods: Weight and CHL amongst full-term 100 symmetric SGA, 100 asymmetric SGA and 100 AGA infants from upper socio-economic strata were mixed-longitudinally measured at birth, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months in the Department of Pediatrics, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India...
November 23, 2016: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940158/inactivation-of-maternal-hif-1%C3%AE-at-mid-pregnancy-causes-placental-defects-and-deficits-in-oxygen-delivery-to-the-fetal-organs-under-hypoxic-stress
#17
Doreswamy Kenchegowda, Bryony Natale, Maria A Lemus, David R Natale, Steven A Fisher
A critical transition occurs near mid-gestation of mammalian pregnancy. Prior to this transition, low concentrations of oxygen (hypoxia) signaling through Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) functions as a morphogen for the placenta and fetal organs. Subsequently, functional coupling of the placenta and fetal cardiovascular system for oxygen (O2) transport is required to support the continued growth and development of the fetus. Here we tested the hypothesis that Hif-1α is required in maternal cells for placental morphogenesis and function...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932897/effect-of-ovarian-endometrioma-on-uterine-and-ovarian-blood-flow-in-infertile-women
#18
Akmal El-Mazny, Ahmed Kamel, Wafaa Ramadan, Sherine Gad-Allah, Suzy Abdelaziz, Ahmed M Hussein
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis has been found to be among the most important factors in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The formation of new blood vessels is critical for the survival of newly implanted endometriotic foci. The use of 3-D power Doppler allows for the demonstration of the dynamic vascular changes that occur during the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF). We aimed to evaluate the effect of ovarian endometrioma on uterine and ovarian blood flow in infertile women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a case-control study at a university teaching hospital, 138 women with unilateral ovarian endometrioma scheduled for IVF were compared to 138 women with male-factor or unexplained infertility...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917295/circulating-human-papillomavirus-dna-detected-using-droplet-digital-pcr-in-the-serum-of-patients-diagnosed-with-early-stage-human-papillomavirus-associated-invasive-carcinoma
#19
Emmanuelle Jeannot, Véronique Becette, Maura Campitelli, Marie-Ange Calméjane, Emmanuelle Lappartient, Evelyne Ruff, Stéphanie Saada, Allyson Holmes, Dominique Bellet, Xavier Sastre-Garau
Specific human papillomavirus genotypes are associated with most ano-genital carcinomas and a large subset of oro-pharyngeal carcinomas. Human papillomavirus DNA is thus a tumour marker that can be detected in the blood of patients for clinical monitoring. However, data concerning circulating human papillomavirus DNA in cervical cancer patients has provided little clinical value, due to insufficient sensitivity of the assays used for the detection of small sized tumours. Here we took advantage of the sensitive droplet digital PCR method to identify circulating human papillomavirus DNA in patients with human papillomavirus-associated carcinomas...
October 2016: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911818/planar-cell-polarity-signaling-in-the-uterus-directs-appropriate-positioning-of-the-crypt-for-embryo-implantation
#20
Jia Yuan, Jeeyeon Cha, Wenbo Deng, Amanda Bartos, Xiaofei Sun, Hsin-Yi Henry Ho, Jean-Paul Borg, Terry P Yamaguchi, Yingzi Yang, Sudhansu K Dey
Blastocyst implantation is a complex process requiring coordination of a dynamic sequence of embryo-uterine interactions. Blood vessels enter the uterus from the mesometrium, demarcating the uterus into mesometrial (M) and antimesometrial (AM) domains. Implantation occurs along the uterine longitudinal axis within specialized implantation chambers (crypts) that originate within the evaginations directed from the primary lumen toward the AM domain. The morphological orientation of crypts in rodent uteri was recognized more than a century ago, but the mechanism remained unknown...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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