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Dynamic uterine

JoAnne S Richards
The "ovarian cycle" is an exquisite and dynamic endocrine system that includes ovarian events, hypothalamic-pituitary interactions, uterine endometrial and myometrial changes during implantation and pregnancy, cervical alterations in structure, and breast development. The ovarian cycle and the steroid hormones produced by the ovary also impact epithelial cancer development in the ovary, uterus, cervix, and breast. This chapter provides a personal view of recent developments that occur in this complex endocrine environment...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Jessica Dubois, Julien Lefèvre, Hugo Angleys, François Leroy, Clara Fischer, Jessica Lebenberg, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Cristina Borradori-Tolsa, François Lazeyras, Lucie Hertz-Pannier, Jean-François Mangin, Petra Hüppi, David Germanaud
In the human brain, the appearance of cortical sulci is a complex process that takes place mostly during the second half of pregnancy, with a relatively stable temporal sequence across individuals. Since deviant gyrification patterns have been observed in many neurodevelopmental disorders, mapping cortical development in vivo from the early stages on is an essential step to uncover new markers for diagnosis or prognosis. Recently this has been made possible by MRI combined with post-processing tools, but the reported results are still fragmented...
March 6, 2018: NeuroImage
Kwonho Hong, Youngsok Choi
In humans, hormonal regulation is crucial for the preparation of uterine environment leading to either successful implantation or menstrual cycle. Estrogen is a pivotal female steroid hormone that regulates the uterine dynamics along with progesterone in the estrous and menstrual cycles in humans. Estrogen signals act via nuclear estrogen receptor or membrane-bound receptor. The membrane-bound estrogen receptor plays a crucial role in the rapid response of estrogen in the uterine epithelium. Recently, RASD1 has received attention as a novel signal transducer of estrogen in various systems including female reproductive organs...
March 9, 2018: BMB Reports
Subo Wang, Zhenhua Zhao, Hongjie Hu, Jianfeng Yang, Li Zhao, Liming Yang, Cheng Wang
OBJECTIVE: To assess the application of the dynamic-contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging(DCE-MRI)pharmacokinetics models in differential diagnosis of cellular uterine leiomyoma. METHODS: Sixty four patients with uterine leiomyoma confirmed by surgery and pathology were enrolled in the study between September 2015 and September 2016, including 30 cases of classical leiomyoma, 13 cases of cellular leiomyoma and 21 cases of degenerative leiomyoma. All patients underwent DCE-MRI before surgery...
May 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Hélène Collinot, Carmen Marchiol, Isabelle Lagoutte, Franck Lager, Nathalie Siauve, Gwennhael Autret, Daniel Balvay, Gilles Renault, Laurent J Salomon, Daniel Vaiman
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a major hypertensive disease caused by pregnancy, inducing proteinuria and increased blood pressure starting from the second half of pregnancy (early preeclampsia) or near the end of pregnancy (late preeclampsia). Pre-symptomatic diagnosis would allow for therapeutic interventions, such as with low-dose aspirin. Among non-invasive methods to explore organ physiology, Doppler ultrasonography (US) and functional blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MRI (which do not need radioactive contrast agents such as gadolinium) can be used in pregnant women...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Dounia Basraoui, Badia Bannar, Mohamed Ouladsaiad, Hicham Jalal
Sternal clefts are rare malformations, especially in their complete form, which results from a lack of fusion of the sternal bars, which is normally done at the 9th week of intra uterine life. The incomplete form is often associated with other malformations of the chest wall, or falling within the framework of a polymalformative syndrome, the diagnosis is easy, being done with the inspection and the palpation, the paraclinical examinations are useful for confirming the diagnosis. We report the case of a total congenital sternal cleft isolated in an asymptomatic 20-day-old newborn...
March 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Mark I Evans, Robert D Eden, David W Britt, Shara M Evans, Barry S Schifrin
BACKGROUND: Even key opinion leaders now concede that electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) cannot reliably identify fetal acidemia which many vouch as the only labor mediated pathophysiologic precursor for cerebral palsy (CP). We have developed the "Fetal Reserve Index" - an algorithm combining five dynamic components of EFM (1. Rate, 2. Variability, 3. Accelerations, 4. Decelerations, and 5. Excessive uterine activity) considered individually that are combined with the presence of: 6...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Jordan Z Zhou, Sing Sing Way, Kang Chen
Along with the maintenance of symbiotic mutualism with commensal microbes and protection against invasive infections common to all mucosal barrier tissues, female reproductive tissues have additional, unique tasks that include dynamic cyclic cellular turnover in menstruation and immunological tolerance to genetically foreign fetal antigens in pregnancy. Here we review current knowledge on distinct features of the immune cells in female reproductive tissue with regard to antimicrobial host defense and adaptations to accommodate the fetus during pregnancy...
February 9, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Jia Yuan, Wenbo Deng, Jeeyeon Cha, Xiaofei Sun, Jean-Paul Borg, Sudhansu K Dey
Embryo implantation is central to pregnancy success. Our previous understanding is limited by studying this phenomenon primarily in two dimensions. Here we employ 3D visualization, revealing that epithelial evaginations that form implantation chambers (crypts) consistently arise with preexisting glands, suggesting direct access of glands to embryos within the chamber. While the lobular domains of the glands become more developed, the ductal regions continue to elongate and progressively stretch following implantation...
February 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Qiu Bi, Zhibo Xiao, Fajin Lv, Yao Liu, Chunxia Zou, Yiqing Shen
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to find clinical parameters and qualitative and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features for differentiating uterine sarcoma from atypical leiomyoma (ALM) preoperatively and to calculate predictive values for uterine sarcoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 60 patients with uterine sarcoma and 88 patients with ALM confirmed by surgery and pathology were collected. Clinical parameters, qualitative MRI features, diffusion-weighted imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient values, and quantitative parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of these two tumor types were compared...
February 5, 2018: Academic Radiology
Soo Jin Jeon, Fabio S Lima, Achilles Vieira-Neto, Vinicius S Machado, Svetlana F Lima, Rodrigo C Bicalho, Jose Eduardo P Santos, Klibs N Galvão
Broad-spectrum antibiotics such as ceftiofur and ampicillin are recommended for the treatment of metritis in dairy cows. Nonetheless, little is known about the impacts of antibiotics on the uterine microbiota. Here, we evaluated the shift in uterine microbiota after treating metritic cows with ceftiofur or ampicillin, and also gained insight into the uterine microbiota associated with cure of metritis. Uterine swabs from ceftiofur-treated, ampicillin-treated, and untreated metritic Holstein cows were collected on the day of metritis diagnosis (D1) and on D6 and then used for genomic DNA extraction and sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Javier Garcia-Casado, Yiyao Ye-Lin, Gema Prats-Boluda, Javier Mas-Cabo, José Alberola-Rubio, Alfredo Perales
Preterm birth (PTB) is one of the most common and serious complications in pregnancy. About 15 million preterm neonates are born every year, with ratios of 10-15% of total births. In industrialized countries, preterm delivery is responsible for 70% of mortality and 75% of morbidity in the neonatal period. Diagnostic means for its timely risk assessment are lacking and the underlying physiological mechanisms are unclear. Surface recording of the uterine myoelectrical activity (electrohysterogram, EHG) has emerged as a better uterine dynamics monitoring technique than traditional surface pressure recordings and provides information on the condition of uterine muscle in different obstetrical scenarios with the emphasis on predicting preterm deliveries...
February 6, 2018: Physiological Measurement
F B Peter Wooding, David Osborn, Gary J Killian
INTRODUCTION: The unicellular trophoblast epithelium of all ruminants so far investigated contains 15-20% binucleate cells with numerous secretory granules. Electron microscope (EM) studies of the domesticated cow, ewe, goat and deer species have established that these BNC migrate out of the trophoblast epithelium to fuse with the apposed maternal uterine epithelial cells or derivative to form fetomaternal tissue throughout pregnancy. However there is one careful EM study of the trophoblast of a wild ruminant, the White-tail deer, which found the usual number of BNC but no evidence of any migration or fusion...
February 2018: Placenta
T Moonmanee, C Navanukraw, P Yama, J Jitjumnong
A greater understanding of the uterine artery's (UtA) biology is essential to the increase in female reproductive abilities. The UtA flow velocity waveform, blood flow volume (BFV), pulsatility and resistance indices (PI and RI), blood flow velocities, dynamics of the dominant follicle (DF), and estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels in an induced ovulatory cycle were evaluated in Thai native cattle. Twenty cows were induced with synchronized ovulation through a P4-releasing device, from Day -9 to Day -4, concurrent with the administration of two doses of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone on Day -9 and Day -1, and two doses of prostaglandin F2α on Day -4 and 8 h later...
January 25, 2018: Reproductive Biology
M A Hornick, M G Davey, E A Partridge, A Y Mejaddam, P E McGovern, A M Olive, G Hwang, J Kim, O Castillo, K Young, J Han, S Zhao, J T Connelly, K C Dysart, J Rychik, W H Peranteau, A W Flake
EXTEND (EXTra-uterine Environment for Neonatal Development) is a novel system that promotes physiologic development by maintaining the premature lamb in a sterile fluid environment and providing gas exchange via a pumpless arteriovenous oxygenator circuit. During the development of EXTEND, different cannulation strategies evolved with the aim to improve circuit flow. This study examines how different cannulation strategies affect EXTEND circuit hemodynamics in extreme premature lambs. 17 premature lambs were cannulated at gestational ages 105-117 days (term 145-150 days) and supported on EXTEND for up to 4 weeks...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Hannah M Brown, Ella S Green, Tiffany C Y Tan, Macarena B Gonzalez, Alice R Rumbold, M Louise Hull, Robert J Norman, Nicolle H Packer, Sarah A Robertson, Jeremy G Thompson
Diabetes has been linked with impaired fertility but the underlying mechanisms are not well defined. Here we use a streptozotocin-induced diabetes mouse model to investigate the cellular and biochemical changes in conceptus and maternal tissues that accompany hyperglycaemia. We report that streptozotocin treatment before conception induces profound intra-cellular protein β-O-glycosylation (O-GlcNAc) in the oviduct and uterine epithelium, prominent in early pregnancy. Diabetic mice have impaired blastocyst development and reduced embryo implantation rates, and delayed mid-gestation growth and development...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
M L Stangaferro, R Wijma, M Masello, J O Giordano
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the reproductive performance and herd exit dynamics of dairy cows managed for first service with programs varying in method of submission for insemination and voluntary waiting period (VWP) duration. Holstein cows from a commercial farm in New York were randomly allocated to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI) after the Double-Ovsynch protocol (GnRH, 7 d later PGF2α, 3 d later GnRH, 7 d later GnRH, 7 d later PGF2α, 56 h later GnRH, and 16 to 18 h later TAI) at 60 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) (DO60 = 458), TAI after Double-Ovsynch at 88 ± 3 DIM (DO88 = 462), or a combination of AI at detected estrus (starting at 50 ± 3 d in milk) and TAI with the Presynch-Ovsynch protocol (PGF2α, 14 d later PGF2α, 12 d later GnRH, 7 d later PGF2α, 56 h later GnRH, and 16 to 18 h later TAI; PSOv = 450)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Gregory M Armstrong, Jacqueline A Maybin, Alison A Murray, Moira Nicol, Catherine Walker, Philippa T K Saunders, Adriano G Rossi, Hilary O D Critchley
Menstruation is characterised by synchronous shedding and restoration of tissue integrity. An in vivo model of menstruation is required to investigate mechanisms responsible for regulation of menstrual physiology and to investigate common pathologies such as heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). We hypothesised that our mouse model of simulated menstruation would recapitulate the spatial and temporal changes in the inflammatory microenvironment of human menses. Three regulatory events were investigated: cell death (apoptosis), neutrophil influx and cytokine/chemokine expression...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ye Young Shin, Jea Sic Jeong, Mee-Na Park, Jae-Eon Lee, Sung-Min An, Wan-Seob Cho, Seung Chul Kim, Beum-Soo An, Kyu-Sup Lee
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy‑specific hypertensive syndrome that results in substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The exact cause of PE has not been completely elucidate, although abnormal formation of the placenta has been considered. The placenta connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall, producing a large quantity of steroid hormones to maintain pregnancy. Although steroid hormones, particularly progesterone (P4) and estrogen (E2), in the serum of women with PE have been studied, steroidogenesis in the placenta has not well been established...
February 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Patrice Nancy, Johan Siewiera, Gabrielle Rizzuto, Elisa Tagliani, Ivan Osokine, Priyanka Manandhar, Igor Dolgalev, Caterina Clementi, Aristotelis Tsirigos, Adrian Erlebacher
Uncovering the causes of pregnancy complications such as preterm labor requires greater insight into how the uterus remains in a noncontractile state until term and then surmounts this state to enter labor. Here, we show that dynamic generation and erasure of the repressive histone modification tri-methyl histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in decidual stromal cells dictate both elements of pregnancy success in mice. In early gestation, H3K27me3-induced transcriptional silencing of select gene targets ensured uterine quiescence by preventing the decidua from expressing parturition-inducing hormone receptors, manifesting type 1 immunity, and most unexpectedly, generating myofibroblasts and associated wound-healing responses...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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