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Barbara W Trautner, Pooja Prasad, Larissa Grigoryan, Sylvia J Hysong, Jennifer R Kramer, Suja Rajan, Nancy J Petersen, Tracey Rosen, Dimitri M Drekonja, Christopher Graber, Payal Patel, Paola Lichtenberger, Timothy P Gauthier, Steve Wiseman, Makoto Jones, Anne Sales, Sarah Krein, Aanand Dinkar Naik
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship to combat the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has become a national priority. This project focuses on reducing inappropriate use of antimicrobials for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB), a very common condition that leads to antimicrobial overuse in acute and long-term care. We previously conducted a successful intervention, entitled "Kicking Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI): the No Knee-Jerk Antibiotics Campaign," to decrease guideline-discordant ordering of urine cultures and antibiotics for ASB...
January 19, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Daniel Schwarzkopf, Hendrik Rüddel, Matthias Gründling, Christian Putensen, Konrad Reinhart
BACKGROUND: While sepsis-related mortality decreased substantially in other developed countries, mortality of severe sepsis remained as high as 44% in Germany. A recent German cluster randomized trial was not able to improve guideline adherence and decrease sepsis-related mortality within the participating hospitals, partly based on lacking support by hospital management and lacking resources for documentation of prospective data. Thus, more pragmatic approaches are needed to improve quality of sepsis care in Germany...
January 18, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Raúl Mateos, Ana Sotres, Raúl M Alonso, Adrián Escapa, Antonio Morán
This study seeks to understand how the bacterial communities that develop on biocathodes are influenced by inocula diversity and electrode potential during start-up. Two different inocula are used: one from a highly diverse environment (river mud) and the other from a low diverse milieu (anaerobic digestion). In addition, both inocula were subjected to two different polarising voltages: oxidative (+0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl) and reductive (-0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl). Bacterial communities were analysed by means of high throughput sequencing...
January 7, 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Caryl Feldacker, Batsirai Makunike-Chikwinya, Marrianne Holec, Aaron F Bochner, Abby Stepaniak, Robert Nyanga, Sinokuthemba Xaba, Peter H Kilmarx, Amy Herman-Roloff, Taurayi Tafuma, Mufuta Tshimanga, Vuyelwa T Sidile-Chitimbire, Scott Barnhart
BACKGROUND: Despite increased support for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) to reduce HIV incidence, current VMMC progress falls short. Slow progress in VMMC expansion may be partially attributed to emphasis on vertical (stand-alone) over more integrated implementation models that are more responsive to local needs. In 2013, the ZAZIC consortium began implementation of a 5-year, integrated VMMC program jointly with Ministry of Health and Child Care (MoHCC) in Zimbabwe. OBJECTIVE: To explore ZAZIC's approach emphasizing existing healthcare workers and infrastructure, increasing program sustainability and resilience...
2018: Global Health Action
Jordi Burriel-Valencia, Ruben Puche-Panadero, Javier Martinez-Roman, Angel Sapena-Bano, Manuel Pineda-Sanchez
The aim of this paper is to introduce a new methodology for the fault diagnosis of induction machines working in the transient regime, when time-frequency analysis tools are used. The proposed method relies on the use of the optimized Slepian window for performing the short time Fourier transform (STFT) of the stator current signal. It is shown that for a given sequence length of finite duration, the Slepian window has the maximum concentration of energy, greater than can be reached with a gated Gaussian window, which is usually used as the analysis window...
January 6, 2018: Sensors
Rita Ventura Matos, Natércia Matias, Filipa Ferreira, João Santos Silva, José Saldanha Matos
Production and build-up of sulfide in wastewater systems, especially downstream of rising mains, may lead to severe odour nuisance, toxic environments and high risk of corrosion. Due to increased population migration towards cities and lower area availability for treatment facilities, rising mains for the conveyance of wastewater sludge are becoming more frequent, and research on sulfide build-up in such cases is needed. In this paper the findings of the work carried out in a full scale wastewater sludge rising main, operated during different seasons and under distinct conditions are presented (comprising both the start-up and normal operation stages of the facility)...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
F L Loth, M C Liebensteiner, J M Giesinger, K Giesinger, H R Bliem, B Holzner
BACKGROUND: Joint awareness was recently introduced as a new concept for outcome assessment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Findings from qualitative and psychometric studies suggest that joint awareness is a distinct concept especially relevant to patients with good surgical outcome and patients at late follow-up time points. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of the concept of joint awareness by identifying situations in which patients are aware of their artificial knee joint and to investigate what bodily sensations and psychological factors raise a patient's awareness of her/his knee...
January 8, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
I Sharma, M M Ghangrekar
The aim of this research was to develop a procedure for rapid detection of electrogenic activity of the inoculums using electrochromic tungsten trioxide (WO3) quantum rods, which display blue colouration under an electric field. Optimum dosage of WO3 and sludge concentration to be used for absorbance measurement were determined to estimate electrogenic activity based on blue colouration. Performance of seven MFCs was evaluated using different volumetric ratios of mixed anaerobic sewage sludge and Shewanella putrefaciens as inoculums...
December 28, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Shan-Fei Fu, Jian-Nan Ding, Yun Zhang, Yi-Fei Li, Rong Zhu, Xian-Zheng Yuan, Hua Zou
In this study, impacts of nanoplastic on the pure and mixed anaerobic digestion systems were investigated. Results showed the growth and metabolism of Acetobacteroides hydrogenigenes were partly inhibited by nanoplastic existed in the pure anaerobic digestion system. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge was also obviously inhibited by nanoplastic existed in the mixed anaerobic digestion system. Both the methane yield and methane production rate of the mixed anaerobic digestion system showed negative correlation with the nanoplastic concentration...
December 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Peter C Gøtzsche
In response to my paper, where I call for abolishment of patents and for drug research and development as a public enterprise, Raj asserts that there is an increase in novel drug discoveries. The fact is that even the drug industry laments that drug innovation has dried out, which is why they buy start-up companies. Big pharma doesn't invest in innovative research, as it is far more profitable to have creative marketing and legal departments than creative research divisions, and to develop an endless array of "me too" products...
December 27, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Clare Liddy, Isabella Moroz, Amir Afkham, Erin Keely
OBJECTIVE: To replicate an existing electronic consultation (eConsult) service in a new jurisdiction to test its generalizability. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of all eConsults submitted by providers in the region of Mississauga Halton, Ontario, between January 5, 2015, and May 31, 2016. We compared our results to those from the original pilot in Eastern Ontario. The RE-AIM model served as our study framework. RESULTS: Providers submitted 594 patient cases to 46 different specialty groups during the study period...
November 2017: Healthcare Policy, Politiques de Santé
Sohdam Jeong, Jun Mo Kim, Chunggi Baig
Stress overshoot is one of the most important nonlinear rheological phenomena exhibited by polymeric liquids undergoing start-up shear at sufficient flow strengths. Despite considerable previous research, the fundamental molecular characteristics underlying stress overshoot remain unknown. Here, we analyze the intrinsic molecular mechanisms behind the overshoot phenomenon using atomistic nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of entangled linear polyethylene melts under shear flow. Through a detailed analysis of the transient rotational chain dynamics, we identify an intermolecular collision angular regime in the vicinity of the chain orientation angle θ ≈ 20° with respect to the flow direction...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Kathleen F Cavallaro, Jeannot Francois, Roody Jacques, Derline Mentor, Idrissa Yalcouye, Karen Wilkins, Nathan Mueller, Rebecca Turner, Aaron Wallace, Rania A Tohme
After the 2010 earthquake, Haiti committed to introducing 4 new antigens into its routine immunization schedule, which required improving its cold chain (ie, temperature-controlled supply chain) and increasing vaccine storage capacity by installing new refrigerators. We tested the feasibility of using remote temperature monitoring devices (RTMDs) in Haiti in a sample of vaccine refrigerators fueled by solar panels, propane gas, or electricity. We analyzed data from 16 RTMDs monitoring 24 refrigerators in 15 sites from March through August 2014...
January 1, 2017: Public Health Reports
Giovanni Anobile, Roberto Arrighi, Elisa Castaldi, Eleonora Grassi, Lara Pedonese, Paula A M Moscoso, David C Burr
Humans and other animals are able to make rough estimations of quantities using what has been termed the approximate number system (ANS). Much evidence suggests that sensitivity to numerosity correlates with symbolic math capacity, leading to the suggestion that the ANS may serve as a start-up tool to develop symbolic math. Many experiments have demonstrated that numerosity perception transcends the sensory modality of stimuli and their presentation format (sequential or simultaneous), but it remains an open question whether the relationship between numerosity and math generalizes over stimulus format and modality...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Psychology
Lei Xiong, Yun-Yan Wang, Chong-Jian Tang, Li-Yuan Chai, Kang-Que Xu, Yu-Xia Song, Mohammad Ali, Ping Zheng
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2013/396487.].
2017: BioMed Research International
Enchao Li, Shuguang Lu
A biological denitrifying process was employed for the treatment of nanofiltration (NF) concentrate with high conductivity, which was generated from coking wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The results showed that the average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate were 47.6%, 61.1% and 94.6%, respectively. Different microbial communities were identified by sequencing the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the MiSeq platform, showing that the most abundant bacterial phylum in the SBR system was Proteobacteria, with the subclasses β-Proteobacteria and α-Proteobacteria being dominant...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Dandan Liu, Tianye Zheng, Cees Buisman, Annemiek Ter Heijne
Methane-producing bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are a promising technology to convert renewable surplus electricity into the form of storable methane. One of the key challenges for this technology is the search for suitable cathode materials with improved biocompatibility and low cost. Here, we study heat-treated stainless steel felt (HSSF) for its performance as biocathode. The HSSF had superior electrocatalytic properties for hydrogen evolution compared to untreated stainless steel felt (SSF) and graphite felt (GF), leading to a faster start-up of the biocathodes...
December 4, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Saulo Brito Silva, Allan Andresson Lima Pereira, Gustavo Nader Marta, Kennya Medeiros Lopes de Barros Lima, Thiago Brasileiro de Freitas, Adriana Reis Brandão Matutino, Manoel Carlos Leonardi de Azevedo Souza, Renata Gondim Meira Velame de Azevedo, Pedro Antonio Hermida de Viveiros, Julianne Maria da Silva Lima, José Roberto Filassi, Heloísa de Andrade Carvalho, José Roberto Morales Piato, Max S Mano
BACKGROUND: and Purpose: Post-operative radiation therapy (PORT) is usually indicated for patients with breast cancer (BC) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and surgery. However, the optimal timing to initiation of PORT is currently unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated data from patients with BC who received PORT after NAC and surgery at our institution from 2008 to 2014. Patients were categorized into three groups according to the time between surgery and PORT: <8 weeks, 8-16 weeks and >16 weeks...
December 6, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Soroush Saheb-Alam, Abhijeet Singh, Malte Hermansson, Frank Persson, Anna Schnürer, Britt-Marie Wilén, Oskar Modin
The enrichment of CO2-reducing microbial bio-cathodes is challenging. Previous research has shown that a promising approach could be to first enrich bio-anodes and then lower the potential so the electrodes are converted into bio-cathodes. However, the effect of such a transition on the microbial community on the electrode has not been studied. The goal of this study was, thus, to compare the start-up of bio-cathodes from pre-enriched anodes with direct start-up from bare electrodes and to investigate changes in microbial community composition...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Chao Huang, Cheng Zhao, Hai-Jun Guo, Can Wang, Mu-Tan Luo, Lian Xiong, Hai-Long Li, Xue-Fang Chen, Xin-De Chen
In this study, fast start-up of semi-pilot scale anaerobic digestion of food waste acid hydrolysate for biogas production was carried out for the first time. During the period of fast start-up, more than 85% of COD can be degraded and even more than 90% of COD can be degraded during the later stage of anaerobic digestion. During this anaerobic digestion process, the biogas yield, the methane yield, and the CH4 content in biogas were 0.542±0.056 m3/kg COD consumption, 0.442±0.053 m3/kg COD consumption, and 81...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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