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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055264/differences-in-immunomodulatory-properties-between-venlafaxine-and-paroxetine-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#1
Chun-Yen Chen, Yi-Wei Yeh, Shin-Chang Kuo, Chih-Sung Liang, Pei-Shen Ho, Chang-Chih Huang, Che-Hung Yen, Jia-Fwu Shyu, Ru-Band Lu, San-Yuan Huang
Inflammatory processes play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of depression, and identifying the specific cytokines targeted by different antidepressants is important for personalized treatment. The aims of this study were to examine whether venlafaxine and paroxetine cause different immunomodulatory effects when used to treat patients with major depression and to clarify the relationships between plasma cytokine levels and the therapeutic effectiveness of these drugs. A total of 91 Han Chinese patients with major depression completed the 8-week paroxetine or venlafaxine treatment and 90 healthy controls were recruited...
October 12, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055261/the-nosas-score-a-new-and-simple-screening-tool-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-in-depressive-disorder
#2
Kelly Guichard, Helena Marti-Soler, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Pierre Philip, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Peter Vollenweider, Gerard Waeber, Martin Preisig, José Haba-Rubio, Raphael Heinzer
BACKGROUND: Since the clinical presentation of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) shares common features with major depressive (MDE), the screening of OSAS is challenging in this population. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the NoSAS score in predicting the presence of OSAS among participants with current MDE and to compare it with the performance of existing screening tools. METHODS: A random sample of the population-based cohort CoLaus (Lausanne, Switzerland) underwent a psychiatric evaluation (PsyCoLaus) and a complete polysomnography at home (HypnoLaus)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055257/efficacy-of-adjunctive-brexpiprazole-on-the-core-symptoms-of-major-depressive-disorder-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-two-pooled-clinical-studies
#3
J Craig Nelson, Emmanuelle Weiller, Peter Zhang, Catherine Weiss, Mary Hobart
BACKGROUND: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who do not adequately respond to antidepressant treatment (ADT) may benefit from adjunctive atypical antipsychotics; however, certain agents target specific symptoms of depression and not the full syndrome. The aim of this analysis was to examine the effects of brexpiprazole, adjunct to ADT, on the core symptoms of MDD, defined using Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) items. METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of data from two 6-week, randomized, double-blind studies of adjunctive brexpiprazole in patients with MDD and inadequate response to ADTs (n = 1056)...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055250/clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-diagnostic-uncertainty-of-major-depressive-disorder
#4
Taichi Mogi, Hiroyuki Toda, Aihide Yoshino
BACKGROUND: Physicians do not always confidently diagnose psychiatric disorders. The present study was conducted to identify the clinical characteristics of patients in whom a definitive diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) could not be established. METHODS: The participants were 199 consecutive outpatients with MDD, who were comprehensively diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The physician in charge of each patient quantified his/her sense of self-confidence in diagnosing the patient with MDD using the self-rating questionnaire in which the score ranged from 1 (not at all confident) to 5 (definitely MDD)...
October 16, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055240/automatic-processing-of-emotional-facial-expressions-as-a-function-of-social-anhedonia
#5
Vivien Günther, Juliane Zimmer, Anette Kersting, Karl-Titus Hoffmann, Donald Lobsien, Thomas Suslow
Anhedonia is an important feature of major depression and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Few neuroimaging studies have investigated neural alterations in high anhedonia, isolated from other psychopathological variables, by including only participants without clinical diagnoses. The present study examined healthy individuals scoring high (N = 18) vs. low (N = 19) in social anhedonia, who were carefully selected from a sample of N = 282 participants. To examine differences in automatic brain responses to social-affective stimuli between high vs...
October 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053980/incident-mental-disorders-in-the-aftermath-of-traumatic-events-a-prospective-longitudinal-community-study
#6
Eva Asselmann, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Roselind Lieb, Axel Perkonigg, Katja Beesdo-Baum
BACKGROUND: Few strictly prospective-longitudinal community studies examined the role of traumatic events for risk of developing a broad range of incident mental disorders over several years. METHOD: A representative community sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 2797, baseline age 14-24) was prospectively examined in up to three assessment waves over up to 10 years. Traumatic events and DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed at each wave using the DIA-X/M-CIDI...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053977/suicidal-ideation-declines-with-improvement-in-the-subjective-symptoms-of-major-depression
#7
John G Keilp, Steven P Ellis, Marianne Gorlyn, Ainsley K Burke, Maria A Oquendo, J John Mann, Michael F Grunebaum
BACKGROUND: Suicidal ideation appears to be more strongly associated with subjective rather than neurovegetative symptoms of depression. Effective treatment, then, should produce reductions in suicidal ideation to the degree that these subjective symptoms are alleviated relative to treatment effects on other symptoms. METHODS: In a randomized clinical trial comparing paroxetine and bupropion for treatment of depression in patients with either suicidal ideation or past attempt, depression severity and suicidal ideation were assessed weekly during the 8-week study...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053849/a-network-meta-analysis-comparing-effects-of-various-antidepressant-classes-on-the-digit-symbol-substitution-test-dsst-as-a-measure-of-cognitive-dysfunction-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#8
Bernhard T Baune, Mélanie Brignone, Klaus Groes Larsen
Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common condition that often includes cognitive dysfunction. A systematic literature review of studies and a network meta-analysis (NMA) were carried out to assess the relative effect of antidepressants on cognitive dysfunction in MDD. Methods: MEDLINE ®, Embase ®, Cochrane, CDSR, PsychINFO ® databases, clinical trial registries, and relevant conference abstracts were searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of antidepressants/placebo on cognition...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053705/vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-pregnant-rats-and-effects-on-inflammatory-markers-in-the-brainstem-of-neonates
#9
Allison Judkins, Rhaya L Johnson, Samuel T Murray, Steven Yellon, Christopher G Wilson
BackgroundVagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) is an FDA-approved method delivering electrical impulses for treatment of depression and epilepsy in adults. The vagus nerve innervates the majority of visceral organs and cervix, but potential impacts of VNS on the progress of pregnancy and the fetus are not well studied.MethodsWe tested the hypothesis that VNS in pregnant dams does not induce inflammatory changes in the cardiorespiratory control regions of the pups' brainstem, potentially impacting the morbidity and mortality of offspring...
October 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053637/progress-in-genetic-studies-of-tourette-s-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Yanjie Qi, Yi Zheng, Zhanjiang Li, Lan Xiong
Tourette's Syndrome (TS) is a complex disorder characterized by repetitive, sudden, and involuntary movements or vocalizations, called tics. Tics usually appear in childhood, and their severity varies over time. In addition to frequent tics, people with TS are at risk for associated problems including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety, depression, and problems with sleep. TS occurs in most populations and ethnic groups worldwide, and it is more common in males than in females...
October 20, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052947/exploring-opportunities-to-support-mental-health-care-using-social-media-a-survey-of-social-media-users-with-mental-illness
#11
John A Naslund, Kelly A Aschbrenner, Gregory J McHugo, Jürgen Unützer, Lisa A Marsch, Stephen J Bartels
AIM: Social media holds promise for expanding the reach of mental health services, especially for young people who frequently use these popular platforms. We surveyed social media users who self-identified as having a mental illness to learn about their use of social media for mental health and to identify opportunities to augment existing mental health services. METHODS: We asked 240 Twitter users who self-identified in their profile as having a mental illness to participate in an online survey...
October 20, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052663/self-management-intervention-for-adult-cancer-survivors-after-treatment-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Soo Hyun Kim, Kisook Kim, Deborah K Mayer
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: This study aims to evaluate the effects of self-management interventions (SMIs) for cancer survivors who completed primary treatment. 
. LITERATURE SEARCH: Using PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL®, PsycINFO®, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trails (CENTRAL), the authors conducted a systematic search of randomized, controlled trials published in English from database conception through June 2016. 
. DATA EVALUATION: The meta-analysis was conducted with Cochrane Review Manager, version 5...
November 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052118/challenging-conventions-of-bullying-thresholds-exploring-differences-between-low-and-high-levels-of-bully-only-victim-only-and-bully-victim-roles
#13
Jeremy T Goldbach, Paul R Sterzing, Marla J Stuart
Using a commonly accepted threshold of 2 to 3 times per month as a marker of bullying-involvement from noninvolvement, approximately 30% of U.S. students report being a bully, victim, or both. Although variation in the frequency of involvement exists, infrequent engagement (less than 2 to 3 times a month) is generally considered noninvolved. However, the question remains: Do these differences have implications for behavioral health patterns, including substance use, depression and school connectedness? The present study used a district-wide random cluster sample of 66 middle and high schools in a mid-size city...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051549/chronic-antidepressant-potentiates-spontaneous-activity-of-dorsal-raphe-serotonergic-neurons-by-decreasing-gabab-receptor-mediated-inhibition-of-l-type-calcium-channels
#14
Nozomi Asaoka, Naoya Nishitani, Haruko Kinoshita, Hiroyuki Kawai, Norihiro Shibui, Kazuki Nagayasu, Hisashi Shirakawa, Takayuki Nakagawa, Shuji Kaneko
Spontaneous activity of serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) regulates mood and motivational state. Potentiation of serotonergic function is one of the therapeutic strategies for treatment of various psychiatric disorders, such as major depression, panic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, the control mechanisms of the serotonergic firing activity are still unknown. In this study, we examined the control mechanisms for serotonergic spontaneous activity and effects of chronic antidepressant administration on these mechanisms by using modified ex vivo electrophysiological recording methods...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051523/emotion-regulating-attentional-control-abnormalities-in-major-depressive-disorder-an-event-related-potential-study
#15
Bin Hu, Juan Rao, Xiaowei Li, Tong Cao, Jianxiu Li, Dennis Majoe, Jürg Gutknecht
Major depressive disorders (MDD) exhibit cognitive dysfunction with respect to attention. The deficiencies in cognitive control of emotional information are associated with MDD as compared to healthy controls (HC). However, the brain mechanism underlying emotion that influences the attentional control in MDD necessitates further research. The present study explores the emotion-regulated cognitive competence in MDD at a dynamic attentional stage. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 35 clinical MDD outpatients and matched HCs by applying a modified affective priming dot-probe paradigm, which consisted of various emotional facial expression pairs...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051109/spontaneous-intrauterine-depressed-skull-fractures-report-of-two-cases-requiring-neurosurgical-intervention-and-literature-review
#16
Anand Veeravagu, Tej D Azad, Bowen Jiang, Michael S B Edwards
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intrauterine depressed skull fractures (IDSF) are rare fractures that often require neurosurgical evaluation and therapy. The majority of reported congenital depressions are secondary to maternal abdominal trauma or instrumentation during delivery. Spontaneous IDSF occur in the setting of uneventful normal spontaneous vaginal delivery (NSVD) or cesarean section, without obvious predisposing risk factors. The etiology and optimal management of spontaneous IDSF remain controversial...
October 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051086/depression-subtyping-based-on-evolutionary-psychiatry-proximate-mechanisms-and-ultimate-functions
#17
REVIEW
Markus J Rantala, Severi Luoto, Indrikis Krams, Hasse Karlsson
Major depressive disorder constitutes one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. However, it is not a unitary disease-it is a heterogeneous syndrome, with patients differing remarkably in symptom profile, pathophysiology and treatment responsiveness. Previous attempts to subtype major depressive disorder have showed limited clinical applicability. We present a classification of major depressive disorder episodes based on the proximate mechanisms that led to the original mood change that caused the depressive episode...
October 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049971/food-addiction-prevalence-psychopathological-correlates-and-associations-with-quality-of-life-in-a-large-sample
#18
Paulo R Nunes-Neto, Cristiano A Köhler, Felipe B Schuch, Marco Solmi, João Quevedo, Michael Maes, Andrea Murru, Eduard Vieta, Roger S McIntyre, Susan L McElroy, Ashley N Gearhardt, Brendon Stubbs, André F Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of food addiction in a large Brazilian non-clinical sample. Sociodemographic and psychopathological correlates of food addiction as well as associations with quality (QoL) domains were also investigated. METHODS: This cross-sectional study obtained data from a Brazilian anonymous web-based research platform (N = 7639; 71.3% females). Participants provided sociodemographic data and completed the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale 2...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049934/molecular-changes-associated-with-escitalopram-response-in-a-stress-based-model-of-depression
#19
Cristina Benatti, Silvia Alboni, Joan M C Blom, Julien Mendlewicz, Fabio Tascedda, Nicoletta Brunello
Converging evidence points at hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity and neuroinflammation as important factors involved in the etiopathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and in therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants. In this study, we examined the molecular effects associated with a response to a week-long treatment with escitalopram in the chronic escape deficit (CED) model, a validated model of depression based on the induction of an escape deficit after exposure of rats to an unavoidable stress...
October 13, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049554/genetic-association-of-major-depression-with-atypical-features-and-obesity-related-immunometabolic-dysregulations
#20
Yuri Milaneschi, Femke Lamers, Wouter J Peyrot, Bernhard T Baune, Gerome Breen, Abbas Dehghan, Andreas J Forstner, Hans J Grabe, Georg Homuth, Carol Kan, Cathryn Lewis, Niamh Mullins, Matthias Nauck, Giorgio Pistis, Martin Preisig, Margarita Rivera, Marcella Rietschel, Fabian Streit, Jana Strohmaier, Alexander Teumer, Sandra Van der Auwera, Naomi R Wray, Dorret I Boomsma, Brenda W J H Penninx
Importance: The association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity may stem from shared immunometabolic mechanisms particularly evident in MDD with atypical features, characterized by increased appetite and/or weight (A/W) during an active episode. Objective: To determine whether subgroups of patients with MDD stratified according to the A/W criterion had a different degree of genetic overlap with obesity-related traits (body mass index [BMI] and levels of C-reactive protein [CRP] and leptin)...
October 18, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
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