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T G Rawdon, M G Garner, R L Sanson, M A Stevenson, C Cook, C Birch, S E Roche, K A Patyk, K N Forde-Folle, C Dubé, T Smylie, Z D Yu
Vaccination is increasingly being recognised as a potential tool to supplement 'stamping out' for controlling foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in non-endemic countries. Infectious disease simulation models provide the opportunity to determine how vaccination might be used in the face of an FMD outbreak. Previously, consistent relative benefits of specific vaccination strategies across different FMD simulation modelling platforms have been demonstrated, using a UK FMD outbreak scenario. We extended this work to assess the relative effectiveness of selected vaccination strategies in five countries: Australia, New Zealand, the USA, the UK and Canada...
May 22, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Katarzyna Dziewulska, Malwina Pilarska
BACKGROUND: In fish with external fertilization, two main start-up mechanisms of the path that blocks or activates the spermatozoan motility apparatus are known. The main factor managing the path is osmolality or potassium ion. In burbot from the European and North American population, contradictory findings regarding the factors influencing the onset of spermatozoa motility were reported. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of potassium and osmolality on the spermatozoa activation of European burbot, Lota lota (Actinopterygii, Gadiformes, Lotidae)...
2018: PloS One
Filip Muysoms, Stijn Van Cleven, Iris Kyle-Leinhase, Conrad Ballecer, Archana Ramaswamy
BACKGROUND: Robotic groin hernia repair (r-TAPP) is demonstrating rapid adoption in the US. Barriers in Europe include: low availability of robotic systems to general surgeons, cost of robotic instruments, and the perception of longer operative time. METHODS: Patients undergoing r-TAPP in our start-up period were prospectively entered in the EuraHS database and compared to laparoscopic TAPP (l-TAPP) performed by the same surgeon within the context of two other prospective studies...
May 15, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Eric D Slosberg, Barinder P Kang, Julio Peguero, Matthew Taylor, Todd M Bauer, Donald A Berry, Fadi Braiteh, Alexander Spira, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Steven Stein, Sarina A Piha-Paul, August Salvado
Investigating targeted therapies can be challenging due to diverse tumor mutations and slow patient accrual for clinical studies. The Signature Program is a series of 8 phase 2, agent-specific basket protocols using a rapid study start-up approach involving no predetermined study sites. Each protocol evaluated 1 agent (buparlisib, dovitinib, binimetinib, encorafenib, sonidegib, BGJ398, ceritinib, or ribociclib) in patients with solid or hematologic malignancies and an actionable mutation. The primary endpoint of each study was the clinical benefit rate (ie, complete or partial response, or stable disease) at 16 weeks...
April 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Zeou Dou, Christy M Dykstra, Spyros G Pavlostathis
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of biofilm and external voltage on the performance and microbial community composition of batch-fed, combined anaerobic digestion-bioelectrochemical cell (AD-BEC) systems under different operational conditions. A dextrin/peptone mixture was fed at a range of organic loading rates (0.34 to 1.37g COD/L-d). The hybrid system with both suspended biomass and biofilm without any external potential application achieved a substantially higher initial soluble COD consumption (53...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Dan Cui, Li-Ming Yang, Wen-Zong Liu, Min-Hua Cui, Wei-Wei Cai, Ai-Jie Wang
Low electrode resistance is crucial for achieving efficient reactions in bio-electrochemical system (BES), especially considering the factors of BES scaling-up and microbial effects. Graphene has revealed a cornucopia of potential applications due to its high conductivity and extraordinary electrochemical properties. Here, significant reduction of electrode resistance and increment of electrochemical activity were achieved by fabricating the three-dimensional carbon brush using reduced graphene oxide (rGO/carbon brush) through one-step electro-deposition without any binder...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Hsien Seow, Daryl Bainbridge
BACKGROUND: Interprofessional specialized palliative care teams at home improve patient outcomes, reduce healthcare costs, and support many patients to die at home. However, practical details about how to develop home-based teams in different regions and health systems are scarce. AIM: To examine how a variety of home-based specialized palliative care teams created and grew their team over time and to identify critical steps in their evolution. DESIGN: A qualitative study was designed based on a grounded theory approach, using semi-structured interviews and other documentation...
May 1, 2018: Palliative Medicine
Eleftheria Vaportzis, Alan J Gow
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a U.K.-wide survey to collect information on people's beliefs, fears, perceptions, and attitudes to cognitive aging. METHODS: This community-based aging survey included 3,146 adults aged 40 years and over. RESULTS: Respondents believed memory might be the earliest cognitive skill to decline (mean: 59.4 years), followed by speed of thinking (mean: 64.9). Those in their 40s were more pessimistic, because they estimated cognitive changes would start up to 15 years earlier than respondents aged over 70...
April 4, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Olivia Lovegreen, Danielle Riggs, Myrlene A Staten, Patricia Sheehan, Anastassios G Pittas
BACKGROUND: Randomized clinical trials that have public health implications but no or low potential for commercial gain are predominantly funded by governmental (e.g., National Institutes of Health (NIH)) and not-for-profit organizations. Our objective was to develop an alternative clinical trial site funding model for judicious allocation of declining public research funds. METHODS: In the Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes (D2d) study, an NIH-supported, large clinical trial testing the effect of vitamin D supplementation on incident diabetes in 2423 participants at high risk for diabetes, a hybrid financial management model for supporting collaborating clinical sites was developed and applied...
May 3, 2018: Trials
Steven P Broglio, Anthony P Kontos, Harvey Levin, Kathryn Schneider, Elisabeth A Wilde, Robert C Cantu, Nina Feddermann-Demont, Gordon Fuller, Isabelle Gagnon, Gerry Gioia, Christopher C Giza, Grace Sophia Griesbach, John J Leddy, Michael L Lipton, Andrew Mayer, Thomas McAllister, Michael McCrea, Lara McKenzie, Margot Putukian, Stefano Signoretti, Stacy J Suskauer, Robert Tamburro, Michael Turner, Keith Owen Yeates, Roger Zemek, Sherita Ala'i, Joy Esterlitz, Katelyn Gay, Patrick S F Bellgowan, Kristen Joseph
AIM: Through a partnership with the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), and Department of Defense (DoD), the development of Sport-Related Concussion (SRC) Common Data Elements (CDEs) was initiated. The aim of this collaboration was to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical research studies and clinical treatment outcomes, increase data quality, facilitate data sharing across studies, reduce study start-up time, more effectively aggregate information into metadata results, and educate new clinical investigators...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Hongshen Yi, Ming Liu, Peiyun Shi, Zhida Yang, Guanghui Zhu, Quanming Lu, Xuan Sun
A new medium-sized washer gun is developed for a plasma start-up in a fully axisymmetric mirror. The gun is positioned at the east end of the Keda Mirror with AXisymmetricity facility and operated in the pulsed mode with an arc discharging time of 1.2 ms and a typical arc current of 8.5 kA with 1.5 kV discharge voltage. To optimize the operation, a systematic scan of the neutral pressure, the arc voltage, the bias voltage on a mesh grid 6 cm in front of the gun and an end electrode located on the west end of mirror, and the mirror ratio was performed...
April 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Mary Jo Lamberti, Michael Wilkinson, Beth Harper, Craig Morgan, Ken Getz
BACKGROUND: Site identification, site selection, and study start-up have become the focus of improvement by organizations conducting clinical trials. METHODS: To examine and measure the process from site identification through site activation, Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development (CSDD) conducted a comprehensive survey among pharmaceutical organizations, biotech companies, and contract research organizations (CROs). Responses from over 400 unique companies were gathered and analyzed...
January 1, 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
Bakhtiyar Ahmed, Thomas Dannhauser, Nada Philip
Introduction This paper is a systematic review of the relevant literature surrounding the implementation and utilisation of eHealth to identify key challenges and opportunities to future eHealth applications. Methods NHS Evidence, PubMed, IEEE Explorer, Cochrane Library and JMIR Publications were all searched for reviews published between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2017. Results A total of 47 papers met the final inclusion criterion. The published literature focused on a wide array of challenges categorised into five areas, facing the implementation and utilisation of eHealth; from this, four areas of opportunity to advance eHealth were identified...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
Rebecca Mercieca-Bebber, Melanie Calvert, Derek Kyte, Martin Stockler, Madeleine T King
Aims: To explore cancer trial coordinators' roles and challenges in administering patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires, and establish what PRO-specific training and guidance they received and needed. Methods: Eligible cancer trial coordinators experienced with PRO assessment from approved Australian sites participated in an audio-recorded, semi-structured interview (transcribed verbatim). Recruitment continued until data saturation. Transcripts underwent content analysis...
March 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Makoto Sera
The evaluation of the lung has usually been considered off-limits for ultrasound, because ultrasound energy is rapidly dissipated by air. Lung ultrasound is not useful for the evaluation of the pulmonary parenchyma and the pleural line. However ultrasound machines have become more portable, with decreased start-up time, while simultaneously providing improved image quality and ease of image acquisition. Additionally, lung ultrasound is highly accurate for the diagnosis of pneumothorax, hemothorax. pleural effusions, pulmonary edema (cardiogenic or noncardiogenic), interstitial syndrome, and pneumonia...
May 2017: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
Xiaomei Su, Yuyang Wang, Binbing Xue, Yunge Zhang, Rongwu Mei, Yu Zhang, Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi, Hongjun Lin, Jianrong Chen, Faqian Sun
This study assumed that key degraders of functional bacterial community were prone to enter into the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state under high saline phenolic conditions, and resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) could strengthen these degraders for better performances. Based on these assumptions, Rpf was used to enhance salt-tolerant phenol-degrading capability of functional populations in activated sludge. Results suggested that Rpf accelerated the start-up process during sludge domestication, and significantly enhanced salt-tolerant phenol-degrading capability...
April 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Minkyu Choi, Kyungjin Cho, Seockheon Lee, Yun-Chul Chung, Joonhong Park, Hyokwan Bae
In this study, anammox enrichment reactors were operated using flat type poly (vinyl alcohol) cryogel (cryoPVAG) with precultured anammox bacteria (PAB) and activated sludge (AS) from an anoxic tack of the A2O process to evaluate the effect of different seeding sources on anammox enrichment. In addition, cryoPVAGs with different thicknesses (1, 2, and 3 mm) were used to investigate the effects of the thickness on anammox enrichment. The regression analysis with a modified Gompertz model showed that the start-up period of the anammox enrichment using PAB inoculum was approximately 14 days earlier than that of AS inoculum at a nitrogen loading rate of approximately 1 kg-N m-3 day-1 ...
April 13, 2018: Chemosphere
Kiyotaka Usui, Tasuku Murata, Yuji Fujita, Yoshito Kamijo, Tomoki Hanazawa, Tomohiro Yoshizawa, Masato Funayama
Analyses of drugs and poisons in tissue samples are essential in forensic toxicology and pharmacology. However, current procedures for tissue analysis are laborious and time-consuming. Therefore, we assessed the utility of a newly devised probe electrospray ionization (PESI) technique with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for easy, ultra-rapid drug detection in human tissue samples. Using this system, typical pre-treatment procedures, such as solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, deproteinization, or homogenization, can be avoided...
April 18, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Ruiwen Wang, Mei Yan, Huidong Li, Lu Zhang, Benqi Peng, Jinzhi Sun, Da Liu, Shaoqin Liu
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have received great attention worldwide due to their potential in recovering electrical energy from waste and inexhaustible biomass. Unfortunately, the difficulty of achieving the high power, especially in real samples, remains a bottleneck for their practical applications. Herein, FeS2 nanoparticles decorated graphene is fabricated via a simple hydrothermal reaction. The FeS2 nanoparticles decorated graphene anode not only benefits bacterial adhesion and enrichment of electrochemically active Geobacter species on the electrode surface but also promotes efficient extracellular electron transfer, thus giving rise to a fast start-up time of 2 d, an unprecedented power density of 3220 mW m-2 and a remarkable current density of 3...
April 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Qinghua Li, Rongqing Sun, Hongdi Lyu, Dexin Shen, Qing Hu, Haiwei Wang, Nannan Wang, Jin Yan, Jing Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of mild hypothermia at different starting times on the physiological functions of the viscera of exertional heat stroke (EHS). METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. EHS patients admitted to intensive care unit of the 159th Hospital of People's Liberation Army and the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from June 2015 to June 2017 were enrolled. The patients were divided into 2, 4, 6 hours start hypothermia treatment groups according to the random number table method, the mild hypothermia was initiated at 2, 4 and 6 hours after the disease onset respectively, and the methods were the same in each group...
April 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
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