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Yangyang Liu, Lihui Huang, Guihua Dong, Gaofeng Liu, Xueyuan Wu, Chuang Wang, Xiaowei Liu, Lisha Wang
The effects of downflow sludge circulation on granulation and methane recovery at low load were investigated for domestic wastewater treatment in a modified anaerobic reactor. Compared with conventional upflow anaerobic reactors, enhanced granulation with shortened start-up time was achieved and stable granules were successfully cultivated only after 58 days operations. The introduction of downflow sludge circulation resulted in reverse wastewater-sludge flow and uniform sludge distribution in the reaction zone, which contributed to enhanced wastewater-sludge mass transfer and satisfactory performance with a high soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) removal efficiency of 94...
October 31, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Brianna M Krafcik, Gheorghe Doros, Marina A Malikova
Aim: Efficient start-up phase in clinical trials is crucial to execution. The goal was to determine factors contributing to delays. Materials & methods: The start-up milestones were assessed for 38 studies and analyzed. Results: Total start-up time was shorter for following studies: device trials, no outsourcing, fewer ancillary services used and in interventional versus observational designs. The use of a centralized Institutional Review Board (IRB) versus a local IRB reduced time to approval...
November 2017: Future Science OA
R E Costa, A A Battistelli, J K B Bernardelli, J P Bassin, T J Belli, F R Lapolli
A conventional (SB-CMBR) and a hybrid moving bed (SB-HMBR) sequencing batch membrane bioreactor treating municipal wastewater were compared during their start-up in terms of organic matter and nutrient removal, membrane fouling characteristics and microbial community. Both systems exhibited similar COD, ammonium, total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus removal efficiency, amounting up to 96%, 99%, 70% and 85%, respectively. Most of the COD removal was coupled to phosphate release and denitrification in the anaerobic/anoxic phase of the operating cycle, whereas the low COD/N environment established in the aerated phase allowed full nitrification...
November 11, 2017: Environmental Technology
Christian Nyrop Albers, Lea Ellegaard-Jensen, Lars Hestbjerg Hansen, Sebastian R Sørensen
Ammonium oxidation to nitrite and then to nitrate (nitrification) is a key process in many waterworks treating groundwater to make it potable. In rapid sand filters, nitrifying microbial communities may evolve naturally from groundwater bacteria entering the filters. However, in new filters this may take several months, and in some cases the nitrification process is never sufficiently rapid to be efficient or is only performed partially, with nitrite as an undesired end product. The present study reports the first successful priming of nitrification in a rapid sand filter treating groundwater...
November 6, 2017: Water Research
C Dennehy, P G Lawlor, M S McCabe, P Cormican, J Sheahan, Y Jiang, X Zhan, G E Gardiner
This study assessed the effect of varying pig manure (PM)/food waste (FW) mixing ratio and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on methane yields, digestate dewaterability, enteric indicator bacteria and microbial communities during anaerobic co-digestion. Three 10 L digesters were operated at 39 °C, each with a PM/FW feedstock composition of 85%/15%, 63%/37% and 40%/60% (volatile solids basis). While the PM/FW ratio was different among reactors, the organic loading rate applied was equal, and increased stepwise with reducing HRT...
November 4, 2017: Waste Management
Berthold Boedeker, Adam Goldstein, Ekta Mahajan
The availability and use of pre-sterilized disposables has greatly changed the methods used in biopharmaceuticals development and production, particularly from mammalian cell culture. Nowadays, almost all process steps from cell expansion, fermentation, cell removal, and purification to formulation and storage of drug substances can be carried out in disposables, although there are still limitations with single-use technologies, particularly in the areas of pretesting and quality control of disposables, bag and connections standardization and qualification, extractables and leachables (E/L) validation, and dependency on individual vendors...
November 4, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Susan Froshauer
The world of biotechnology "start-ups" and entrepreneurship offers exciting new avenues for driving state-of-the-art research using an arsenal of multidisciplinary skills, whether your role is as part of a team or as a leader. Although traditionally these positions may not be as secure as those offered by some of the larger companies, the small start-up culture provides opportunities for contributing at many levels to a wide range of responsibilities: from scientific discovery to delivery of proof of concept and intellectual property; from analysis of market opportunities and competitive intelligence to creation of time lines and business plans for a first product...
November 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Daniel J Gould, Sheila Nazarian
Background: Plastic surgeons are rapidly integrating social media into their practices and recent articles on the subject have exploded in the literature. Although social media is being evaluated as a tool, few have actually been able to quantify the impact of social media on a practice. Objectives: To quantify the return on investment for social media in a plastic surgery practice. Methods: The ideal method for this type of study is a new practice, without preexisting clients and with a broad approach to marketing to examine the effects of multiple marketing tools...
October 28, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Michelle K Sing, Matthew J Glassman, Xenanthia T Vronay-Ruggles, Wesley R Burghardt, Bradley D Olsen
Dual-associative protein di- and triblock copolymers composed of sticker-decorated midblocks and micelle-forming elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) endblocks form shear-thinning, thermoresponsively reinforceable hydrogels that are potentially useful as injectable materials for a variety of applications. Here, the combination of rheological and in situ scattering measurements under shear on these dual-associative gels is employed in order to better understand how block architecture plays a role in controlling microscopic structural rearrangement and the resulting macroscopic mechanical responses...
November 1, 2017: Soft Matter
Jianlin Wang, Dan Xu, Huan Zhou, Anning Bai, Wei Lu
This paper presents an adaption of the fractional order terminal sliding mode control (AFTSMC) strategy for DC-DC Buck converter. The following strategy aims to design a novel nonlinear sliding surface function, with a double closed-loop structure of voltage and current. This strategy is a fusion of two characteristics: terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) and fractional order calculation (FOC). In addition, the influence of "the controller parameters" on the "performance of double closed-loop system" is investigated...
2017: PloS One
Alper Toker, Erkan Kaba, Kemal Ayalp, Mehmet Oğuzhan Özyurtkan
Advances in technology cause major developments in minimally invasive thoracic surgery practice. The expected benefits of minimally invasive pulmonary surgery are clear and mostly as follows; shorter hospital stay, fast recovery, less pain, and decreased morbidity and mortality. Robotic surgery with improved visualization and instrumental technical capabilities has become an attractive tool for surgeons who are performing lung resections. However, robotic surgery still seems far away from standardization even in the basic fundamental which is "the best approach for docking"...
2017: J Vis Surg
Maciej S Kowalski, Tanner R Devlin, Jan A Oleszkiewicz
The formation of stable and highly active anammox biofilm is a lengthy process leading to long start-up times of deammonifying reactors of several months or more. This study aims to provide a quick and simple solution to the problem of long start-up periods for biofilm reactors by pre-treating the surface of carrier material, thereby increasing attachment rates of anammox cells and creating a significant improvement in the adhesion of cells to the carrier material. Two different techniques were investigated...
October 26, 2017: Environmental Technology
Insung Lee, Mi Young Park, Hyo-Jin Kim, Jong-Ho Lee, Jun-Young Park, Jongsup Hong, Kyeong-Il Kim, Manho Park, Jung-Yeul Yun, Kyung Joong Yoon
For the commercial development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), cathode current collection has been one of the most challenging issues because it is extremely difficult to form continuous electric paths between two rigid components in a high-temperature oxidizing atmosphere. Herein, we present a Co-Ni foam as an innovative cathode current collector that fulfills all strict thermochemical and thermomechanical requirements for use in SOFCs. The Co-Ni foam is originally in the form of a metal alloy, offering excellent mechanical properties and manufacturing tolerance during stack assembly and startup processes...
November 3, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Balu Ranganathan, Charles Miller, Anthony Sinskey
Bioengineering has come of ages by setting up spare parts manufacturing units to be used in human body such as invasive implants and interventional controlled drug delivery in vivo systems. As a matter of fact patients on basis of their fiscal strength have the option of undergoing prophylactic tactical manoeuvre for longevity. In this sphere of invasive implants, biocompatible polymer implants are a state of the art cutting edge technology with outstanding innovations leading to number of very successful start-up companies with a plethora of patent portfolios...
October 23, 2017: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
Jie Wang, Hongyan Fang, Hui Jia, Guang Yang, Fei Gao, Wenbin Liu
In order to realize the rapid start-up of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, the iron ion in different valence state was added to UASB. The results indicated that the start-up time of R3 (FeCl3) was 48 h faster than that of R2 (zero-valent iron (ZVI)). It was because the FeCl3 could rapidly promote granulation of sludge as a flocculant. However, ZVI released Fe(2+) through corrosion slowly, and then the Fe(2+) increased start-up speed by enhancing enzyme activity and enriching methanogens. In addition, the ZVI and FeCl3 could promote hydrolysis acidification and strengthen the decomposition of long-chain fatty acids...
October 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
R M Alonso, M I San-Martín, A Sotres, A Escapa
This study seeks to assess the impact that the anodic electrodeposition of graphene oxide (GO) has on the start-up process and on the development of microbial communities on the anode of BESs. The GO electrodeposited electrodes were characterised in abiotic conditions to verify the extent of the modification and were then transferred to a bioelectrochemical reactor. Results showed that the modified electrode allowed for a reduced start-up time compared to the control electrode. After three months, high throughput sequencing was performed, revealing that electrochemically reduced graphene oxide acts as a selective agent toward exoelectrogenic bacteria as Geobacter...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xuemei Wang, Zifu Li, Xue Bai, Xiaoqin Zhou, Sikun Cheng, Ruiling Gao, Jiachen Sun
Based on continuous anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure with available carbon slowly released corn straw, the effect of adding available carbon quickly released fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) was explored, meanwhile microbial community variation was studied in this study. When the FVW added was 5% and 1%, the methane production of the cow manure and corn straw was improved, and the start-up process was shortened. With higher proportion of FVW to 5%, the performance was superior with a mean methane yield increase of 22...
October 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Martyna Wojcieszak, Adam Pyzik, Krzysztof Poszytek, Pawel S Krawczyk, Adam Sobczak, Leszek Lipinski, Otton Roubinek, Jacek Palige, Aleksandra Sklodowska, Lukasz Drewniak
A well-balanced microbial consortium is crucial for efficient biogas production. In turn, one of a major factor that influence on the structure of anaerobic digestion (AD) consortium is a source of microorganisms which are used as an inoculum. This study evaluated the influence of inoculum sources (with various origin) on adaptation of a biogas community and the efficiency of the biomethanization of maize silage. As initial inocula for AD of maize silage the samples from: (i) an agricultural biogas plant (ABP) which utilizes maize silage as a main substrate, (ii) cattle slurry (CS), which contain elevated levels of lignocelluloses materials, and (iii) raw sewage sludge (RSS) with low content of plant origin materials were used...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Amir Manbachi, Katlin Kreamer-Tonin, Philipp Walch, Nao J Gamo, Parastoo Khoshakhlagh, Yu Shrike Zhang, Charles Montague, Soumyadipta Acharya, Elizabeth A Logsdon, Robert H Allen, Nicholas J Durr, Mark G Luciano, Nicholas Theodore, Henry Brem, Youseph Yazdi
Following the footprints of Bill Gates, Steve Jobs and Mark Zuckerberg, there has been a misconception that students are better off quitting their studies to bring to life their ideas, create jobs and monetize their inventions. Having historically transitioned from manpower to mind power, we live in one of the most rapidly changing times in human history. As a result, academic institutions that are supposed to be pioneers and educators of the next generations have started to realize that they need to adapt to a new system, and change their policies to be more flexible towards patent ownership and commercialization...
October 10, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Mattias Strand, Sanna A Gustafsson, Cynthia M Bulik, Yvonne von Hausswolff-Juhlin
BACKGROUND: Interest has increased in programs offering self-admission to inpatient treatment for patients with severe psychiatric illness, whereby patients who are well-known to a service are afforded the opportunity to admit themselves at will for a brief period of time. The aim of the present study was to examine patient experiences of practical considerations during the start-up phase of a self-admission program in an eating disorder service. METHODS: Sixteen adult participants in a self-admission program at a specialist eating disorders service were interviewed at 6 months about their experiences during the implementation phase...
October 10, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
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