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Julian David Muñoz Sierra, Carlos Lafita, Carmen Gabaldón, Henri Spanjers, Jules B van Lier
Biomass requires trace metals (TM) for maintaining its growth and activity. This study aimed to determine the effect of TM supplementation and partitioning on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), with a focus on cobalt and tungsten, during the start-up of two lab-scale Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors (AnMBRs) treating saline phenolic wastewater. The TM partitioning revealed a strong accumulation of sodium in the biomass matrix and a wash-out of the majority of TM in the reactors, which led to an SMA decrease and a low COD removal of about 30%...
March 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Jannie Kristine Bang Christensen
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have suggested that telecare can improve interorganisational collaboration within fragmented health care systems, yet this outcome has not been examined in a large-scale setting. This study explores the effects of a large-scale interorganisational telecare programme in Denmark based on home-monitoring on collaboration in a telecare network between municipalities, hospitals, and general practitioners. METHODOLOGY: Semi-structured interviews and observations of collaborating health professionals from the municipalities, hospitals, and general practitioners were undertaken and then repeated a year later...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Integrated Care
S D Yap, S Astals, P D Jensen, D J Batstone, S Tait
Batch solid-phase anaerobic digestion is a technology for sustainable on-farm treatment of solid residues, but is an emerging technology that is yet to be optimised with respect to start-up and inoculation. In the present study, spent bedding from two piggeries (site A and B) were batch digested at total solids (TS) concentration of 5, 10 and 20% at mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) temperatures, without adding an external inoculum. The results showed that the indigenous microbial community present in spent bedding was able to recover the full methane potential of the bedding (140±5 and 227±6L CH4 kgVSfed(-1) for site A and B, respectively), but longer treatment times were required than for digestion with an added external inoculum...
March 13, 2017: Waste Management
Marko Korhonen, Mikael Mohtaschemi, Antti Puisto, Xavier Illa, Mikko J Alava
For quite some time nonmonotonic flow curve was thought to be a requirement for shear banded flows in complex fluids. Thus, in simple yield stress fluids shear banding was considered to be absent. Recent spatially resolved rheological experiments have found simple yield stress fluids to exhibit shear banded flow profiles. One proposed mechanism for the initiation of such transient shear banding process has been a small stress heterogeneity rising from the experimental device geometry. Here, using computational fluid dynamics methods, we show that transient shear banding can be initialized even under homogeneous stress conditions by the fluid start-up inertia, and that such mechanism indeed is present in realistic experimental conditions...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
Rocio J Alcántara-Hernández, Neslihan Taş, Sandra Carlos-Pinedo, Alfonso Durán-Moreno, Luisa I Falcón
Anaerobic digestion of organic residues offers economic benefits via biogas production, still methane (CH4 ) yield relies on the development of a robust microbial consortia for adequate substrate degradation, among other factors. In this study, we monitor biogas production and changes in the microbial community composition in two semi-continuous stirred tank reactors during the setting process under mesophilic conditions (35°C) using a 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing method. Reactors were initially inoculated with anaerobic granular sludge from a brewery wastewater treatment plant, and gradually fed with organic urban residues (4...
March 13, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Asgar H Rishu, Nicole Marinoff, Lisa Julien, Mariana Dumitrascu, Nicole Marten, Shauna Eggertson, Su Willems, Stacy Ruddell, Dane Lane, Bruce Light, Henry T Stelfox, Philippe Jouvet, Richard Hall, Steven Reynolds, Nick Daneman, Robert A Fowler
PURPOSE: Observational research focused upon emerging infectious diseases such as Ebola virus, Middle East respiratory syndrome, and Zika virus has been challenging to quickly initiate. We aimed to determine the duration of start-up procedures and barriers encountered for an observational study focused upon such infectious outbreaks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At 1 pediatric and 5 adult intensive care units, we measured durations from protocol receipt to a variety of outbreak research milestones, including research ethics board (REB) approval, data sharing agreement (DSA) execution, and patient study screening initiation...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
Roberta Meroni, Stefano Gianni, Marcello Guarnieri, Francesco Saglietti, Marco Gemma, Alberto Zangrillo, Elena Bignami
OBJECTIVE: Adequate maintenance of hypnosis during anesthesia throughout surgery using sevoflurane alone was investigated. In addition, sevoflurane pharmacokinetics during cardiopulmonary bypass were analyzed. DESIGN: This was a pilot pharmacokinetic study. SETTING: Tertiary care university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 10 patients aged between 18 and 75 years who underwent elective mitral valve surgery...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Kathleen P Conte, S Marie Harvey, R Turner Goins
The need to scale-up effective arthritis self-management programs is pressing as the prevalence of arthritis increases. The CDC Arthritis Program funds state health departments to work with local delivery systems to embed arthritis programs into their day-to-day work. To encourage organizational ownership and sustainability of programs, funding is restricted to offset program start-up costs. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that impacted the success of implementing an evidence-based arthritis self-management program, funded by the CDC Arthritis Program, into the Oregon Extension Service...
March 9, 2017: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Yi-Feng Lu, Li-Juan Ma, Lan Ma, Bei Shan, Jun-Jun Chang
The start-up of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process in three up-flow column reactors seeded with common mixed activated sludge and added with three materials, sponge (R1), sponge + volcanic rock (R2) and sponge + charcoal (R3), as carriers for biofilm formation were comparatively investigated in this study. The supplement of volcanic rock and charcoal could significantly shorten the start-up time of the anammox process, which primarily occurred in the activity-enhanced phase, with ammonium and nitrite removal efficiencies stabilized above 92...
February 28, 2017: Environmental Technology
Paloma Ferreira-Aparicio, Antonio M Chaparro, M Antonia Folgado, Julio J Conde, Edward Brightman, Gareth Hinds
Degradation of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with electrosprayed cathode catalyst layers is investigated during cyclic start-up and shut-down events. The study is carried out within a single cell incorporating an array of reference electrodes that enables measurement of cell current as a function of local cathode potential (localized polarization curves). Accelerated degradation of the cell by start-up/shut-down cycling gives rise to inhomogeneous performance loss, which is more severe close to the gas outlet and occurs predominantly during start-up...
March 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wenlong Liu, Qing Yang, Bin Ma, Jun Li, Linna Ma, Shuying Wang, Yongzhen Peng
Rapid start-up of partial nitrification is of great significance for subsequent denitrification and anammox process, however slow nitritation hinders the application of these processes. The current study presents a novel strategy for achieving the nitritation using aerobic starvation and controlling sludge retention time (SRT). Activated sludge with high level of complete nitrification was introduced into an aerated reactor without feeding to start the aerobic starvation. The results showed that nitritation was rapidly achieved, while the shorter SRT (15 days) guaranteed the stability of nitritation with an average nitrite accumulation ratio (NAR) of more than 95%...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Robin Haunschild, Lutz Bornmann
In this short communication, we provide an overview of a relatively newly provided source of altmetrics data which could possibly be used for societal impact measurements in scientometrics. Recently, Altmetric-a start-up providing publication level metrics-started to make data for publications available which have been mentioned in policy-related documents. Using data from Altmetric, we study how many papers indexed in the Web of Science (WoS) are mentioned in policy-related documents. We find that less than 0...
2017: Scientometrics
Nadieh de Jonge, Veronica Moset, Henrik Bjarne Møller, Jeppe Lund Nielsen
The evolution and population dynamics of complex anaerobic microbial communities in anaerobic digesters were investigated during stable operation and recovery after prolonged starvation. Three thermophilic reactor systems fed with cattle manure were operated continuously in parallel for 167days. Significant changes in the microbial communities were observed for both the bacterial and archaeal populations as the reactor systems were subjected to changing feeding regimes. The ecosystems developed from being relatively similar in structure to more specialised communities, with large population shifts within the acetogenic and methanogenic communities, which appeared to shift towards the hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis pathway...
February 11, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Ingo Fuereder, Patrick Ilg
Supercooled liquids and other soft glassy systems show characteristic spatial inhomogeneities in their local dynamical properties. Using detailed molecular dynamics simulations, we find that for sufficiently low temperatures and sufficiently high shear rates supercooled liquids also show transient inhomogeneous flow patterns (shear banding) in the start-up of steady shear flow, similar to what has already been observed for many other soft glassy systems. We verify that the onset of transient shear banding coincides quite well with the appearance of a stress overshoot for temperatures in the supercooled regime...
February 27, 2017: Soft Matter
S Hoeck, S Pringels, E Kellen, K Van Herck, P Martens, E Van Limbergen, J Francart, G Francart
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Investigation of the first participation rate and follow-up results of the Flemish colorectal cancer screening program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 2013 five age cohorts with an even age between 66 and 74 year old (n=243 335) were invited by mail to return a completed iFOBT. Participants who tested positive (≥75ng/ml) were referred to a follow-up colonoscopy. RESULTS: Participation rate was 48.4% (n=117 774). Overall positivity rate was 10...
September 2016: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Nikolaos E Tsakoumis, John C Walmsley, Magnus Rønning, Wouter van Beek, Erling Rytter, Anders Holmen
Size-dependent phenomena at the nanoscale influence many applications, notably in the science of heterogeneous catalysis. In cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), the size of Co nanoparticles (NPs) dictates to a high degree catalyst's performance in terms of activity, selectivity, and stability. Here, a highly dispersed Re/Co/γ-Al2O3 catalyst with high Co surface area per gram of catalyst was exposed to industrially relevant FTS conditions and monitored in situ by synchrotron X-ray radiation. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra were obtained on the cobalt K edge and Re L3 edge of the working catalyst...
February 28, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Hongyu Gong, Xuecheng Cao, Fan Li, Yue Gong, Lin Gu, Rafael Gregorio Mendes, Mark H Rummeli, Peter Strasser, Ruizhi Yang
During start-up and shut-down operations of fuel cells, high potential is inevitably experienced at cathode, which leads to the deterioration of electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction. The design of catalysts that can repair themselves under severe conditions has been identified as a primary challenge for fuel cells. Herein, self-supported PdAuCu branched nanostructure is synthesized by a hydrothermal method. By smartly utilizing the high potential treatment, the activity of PdAuCu is significantly enhanced due to the synergistic effect between the Pd and Cu (Ⅱ) generated by high potential treatment...
February 7, 2017: ChemSusChem
Bradley Young, Robert Delatolla, Turki Abujamel, Kevin Kennedy, Edith Laflamme, Alain Stintzi
The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), operated as a post carbon removal system, requires long start-up times in comparison to carbon removal systems due to slow growing autotrophic organisms. This study investigates the use of carriers seeded in a carbon rich treatment system prior to inoculation in a nitrifying MBBR system to promote the rapid development of nitrifying biofilm in an MBBR system at temperatures between 6 and 8 °C. Results show that nitrification was initiated by the carbon removal carriers after 22 h of operation...
February 6, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Suzanne Nobrega, Laura Kernan, Bora Plaku-Alakbarova, Michelle Robertson, Nicholas Warren, Robert Henning
Growing interest in Total Worker Health(®) (TWH) programs to advance worker safety, health and well-being motivated development of a toolkit to guide their implementation. Iterative design of a program toolkit occurred in which participatory ergonomics (PE) served as the primary basis to plan integrated TWH interventions in four diverse organizations. The toolkit provided start-up guides for committee formation and training, and a structured PE process for generating integrated TWH interventions. Process data from program facilitators and participants throughout program implementation were used for iterative toolkit design...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Jinjia Wang, Xiaolong Wang, Lei Shi, Fei Qi, Ping Zhang, Yuanxing Zhang, Xiangshan Zhou, Zhiwei Song, Menghao Cai
The alcohol oxidase 1 promoter (PAOX1) of Pichia pastoris is commonly used for high level expression of recombinant proteins. While the safety risk of methanol and tough process control for methanol induction usually cause problems especially in large-scale fermentation. By testing the functions of trans-acting elements of PAOX1 and combinatorially engineering of them, we successfully constructed a methanol-free PAOX1 start-up strain, in which, three transcription repressors were identified and deleted and, one transcription activator were overexpressed...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
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