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Uterine activity

Whasun Lim, Hyocheol Bae, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
Eph and ephrin regulate diverse biological events such as proliferation, adhesion, migration, and angiogenesis through cell-to-cell interactions. However, little is known of their functional role and mechanisms of action in uterine endometrial cells. In the present study, we demonstrated the effects of the Eph and ephrin on interactions between blastocysts and endometrial luminal epithelial (pLE) cells in the pig that is regarded as an excellent biomedical animal model for research on the peri-implantation period of pregnancy...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Neha, Amteshwar S Jaggi, Nirmal Singh
Silymarin is the active constituent of Silybum marianum (milk thistle) which is a C-25 containing flavonolignan. Milk thistle has a lot of traditional values, being used as a vegetable, as salad, as bitter tonic, and as galactogogue in nursing mothers and in various ailments such as liver complications, depression, dyspepsia, spleenic congestions, varicose veins, diabetes, amenorrhea, uterine hemorrhage, and menstrual problems. In this present chapter, a comprehensive attempt has been made to discuss the potential of silymarin in chronic disorders...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Amanda Faria Assoni, Giuliana Castello, Marcos Valadares, Melinda Beccari, Juliana Gomes, Mayra Pelatti, Miguel Mitne-Neto, Valdemir Melechco Carvalho, Mayana Zatz
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-linked disorder caused by null mutations in the dystrophin gene. Although the primary defect is the deficiency of muscle dystrophin, secondary events, including chronic inflammation, fibrosis and muscle regeneration failure are thought to actively contribute to disease progression. Despite several advances, there is still no effective therapy for DMD. Therefore, the potential regenerative capacities, as well as immune-privileged properties of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs), have been the focus of intense investigation in different animal models aiming the treatment of these disorders...
October 20, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Oat Peltoniemi, S Björkman, C Oliviero
In this review, we address significant characteristics of parturition in the pig and their connection to post-partum reproductive health and fertility. We discuss the normal physiology and behaviour around parturition and the effect of the second phase (expulsion of foetuses) on the third phase of parturition (expulsion of foetal membranes). In addition, we intend to cover retained placenta, and the connection to post-partum uterine health and fertility in the contemporary prolific sow. We also explore factors that support successful parturition or can cause potential problems...
October 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Sarah M Holmen, Tiki Bakhshi, Maria M Molina, Larissa F Weir
BACKGROUND: Chorioamniotic membrane separation (CMS) is a rare finding that is commonly preceded by invasive fetal procedures. The presence of CMS can also be associated with uncommon maternal or fetal conditions as well as preterm delivery, amniotic band syndrome, umbilical cord complications, and fetal and neonatal death. It is classified as a high-risk antepartum condition due to the significant fetal morbidity and mortality that may ensue. CASE REPORT: A 40-year-old gravida 5 para 1212 at 35 weeks presented for antepartum fetal testing...
October 2016: Military Medicine
Ashley Moffett, Olympe Chazara, Francesco Colucci, Martin H Johnson
A distinctive type of (uterine) natural killer (NK) cell is present in the uterine decidua during the period of placental formation. Uterine NK cells express members of the killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) family that bind to parental HLA-C molecules on the invading placental trophoblast cells. The maternal KIR genes and their fetal ligands are highly variable, so different KIR/HLA-C genetic combinations occur in each pregnancy. Some women only possess inhibitory KIR genes, whereas other women also express activating KIR genes...
September 5, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Giuseppe Loverro, Leonardo Resta, Miriam Dellino, Di Naro Edoardo, Maria Arcangela Cascarano, Matteo Loverro, Salvatore Andrea Mastrolia
OBJECTIVE: Female-to-male transition remains a specific clinical indication for long-term testosterone administration. There is a limited number of studies dealing with the effect of androgen treatment on their female receptive targets (mainly breast and uterus) and the knowledge in this field is scarce and, sometimes, contradictory. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective study including 12 patients aged between 20 years and 32 years, with a diagnosis of gender dysphoria, treated with parenteral testosterone administration before sexual reassignment surgery...
October 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Annu Makker, Madhu Mati Goel, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Vikram Bhatia, Vinita Das, Anjoo Agarwal, Amita Pandey
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Despite their high occurrence and associated significant level of morbidity manifesting as spectrum of clinical symptoms, the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomas (ULs) remains unclear. We investigated expression profile of tumour suppressor genes PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten) and LKB1 (liver kinase B1), and key signaling components of P13K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)/Akt (protein kinase B)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway in leiomyomas and adjacent normal myometrium in women of reproductive age, to explore the possibility of targeting this pathway for future therapeutic implications...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Hong Li, Melanie Elphick, Richard Shine
Viviparity (live-bearing) has evolved from oviparity (egg-laying) in more than 100 lineages of squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). This transition generally has occurred in cool climates, where thermal differentials between eggs in the (cool) nest versus the (warm) maternal oviduct influence embryonic development, in ways that may enhance offspring fitness. To identify specific traits potentially under selection, we incubated eggs of a montane scincid lizard at conditions simulating natural nests, maternal body temperatures, and an intermediate stage (2-week uterine retention of eggs prior to laying)...
October 14, 2016: Oecologia
S F Lax
The 2014 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of uterine tumors revealed simplification of the classification by fusion of several entities and the introduction of novel entities. Among the multitude of alterations, the following are named: a simplified classification for precursor lesions of endometrial carcinoma now distinguishes between hyperplasia without atypia and atypical hyperplasia, the latter also known as endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN). For endometrial carcinoma a differentiation is made between type 1 (endometrioid carcinoma with variants and mucinous carcinoma) and type 2 (serous and clear cell carcinoma)...
October 13, 2016: Der Pathologe
A Minami, H Matsushita, D Ieno, Y Matsuda, Y Horii, A Ishii, T Takahashi, H Kanazawa, A Wakatsuki, T Suzuki
OBJECTIVE: Royal jelly (RJ) from honeybees (Apis mellifera) has estrogenic activity. Estrogen deficiency after menopause leads to a high risk of memory impairment and depression as well as metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis. We here investigated the effect of RJ on memory impairment and depression-like behaviors in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. METHODS: OVX rats were administered with RJ for 82 days. Hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and depression-like behaviors were assessed by the Morris water maze test and the forced swimming test, respectively...
October 13, 2016: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
Sha Lou, Arjen H G Cleven, Benjamin Balluff, Marieke de Graaff, Marie Kostine, Inge Briaire-de Bruijn, Liam A McDonnell, Judith V M G Bovée
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on high grade sarcomas using mass spectrometry imaging showed proteasome activator complex subunit 1 (PSME1) to be associated with poor survival in soft tissue sarcoma patients. PSME1 is involved in immunoproteasome assembly for generating tumor antigens presented by MHC class I molecules. In this study, we aimed to validate PSME1 as a prognostic biomarker in an independent and larger series of soft tissue sarcomas by immunohistochemistry. METHODS: Tissue microarrays containing leiomyosarcomas (n = 34), myxofibrosarcomas (n = 14), undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (n = 15), undifferentiated spindle cell sarcomas (n = 4), pleomorphic liposarcomas (n = 4), pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcomas (n = 2), and uterine leiomyomas (n = 7) were analyzed for protein expression of PSME1 using immunohistochemistry...
2016: Clinical Sarcoma Research
Heather Yvonne Small, Ryszard Nosalski, Hannah Morgan, Elisabeth Beattie, Tomasz J Guzik, Delyth Graham, Christian Delles
Women with chronic hypertension are at increased risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. We have previously characterized the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) as a model of deficient uterine artery function and adverse pregnancy outcome compared with the control Wistar-Kyoto. The activation of the immune system plays a role in hypertension and adverse pregnancy outcome. Therefore, we investigated the role of tumor necrosis factor-α in the SHRSP phenotype in an intervention study using etanercept (0...
November 2016: Hypertension
Saiprasad Ramnarayanan, Chandrashekara Kyathanahalli, Judith Ingles, Miejung Park-York, Pancharatnam Jeyasuria, Jennifer C Condon
There is considerable evidence that implicates oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of human pregnancy complications. However the role and the mechanism of maintaining an anti-oxidant pro-survival uterine environment during normal pregnancy is largely unresolved. Herein we report the highly active uterine unfolded protein response plays a key role in promoting anti-oxidant activity in the uterine myocyte across gestation. The unfolded protein response senses the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and activates a signaling network that consists of the transmembrane protein kinase eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3/PKR-like-ER kinase (EIF2AK3), which acts to decrease protein translation levels allowing for a lowered need for protein folding during periods of ER stress...
October 12, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
W P Martins, C O Nastri, L Rienzi, S Z van der Poel, C Gracia, C Racowsky
OBJECTIVES: Blastocyst transfer could be advantageous because it allows a more physiologic timing of exposure of the embryo to the uterine environment and permit embryo self-selection after activation of the embryonic genome on day 3. Conversely, the in vitro environment is probably inferior to that provided in vivo and in vitro culture beyond embryonic genomic activation could potentially harm embryos. Our objective was to identify, appraise and summarize the available evidence comparing the effectiveness of blastocyst and cleavage stage embryo transfer...
October 12, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Marion W C Vlemminx, Hinke de Lau, S Guid Oei
PURPOSE: Timely diagnosing a uterine rupture is challenging. Based on the pathophysiology of complete uterine wall separation, changes in uterine activity are expected. The primary objective is to identify tocogram characteristics associated with uterine rupture during trial of labor after cesarean section. The secondary objective is to compare the external tocodynamometer with intrauterine pressure catheters. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library were systematically searched for eligible records...
October 8, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Gali Epstein Shochet, Oded Komemi, Dana Sadeh-Mestechkin, Meir Pomeranz, Ami Fishman, Liat Drucker, Michael Lishner, Shelly Tartakover Matalon
During placental implantation, cytotrophoblast cells differentiate to extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells that invade from the placenta into the maternal uterine blood vessels. The heat shock protein-27 (HSP27), the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (EIF4E) are involved in regulating EVT cell differentiation/migration. EIF4E and EIF4G compose the translation initiation complex, which is a major control point in protein translation...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Histology
Natalie K Binder, Jemma Evans, Lois A Salamonsen, David K Gardner, Tu'uhevaha J Kaitu'u-Lino, Natalie J Hannan
Embryo implantation requires synchronized dialogue between the receptive endometrium and activated blastocyst via locally produced soluble mediators. During the mid-secretory (MS) phase of the menstrual cycle, increased glandular secretion into the uterine lumen provides important mediators that modulate the endometrium and support the conceptus during implantation. Previously we demonstrated the importance of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the human uterus, particularly with respect to embryo implantation...
2016: PloS One
Soo Jin Jeon, Zhengxin Ma, Minyoung Kang, Klibs N Galvão, Kwangcheol Casey Jeong
Uterine disease such as metritis is associated with multiple bacterial infections in the uteri after parturition. However, treatment of metritis is challenging due to considerably high antibiotic treatment failure rate with unknown reason. Recently, chitosan microparticles (CM) have been developed to exert broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacterial pathogens, including multi-drug resistant bacteria, without raising CM resistant mutants. In this study, we tested, using metagenomics analysis, if CM maintain strong antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria such as Fusobacteriaceae and Bacteroidaceae in cow uteri and evaluated CM's potency as an alternative antimicrobial agent to cure metritis in cows...
December 2016: Biomaterials
Chia-Chun Li, Tsui-Hsia Feng
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer and the sixth most common cancer among women in Taiwan. Risk factors for endometrial cancer include obesity, long-term estrogen replacement therapy, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, nulliparty, early age at menarche, late age at menopause, and tamoxifen therapy. Most women with endometrial cancer exhibit abnormal uterine bleeding. Endometrial cancer is often diagnosed at stage I. Surgery alone is the primary treatment for stage I endometrial cancer...
October 2016: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
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