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John D Koerner, Dessislava Z Markova, Greg D Schroeder, Brian P Calio, Anuj Shah, Corbin W Brooks, Alexander R Vaccaro, D Greg Anderson, Chris K Kepler
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The systemic response regarding cytokine expression after application of recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in a rat spinal fusion model has recently been defined1 , but the local response has not. Defining the local cytokine and growth factor response at the fusion site will help explain the roles of these molecules in the fusion process, as well as that of rhBMP-2. Our hypothesis is that application of rhBMP-2 to the fusion site will alter the local levels of cytokines and growth factors throughout the fusion process, in a manner that is different than the systemic response given the tissue-specific effects of rhBMP-2...
March 14, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Yuchen Shao, Xiuyou Han, Ming Li, Mingshan Zhao
Low-power radio frequency (RF) signal detection is highly desirable for many applications, ranging from wireless communication to radar systems. A tunable optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) based on a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating for detecting low-power RF signals is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. When the frequency of the input RF signal is matched with the potential oscillation mode of the OEO, it is detected and amplified. The frequency of the RF signal under detection can be estimated simultaneously by scanning the wavelength of the laser source...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Mamoru Endo, Tyko D Shoji, Thomas R Schibli
We demonstrate the use of two dual-output Mach-Zehnder modulators (DO-MZMs) in a direct comparison between a femtosecond (fs) pulse train and a microwave signal. Through balanced detection, the amplitude-to-phase modulation (AM-PM) conversion effect is suppressed by more than 40 dB. A cross-spectrum technique enables us to achieve a high-sensitivity phase noise measurement (-186 dBc/Hz above 10-kHz offset), which corresponds to the thermal noise of a +9 dBm carrier. This method is applied to compare a 1-GHz fs monolithic laser to a 1-GHz microwave signal generated from photodetection of a free-running 500 MHz mode-locked laser...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sae-Kyoung Kang, Joon Young Huh, Jie Hyun Lee, Joon Ki Lee
We design and implement a cost-effective and compact 100-Gb/s (2 × 50 Gb/s) PAM-4 receiver optical sub-assembly (ROSA) by using a TO-can package instead of an expensive box-type package. It consists of an optical demultiplexer, two PIN-PDs and a 2-channel linear transimpedance amplifier. The components are passively aligned and assembled using alignment marks engraved on each part. With a real-time PAM-4 DSP chip, we measured the back-to-back receiver sensitivities of the 100-Gb/s ROSA based on TO-56 to be less than -13...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Yingqiu Mao, Bi-Xiao Wang, Chunxu Zhao, Guangquan Wang, Ruichun Wang, Honghai Wang, Fei Zhou, Jimin Nie, Qing Chen, Yong Zhao, Qiang Zhang, Jun Zhang, Teng-Yun Chen, Jian-Wei Pan
Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides information-theoretic security based on the laws of quantum mechanics. The desire to reduce costs and increase robustness in real-world applications has motivated the study of coexistence between QKD and intense classical data traffic in a single fiber. Previous works on coexistence in metropolitan areas have used wavelength-division multiplexing, however, coexistence in backbone fiber networks remains a great experimental challenge, as Tbps data of up to 20 dBm optical power is transferred, and much more noise is generated for QKD...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Jokhakar Jignesh, Arthur Lowery, Bill Corcoran
We propose optical injection locking (OIL) to enable compensation of the inter-channel nonlinear phase noise, which is dominated by cross-phase modulation (XPM). In this paper, injection locking is used to create a local oscillator for a homodyne receiver from a residual carrier. The locking is fast enough to follow XPM-phase distortion, but slow enough to reject the signal bands, which are spaced slightly away from the pilot. The homodyne receiver thus partially cancels XPM, as it is common to the signals and the pilot...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Muhammad Febrian Rachmadi, Maria Del C Valdés-Hernández, Maria Leonora Fatimah Agan, Carol Di Perri, Taku Komura
We propose an adaptation of a convolutional neural network (CNN) scheme proposed for segmenting brain lesions with considerable mass-effect, to segment white matter hyperintensities (WMH) characteristic of brains with none or mild vascular pathology in routine clinical brain magnetic resonance images (MRI). This is a rather difficult segmentation problem because of the small area (i.e., volume) of the WMH and their similarity to non-pathological brain tissue. We investigate the effectiveness of the 2D CNN scheme by comparing its performance against those obtained from another deep learning approach: Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM), two conventional machine learning approaches: Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF), and a public toolbox: Lesion Segmentation Tool (LST), all reported to be useful for segmenting WMH in MRI...
February 17, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
Mehedi Hasan, Ipsita Sutradhar, Asm Shahabuddin, Malabika Sarker
A narrative review was carried out of existing literature comprising nationally representative data. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and Banglajol databases. Quantitative studies reporting the prevalence and risk factors of the double burden of malnutrition (DBM) among Bangladeshi women based on nationally representative data were considered for this review. We included studies published between 1st May 2007 and 30th April 2017 in English language. Two researchers individually searched and screened all the relevant articles and separately extracted data using a data extraction table created in Microsoft Excel...
December 26, 2017: Curēus
Jakob M Townsend, Brian T Andrews, Yi Feng, Jinxi Wang, Randolph J Nudo, Erik Van Kampen, Stevin H Gehrke, Cory J Berkland, Michael S Detamore
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a life-threatening condition defined by internal brain herniation. Severe TBI is commonly treated by a two-stage surgical intervention, where decompressive craniectomy is first conducted to remove a large portion of calvarial bone and allow unimpeded brain swelling. In the second surgery, spaced weeks to months after the first, cranioplasty is performed to restore the cranial bone. Hydrogels with paste-like precursor solutions for surgical placement may potentially revolutionize TBI treatment by permitting a single-stage surgical intervention, capable of being implanted with the initial surgery, remaining pliable during brain swelling, and tuned to regenerate calvarial bone after brain swelling has subsided...
February 26, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Chao Wang, Xin Xin, Bingyuan Liang, Zhiping Li, Jungang Miao
The design and calibration of the cross-correlator are crucial issues for interferometric imaging systems. In this paper, an analog complex cross-correlator with output DC offsets and amplitudes calibration capability is proposed for interferometric passive millimeter-wave security sensing applications. By employing digital potentiometers in the low frequency amplification circuits of the correlator, the outputs characteristics of the correlator could be digitally controlled. A measurement system and a corresponding calibration scheme were developed in order to eliminate the output DC offsets and the quadrature amplitude error between the in-phase and the quadrature correlating subunits of the complex correlator...
February 24, 2018: Sensors
Ehab Shiban, Moritz Nies, Johann Kogler, Lorenz Kogler, Pedro Ribeiro da Cunha, Bernhard Meyer, Jens Lehmberg
AIM: To correlate clinical and radiological outcome following one- and two-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages filled with demineralized bone matrix (DBM). METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of a consecutive patient cohort with degenerative disc disease that underwent ACDF with stand-alone PEEK cages filled with demineralized bone matrix (DBM) between 2010 and 2013 with a minimum follow-up of 12 months...
February 26, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Tian Houjun, Shuo Lin, Yong Chen, Yixin Chen, Jianwei Zhao, Xiaojun Gu, Hui Wei
The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is the main destructive insect pest of brassica vegetables around the world, and has developed resistance to numerous insecticides. Although host plant volatiles are important in pest control, the mechanism of low-level insecticide resistance in P. xylostella due to plant volatiles has not been examined. Here, electroantennograms (EAGs) were used to compare the responses of adult male and female DBMs of a susceptible strain (S-strain) and a derived resistant strain, Fen-R-strain (6...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Yue Gao, Kyungmun Kim, Deok Ho Kwon, In Hong Jeong, J Marshall Clark, Si Hyeock Lee
When the 3rd instar larvae of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, were pretreated with sublethal doses (LC10 ) and then subsequently exposed to lethal doses (LC50 ) of chlorantraniliprole, cypermethrin, dinotefuran, indoxacarb and spinosad via leaf dipping, their tolerance to insecticides was significantly enhanced. To identify genes that commonly respond to the treatment of different insecticides and are responsible for the tolerance enhancement, transcriptomic profiles of larvae treated with sublethal doses of the five insecticides were compared with that of untreated control...
January 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Fan Liang, Hyuma Leland, Breanna Jedrzejewski, Allyn Auslander, Seija Maniskas, Jordan Swanson, Mark Urata, Jeffrey Hammoudeh, William Magee
Alveolar cleft reconstruction has historically relied on autologous iliac crest bone grafting (ICBG), but donor site morbidity, pain, and prolonged hospitalization have prompted the search for bone graft substitutes. The authors evaluated bone graft substitutes with the highest levels of evidence, and highlight the products that show promise in alveolar cleft repair and in maxillary augmentation. This comprehensive review guides the craniofacial surgeon toward safe and informed utilization of biomaterials in the alveolar cleft...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Matthew T Morris, Sandip P Tarpada, Woojin Cho
BACKGROUND: Iliac crest has long been the gold standard for lumbar fusion, but concerns over donor site morbidity have led to a wide variety of bone graft substitutes. Despite prolific research, a general consensus is yet to be reached on bone graft materials that lead to optimal fusion. PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current literature for bone graft material options that maximize fusion rate in posterolateral lumbar fusion surgery. DESIGN: Systematic Review...
February 14, 2018: European Spine Journal
Hong-Ling Gao, Shao-Xia Huang, Xiao-Pu Zhou, Zhen Liu, Jian-Zhong Cui
Five tetranuclear lanthanide complexes [Gd4(dbm)4(L)6(μ3-OH)2]·5CH3CN (1), [Tb4(dbm)4(L)6(μ3-OH)2]·2CH3CH2OH·4CH3CN (2), [Dy4(dbm)4(L)6(μ3-OH)2]·4CH3CN·2H2O (3), [Ho4(dbm)4(L)6(μ3-OH)2]·CH3CH2OH·4CH3CN·2H2O (4) and [Er4(dbm)4(L)6(μ3-OH)2] (5) are obtained from the reaction of 5-(4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde)amino-8-hydroxylquinoline (HL) and Ln(dbm)3·2H2O (dbm = 1,3-diphenyl-1,3-propanedione). Complexes 1-5 are isomorphous and crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/c. The metal ions in 1-5 adopt an approximately square-antiprismatic coordination environment...
February 12, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
A W Al-Alimi, A R Sarmani, M H Al-Mansoori, G Lakshminarayana, M A Mahdi
In this report, we demonstrate a wide multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (MBEFL) with improved flatness that integrates a micro-air cavity. This air-gap introduces a cavity loss to overcome the gain saturation as well as providing efficient pump recycling scheme through Fresnel back-reflection. In addition, the efficient four-wave mixing in the highly nonlinear fiber contributes to the self-flattening of the output spectra. During operation, the optimized pumping values are set at 13 dBm Brillouin power and 600 mW erbium-ytterbium doped fiber amplifier when the air-gap length is fixed at 10 µm...
February 5, 2018: Optics Express
Zhishen Sun, Guoqiang Liu, Hui Xia, Stefan Catheline
Lorentz force electrical-impedance tomography (LFEIT) combines ultrasound stimulation and electromagnetic field detection with the goal of creating a high-contrast and high-resolution hybrid imaging modality. To reduce the peak stimulation power to the ultrasound transducer in LFEIT, linearly frequency-modulated (LFM) ultrasound pulse was investigated in this paper. First, the coherency between LFM ultrasound excitation and the resulting local current density was established theoretically. Then, experiments were done using different agar phantoms of conductivity ranging from 0...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Julia Faerber, Gerard Cummins, Sumanth Kumar Pavuluri, Paul Record, Adrian R Ayastuy Rodriguez, Holly S Lay, Rachael McPhillips, Benjamin F Cox, Ciaran Connor, Rachael Gregson, Richard Eddie Clutton, Sadeque Reza Khan, Sandy Cochran, Marc P Y Desmulliez
This paper describes the design, fabrication, packaging, and performance characterization of a conformal helix antenna created on the outside of a capsule endoscope designed to operate at a carrier frequency of 433 MHz within human tissue. Wireless data transfer was established between the integrated capsule system and an external receiver. The telemetry system was tested within a tissue phantom and in vivo porcine models. Two different types of transmission modes were tested. The first mode, replicating normal operating conditions, used data packets at a steady power level of 0 dBm, while the capsule was being withdrawn at a steady rate from the small intestine...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Bo Ren, Xiaoqing Hu, Jin Cheng, Zhaohui Huang, Pengfei Wei, Weili Shi, Peng Yang, Jiying Zhang, Xiaoning Duan, Qing Cai, Yingfang Ao
As a promising strategy for the successful regeneration of articular cartilage, tissue engineering has received increasing recognition of control release. Two kinds of functional poly (alanine ethyl ester-co-glycine ethyl ester) phosphazene microspheres with different ratios of side-substituent groups were synthesized by emulsion technique. The rate of degradation/hydrolysis of the polymers was carefully tuned to suit the desired application for control release. For controlled delivery of growth factors, the microspheres overcame most of severe side effects linked to demineralized bone matrix (DBM) scaffolds, which had been previously optimized for cartilage regeneration...
December 26, 2017: Oncotarget
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