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Post traumatic epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909008/trajectory-of-parvalbumin-cell-impairment-and-loss-of-cortical-inhibition-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Tsung-Hsun Hsieh, Henry Hing Cheong Lee, Mustafa Qadir Hameed, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Takao K Hensch, Alexander Rotenberg
Many neuropsychiatric symptoms that follow traumatic brain injury (TBI), including mood disorders, sleep disturbance, chronic pain, and posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) are attributable to compromised cortical inhibition. However, the temporal trajectory of cortical inhibition loss and its underlying mechanisms are not known. Using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) and immunohistochemistry, we tracked functional and cellular changes of cortical inhibitory network elements after fluid-percussion injury (FPI) in rats...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810514/endogenous-cannabinoid-system-alterations-and-their-role-in-epileptogenesis-after-brain-injury-in-rat
#2
Xiu Wang, Yao Wang, Chao Zhang, Chang Liu, Hai-Feng Yang, Wen-Han Hu, Jian-Guo Zhang, Kai Zhang
Post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) is one of the most common complications resulting from brain injury, however, antiepileptic drugs usually fail to prevent it. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that the endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS) plays a pivotal role during epileptogenesis in several animal models. A recent study has shown that a cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist could suppress long-term neuron hyperexcitability after brain injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown...
October 24, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789118/adverse-structural-and-functional-effects-of-marijuana-on-the-brain-evidence-reviewed
#3
REVIEW
David E Mandelbaum, Suzanne M de la Monte
The growing use and legalization of cannabis are leading to increased exposures across all age groups, including in adolescence. The touting of its medicinal values stems from anecdotal reports related to treatment of a broad range of illnesses including epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, muscle spasms, arthritis, obesity, cancer, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, post-traumatic stress, inflammatory bowel disease, and anxiety. However, it is essential that anecdotal data and the high level of interest in this treatment not obscure objective assessments of any potential and realized short- and long-term adverse effects of cannabis, particularly with respect to age of onset and chronicity of exposure...
September 13, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707084/generalized-seizures-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-occur-at-the-transition-from-slow-wave-to-rapid-eye-movement-sleep
#4
Pedro Andrade, Jari Nissinen, Asla Pitkanen
Sleep disturbances commonly occur after traumatic brain injury and may predispose patients to epileptic seizures. We hypothesized that unprovoked seizure occurrence after traumatic brain injury depends on the sleep-wake cycle, and that the electrographic characteristics of a given sleep stage provide biomarkers for post-traumatic epilepsy. We show in a rat lateral fluid-percussion model that 92% of spontaneous generalized seizures occur during the transition from stage III to rapid-eye-movement sleep. Moreover, a reduction in spindle duration and dominant frequency during the transition stage present as specific and sensitive non-invasive biomarkers for experimentally induced post-traumatic epilepsy with generalized electrographic seizures...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672534/post-traumatic-drug-resistant-epilepsy-and-review-of-seizure-control-outcomes-from-blinded-randomized-controlled-trials-of-brain-stimulation-treatments-for-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#5
REVIEW
Michael Larkin, R Michael Meyer, Nicholas S Szuflita, Meryl A Severson, Zachary T Levine
BACKGROUND: Many post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) patients become resistant to medications. Nervous stimulation as a treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) is an active area of clinical investigation. OBJECTIVE: To summarize methods, reported seizure control outcome measures, and adverse events from blinded, randomized control trials (RCTs) for selected invasive brain stimulation (IBS) and non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) treatment options in patients with DRE...
2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566950/focal-drug-resistant-epilepsy-progress-in-care-and-barriers-a-morroccan-perspective
#6
Zouhayr Souirti, Ahmed Sghir, Rachid Belfkih, Ouafae Messouak
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to determine the clinical, paraclinical, therapeutic and outcome aspects of drug resistant patients with epilepsy in our region and consequently to discuss methods that may improve the management of these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This paper presents a retrospective study of 25 adult patients that were followed for focal drug resistant epilepsy in epileptology unit of the University Hospital of Fez, Morocco. RESULTS: This study recorded 25 patients including 48% of males and 52% of females...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561791/neuroprotective-levels-of-igf-1-exacerbate-epileptogenesis-after-brain-injury
#7
Yu Song, Corrin Pimentel, Katherine Walters, Lauren Boller, Shabnam Ghiasvand, Jing Liu, Kevin J Staley, Yevgeny Berdichevsky
Exogenous Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) is neuroprotective in animal models of brain injury, and has been considered as a potential therapeutic. Akt-mTOR and MAPK are downstream targets of IGF-1 signaling that are activated after brain injury. However, both brain injury and mTOR are linked to epilepsy, raising the possibility that IGF-1 may be epileptogenic. Here, we considered the role of IGF-1 in development of epilepsy after brain injury, using the organotypic hippocampal culture model of post-traumatic epileptogenesis...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530814/analysis-of-post-traumatic-brain-injury-gene-expression-signature-reveals-tubulins-nfe2l2-nfkb-cd44-and-s100a4-as-treatment-targets
#8
Anssi Lipponen, Jussi Paananen, Noora Puhakka, Asla Pitkänen
We aimed to define the chronically altered gene expression signature of traumatic brain injury (TBI-sig) to discover novel treatments to reverse pathologic gene expression or reinforce the expression of recovery-related genes. Genome-wide RNA-sequencing was performed at 3 months post-TBI induced by lateral fluid-percussion injury in rats. We found 4964 regulated genes in the perilesional cortex and 1966 in the thalamus (FDR < 0.05). TBI-sig was used for a LINCS analysis which identified 11 compounds that showed a strong connectivity with the TBI-sig in neuronal cell lines...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497924/hyperphosphorylated-tau-in-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy-correlates-with-cognitive-decline-a-study-of-temporal-lobe-resections
#9
Xin You Tai, Matthias Koepp, John S Duncan, Nick Fox, Pamela Thompson, Sallie Baxendale, Joan Y W Liu, Cheryl Reeves, Zuzanna Michalak, Maria Thom
SEE BERNASCONI DOI101093/AWW202 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Temporal lobe epilepsy, the most prevalent form of chronic focal epilepsy, is associated with a high prevalence of cognitive impairment but the responsible underlying pathological mechanisms are unknown. Tau, the microtubule-associated protein, is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We hypothesized that hyperphosphorylated tau pathology is associated with cognitive decline in temporal lobe epilepsy and explored this through clinico-pathological study...
September 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341359/significance-of-the-feuerstein-approach-in-neurocognitive-rehabilitation
#10
Jo Lebeer
BACKGROUND: The theory of Structural Cognitive Modifiability and Mediated Learning Experience of Reuven Feuerstein states that individuals with brain impairment, because of congenital or acquired origin, may substantially and structurally improve their cognitive functioning, by a systematic intervention based on a specific, criteria-based type of interaction ("mediated learning"). Three application systems are based on it: a dynamic-interactive assessment of learning capacity and processes of learning, the LPAD (Learning Propensity Assessment Device); a cognitive intervention program called "Instrumental Enrichment Program", which trains cognitive, metacognitive and executive functions; and a program, which is oriented at working in context, Shaping Modifying Environments...
June 18, 2016: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27292776/anti-epileptic-drugs-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Tomoko Tanaka, N Scott Litofsky
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric post-traumatic epilepsy incidence varies depending on reporting mechanism and injury severity; anti-epileptic drug (AEDs) use also varies with lack of quality evidence-based data. Adverse AED effects are not negligible; some may negatively affect functional outcome. This review focuses on clarifying available data. AREAS COVERED: This review discusses seizures associated with traumatic brain injury in children, including seizure incidence, relationship to severity of injury, potential detrimental effects of seizures, potential benefits of AED, adverse effects of AED, new developments in preventing epileptogenesis, and suggested recommendations for patient management...
October 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27289302/sodium-selenate-retards-epileptogenesis-in-acquired-epilepsy-models-reversing-changes-in-protein-phosphatase-2a-and-hyperphosphorylated-tau
#12
Shi-Jie Liu, Ping Zheng, David K Wright, Gabi Dezsi, Emma Braine, Thanh Nguyen, Niall M Corcoran, Leigh A Johnston, Christopher M Hovens, Jamie N Mayo, Matthew Hudson, Sandy R Shultz, Nigel C Jones, Terence J O'Brien
There are no treatments in clinical practice known to mitigate the neurobiological processes that convert a healthy brain into an epileptic one, a phenomenon known as epileptogenesis. Downregulation of protein phosphatase 2A, a protein that causes the hyperphosphorylation of tau, is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases commonly associated with epilepsy, such as Alzheimer's disease and traumatic brain injury. Here we used the protein phosphatase 2A activator sodium selenate to investigate the role of protein phosphatase 2A in three different rat models of epileptogenesis: amygdala kindling, post-kainic acid status epilepticus, and post-traumatic epilepsy...
July 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27208682/subdural-hemorrhage-in-a-military-aviator
#13
Gordon G Cable
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of any intracranial bleeding is highly significant from an aeromedical risk perspective and potentially career-ending for a military aviator. Where it arises from head trauma, there is always concern regarding ongoing risk of post-traumatic epilepsy. CASE REPORT: A 26-yr-old male military aviator with persistent headache was found to have small right frontal and parietal subacute subdural hematomas, most likely precipitated by minor head trauma and possibly exacerbated by other concurrent physiological stressors...
June 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27188097/consultation-dilemma-catatonia-in-a-patient-with-prior-tbi-mentai-or-medical-disorder
#14
Andrey Khalafian, Charles Dukes, Phebe Tucker
Mr. R, a 27 year old Hispanic male with history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) over ten years prior but no psychiatric history, presents to the psychiatric consultation service with recent onset of mutism, psychotic behavior and new diagnosis of epilepsy. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes both medical and psychiatric causes: post-ictal state, non-convulsive status epilepticus, delirium due to metabolic conditions, drugs, catatonia, conversion disorder, major depression with psychotic features, new onset schizophrenia or a combination of these possible diagnoses...
August 2015: Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157830/etiology-matters-genomic-dna-methylation-patterns-in-three-rat-models-of-acquired-epilepsy
#15
Konrad J Dębski, Asla Pitkanen, Noora Puhakka, Anna M Bot, Ishant Khurana, K N Harikrishnan, Mark Ziemann, Antony Kaspi, Assam El-Osta, Katarzyna Lukasiuk, Katja Kobow
This study tested the hypothesis that acquired epileptogenesis is accompanied by DNA methylation changes independent of etiology. We investigated DNA methylation and gene expression in the hippocampal CA3/dentate gyrus fields at 3 months following epileptogenic injury in three experimental models of epilepsy: focal amygdala stimulation, systemic pilocarpine injection, or lateral fluid-percussion induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. In the models studies, DNA methylation and gene expression profiles distinguished controls from injured animals...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27153812/genetic-variation-in-neuronal-glutamate-transport-genes-and-associations-with-posttraumatic-seizure
#16
Anne C Ritter, Candace M Kammerer, Maria M Brooks, Yvette P Conley, Amy K Wagner
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic seizures (PTS) commonly occur following severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). Risk factors for PTS have been identified, but variability in who develops PTS remains. Excitotoxicity may influence epileptogenesis following sTBI. Glutamate transporters manage glutamate levels and excitatory neurotransmission, and they have been associated with both epilepsy and TBI. Therefore, we aimed to determine if genetic variation in neuronal glutamate transporter genes is associated with accelerated epileptogenesis and increased PTS risk after sTBI...
June 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092062/making-waves-in-the-brain-what-are-oscillations-and-why-modulating-them-makes-sense-for-brain-injury
#17
REVIEW
Aleksandr Pevzner, Ali Izadi, Darrin J Lee, Kiarash Shahlaie, Gene G Gurkoff
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in persistent cognitive, behavioral and emotional deficits. However, the vast majority of patients are not chronically hospitalized; rather they have to manage their disabilities once they are discharged to home. Promoting recovery to pre-injury level is important from a patient care as well as a societal perspective. Electrical neuromodulation is one approach that has shown promise in alleviating symptoms associated with neurological disorders such as in Parkinson's disease (PD) and epilepsy...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27044802/animal-models-of-post-traumatic-epilepsy
#18
Thomas Ostergard, Jennifer Sweet, Dorian Kusyk, Eric Herring, Jonathan Miller
Post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) is defined as the development of unprovoked seizures in a delayed fashion after traumatic brain injury (TBI). PTE lies at the intersection of two distinct fields of study, epilepsy and neurotrauma. TBI is associated with a myriad of both focal and diffuse anatomic injuries, and an ideal animal model of epilepsy after TBI must mimic the characteristics of human PTE. The three most commonly used models of TBI are lateral fluid percussion, controlled cortical injury, and weight drop...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27035455/neurology-in-the-vietnam-war
#19
Carl H Gunderson, Robert B Daroff
Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27018320/differential-effects-of-rapamycin-treatment-on-tonic-and-phasic-gabaergic-inhibition-in-dentate-granule-cells-after-focal-brain-injury-in-mice
#20
Corwin R Butler, Jeffery A Boychuk, Bret N Smith
The cascade of events leading to post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains unclear. Altered inhibition in the hippocampal formation and dentate gyrus is a hallmark of several neurological disorders, including TBI and PTE. Inhibitory synaptic signaling in the hippocampus is predominately driven by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission, and is prominently mediated by postsynaptic type A GABA receptors (GABAAR's). Subsets of these receptors involved in tonic inhibition of neuronal membranes serve a fundamental role in maintenance of inhibitory state, and GABAAR-mediated tonic inhibition is altered functionally in animal models of both TBI and epilepsy...
June 2016: Experimental Neurology
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