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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350846/dissemination-and-genetic-diversity-of-chlamydial-agents-in-polish-wildfowl-isolation-and-molecular-characterisation-of-avian-chlamydia-abortus-strains
#1
Monika Szymańska-Czerwińska, Agata Mitura, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Kinga Zaręba, Agnieszka Jodełko, Aneta Pluta, Sabine Scharf, Bailey Vitek, Rachid Aaziz, Fabien Vorimore, Karine Laroucau, Christiane Schnee
Wild birds are considered as a reservoir for avian chlamydiosis posing a potential infectious threat to domestic poultry and humans. Analysis of 894 cloacal or fecal swabs from free-living birds in Poland revealed an overall Chlamydiaceae prevalence of 14.8% (n = 132) with the highest prevalence noted in Anatidae (19.7%) and Corvidae (13.4%). Further testing conducted with species-specific real-time PCR showed that 65 samples (49.2%) were positive for C. psittaci whereas only one was positive for C. avium. To classify the non-identified chlamydial agents and to genotype the C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350819/development-and-application-of-a-taqman-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-genotyping-assay-to-study-infectious-laryngotracheitis-virus-recombination-in-the-natural-host
#2
Carlos A Loncoman, Carol A Hartley, Mauricio J C Coppo, Paola K Vaz, Andrés Diaz-Méndez, Glenn F Browning, Sang-Won Lee, Joanne M Devlin
To date, recombination between different strains of the avian alphaherpesvirus infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) has only been detected in field samples using full genome sequencing and sequence analysis. These previous studies have revealed that natural recombination is widespread in ILTV and have demonstrated that recombination between two attenuated ILTV vaccine strains generated highly virulent viruses that produced widespread disease within poultry flocks in Australia. In order to better understand ILTV recombination, this study developed a TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay to detect recombination between two field strains of ILTV (CSW-1 and V1-99 ILTV) under experimental conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344406/attribution-of-antibacterial-and-antioxidant-activity-of-cassia-tora-extract-toward-its-growth-promoting-effect-in-broiler-birds
#3
Jyoti Sahu, K M Koley, B D Sahu
AIM: The study was conducted to evaluate the attribution of antibacterial and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Cassia tora toward its growth promoting effect in broiler birds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A limit test was conducted for C. tora extract in Wistar albino rats. Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of leaves of C. tora was carried out. In-vitro antibacterial activity was measured by disc diffusion method. 1-day-old Ven Cobb broiler birds (n=90) were randomly allocated into three groups consisting of three replicates with 10 birds in each group...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344400/sex-related-differences-in-hemato-biochemical-indices-of-adult-vanaraja-chickens-during-summer-and-winter-seasons
#4
Kuldeep Kumar Panigrahy, Kumaresh Behera, Lal Mohan Mohapatra, Aditya Prasad Acharya, Kamdev Sethy, Sasmita Panda, Shailesh Kumar Gupta
AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in hemato-biochemical indices in male and female Vanaraja chickens under tropical environment during summer and winter season. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 120 day-old sexed Vanaraja chicks were selected as experimental chickens and distributed equally in two groups having 60 female and 60 male chickens in each group, respectively. The experiment was continued for 8 weeks (56 days) and both male and female chickens were slaughtered by cervical dislocation method...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344395/characterization-of-salmonella-gallinarum-from-an-outbreak-in-raigarh-chhattisgarh
#5
Chandrahas Sannat, Anil Patyal, Nidhi Rawat, R C Ghosh, D K Jolhe, R K Shende, S D Hirpurkar, Sanjay Shakya
AIM: The present investigation was conducted to isolate and characterize Salmonella Gallinarum from an outbreak of fowl typhoid in layer birds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinically ill and dead layer birds from an outbreak were investigated. History, clinical signs, and postmortem lesions were suggestive of fowl typhoid. Postmortem samples including heart blood, intestinal contents, pieces of ovary, and liver were collected and processed immediately for bacterial culture, serotyping and antibiotic sensitivity tests...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343263/genotypic-and-pathogenic-characterization-of-genotype-vii-newcastle-disease-viruses-isolated-from-commercial-farms-in-egypt-and-evaluation-of-heterologous-antibody-responses
#6
A M Saad, Ahmed Samy, M A Soliman, A Arafa, A Zanaty, M K Hassan, A H Sultan, A I Bazid, A H Hussein
Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) represent a major threat to poultry production worldwide. Recently in Egypt NDV circulated extensively, even in vaccinated farms. In the present study samples were collected from sixteen vaccinated broiler farms in animals exhibiting the typical gross lesions of NDV. Virus isolation and pathogenicity studies for positive samples were carried out in accordance to reference procedures and phylogenetic analysis was carried out based on partial sequences of the Fusion gene. Furthermore, in vivo investigation of the ability of heterologous antibody, induced by commercially available lentogenic strain-based vaccines, to efficiently reduce viral shedding was examined...
March 25, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342421/seasonal-and-soil-type-dependent-emissions-of-nitrous-oxide-from-irrigated-desert-soils-amended-with-digested-poultry-manures
#7
Roy Posmanik, Ali Nejidat, Ofer Dahan, Amit Gross
Expansion of dryland agriculture requires intensive supplement of organic fertilizers to improve the fertility of nutrient-poor desert soils. The environmental impact of organic supplements in hot desert climates is not well understood. We report on seasonal emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from sand and loess soils, amended with limed and non-limed anaerobic digestate of poultry manure in the Israeli Negev desert. All amended soils had substantially higher N2O emissions, particularly during winter applications, compared to unammended soils...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342159/genetic-aspects-of-feed-efficiency-and-reduction-of-environmental-footprint-in-broilers-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Ewa Sell-Kubiak, Klaus Wimmers, Henry Reyer, Tomasz Szwaczkowski
Currently, optimization of feed efficiency is one of the main challenges in improvement programs of livestock and poultry genetics. The objective of this review is to present the genetic aspects of feed efficiency related traits in meat-type chicken and possible ways to reduce the environmental impact of poultry meat production with effective breeding. Basic measures of feed efficiency are defined and the genetic background of these traits, including a review of heritabilities is described. Moreover, a number of genomic regions and candidate genes determining feed efficiency traits of broilers that were detected over the past decades are described...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341699/genomic-comparison-of-indigenous-african-and-northern-european-chickens-reveals-putative-mechanisms-of-stress-tolerance-related-to-environmental-selection-pressure
#9
Damarius S Fleming, Steffen Weigend, Henner Simianer, Annett Weigend, Max Rothschild, Carl Schmidt, Christopher Ashwell, Mike Persia, James Reecy, Susan J Lamont
Global climate change is increasing the magnitude of environmental stressors, such as temperature, pathogens, and drought that limit survivability and sustainability of livestock production. Poultry production and its expansion are dependent upon robust animals that are able to cope with stressors in multiple environments. Understanding the genetic strategies that indigenous, non-commercial breeds have evolved to survive in their environment could help to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying biological traits of environmental adaptation...
March 24, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340744/simultaneous-multi-residue-determination-of-twenty-one-veterinary-drugs-in-poultry-litter-by-modeling-three-way-liquid-chromatography-with-fluorescence-and-absorption-detection-data
#10
Carla M Teglia, Paola M Peltzer, Silvia N Seib, Rafael C Lajmanovich, María J Culzoni, Héctor C Goicoechea
A method for the simultaneous investigation of twenty one veterinary active ingredients in poultry litter based on MCR-ALS modeling of three-way liquid chromatography with fluorescence and UV detection data is presented. The chromatographic procedure was optimized in terms of both the nature of the organic solvent and the pH of the mobile phase to maximize the resolution of the analytes. In order to improve the simultaneous extraction efficiency of the twenty one veterinary drugs, a simplex-centroid design with combinations of the three components of the extracting mixture, i...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340000/effects-of-feeding-original-xpc%C3%A2-to-broilers-with-a-live-coccidiosis-vaccine-under-industry-conditions-part-1-growth-performance-and-salmonella-inhibition
#11
S M Roto, S H Park, S I Lee, P Kaldhone, H O Pavlidis, S B Frankenbach, D R McIntyre, K Striplin, L Brammer, S C Ricke
Supplementation of poultry diets with Diamond V Original XPC™ (XPC) has been proposed as a means to ameliorate the commonly observed loss of appetite and depression of growth in birds given a live coccidiosis vaccine. A study was conducted to compare the effects on bird performance of a live coccidiosis vaccine in broilers, with and without the dietary inclusion of XPC (1.25 g/kg). Ross 708 male broilers (n = 1,280) were allocated to one of 4 feed treatments: cocci-vaccine (T1), cocci-vaccine + XPC (T2), cocci-vaccine + salinomycin in the grower diet only, (T3), and cocci-vaccine + salinomycin in the grower diet + XPC (T4)...
March 3, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339990/detecting-thresholds-for-bitter-umami-and-sweet-tastants-in-broiler-chicken-using-a-2-choice-test-method
#12
Shira L Cheled-Shoval, Naama Reicher, Masha Y Niv, Zehava Uni
The sense of taste has a key role in nutrient sensing and food intake in animals. A standardized and simple method for determination of tastant-detection thresholds is required for chemosensory research in poultry. We established a 24-h, 2-alternative, forced-choice solution-consumption method and applied it to measure detection thresholds for 3 G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated taste modalities-bitter, sweet, and umami-in chicken. Four parameters were used to determine a significant response: 1) tastant-solution consumption; 2) water (tasteless) consumption; 3) total consumption (tastant and water together); 4) ratio of tastant consumption to total consumption...
March 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339966/operational-challenges-and-opportunities-in-pastured-poultry-operations-in-the-united-states
#13
C Elkhoraibi, M Pitesky, N Dailey, D Niemeier
As pastured poultry production has gained increased popularity in the United States in recent years, there is a growing need for research and outreach efforts aimed at this sector of poultry production. In order to get familiarized with American pastured poultry producers, we conducted an online questionnaire aimed primarily at evaluating what operational challenges are faced by producers and what educational opportunities should be initiated by researchers. Results showed that pastured poultry farms largely vary in total number of acres farmed and total number of birds kept...
March 3, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339947/nitrogen-corrected-apparent-metabolisable-energy-values-of-barley-varies-by-treatment-and-species
#14
Majid Alahyari-Shahrasb, Hoseein Moravej, Ruhollah Kianfar, Woo Kyun Kim
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two species of poultry (cockerel and Japanese quail), two levels of enzyme (0 and 0.5 g/kg), and 6 processing methods (control (C), gamma irradiation 25 (GI25), and 50 kGy (GI50), autoclaving (AU), fermentation without lactobacillus (F), and fermentation with lactobacillus (FL)) on the nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn) of barley. In this experiment, each processing method was tested at two levels of enzyme (0 and 0.5 g/kg) in six replications with two cockerels or four quails per replication...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339915/the-effect-of-feed-supplementation-with-zakarpacki-zeolite-clinoptilolite-on-percentages-of-t-and-b-lymphocytes-and-cytokine-concentrations-in-poultry
#15
Lukasz Jarosz, Dagmara Stepien-Pysniak, Zbigniew Gradzki, Malgorzata Kapica, Agata Gacek
The available literature lacks information on the effect of Zakarpacki zeolite (clinoptilolite) on the immune system of poultry. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of this zeolite on selected indicators of the immune response in poultry by evaluating the expression of cluster of differentiation ( ) surface molecules on T and B lymphocytes and the concentration of IL-2 and IL-10 in the blood. Ninety one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were used in the study. The birds were divided into 3 groups of 30 each...
March 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339832/effects-of-feeding-original-xpc%C3%A2-to-broilers-with-a-live-coccidiosis-vaccine-under-industrial-conditions-part-2-cecal-microbiota-analysis
#16
S H Park, S Roto, H Pavlidis, D McIntyre, K Striplin, L Brammer, S C Ricke
Biological supplements in poultry feed are of continued interest due to the improvements in growth performance, protection from pathogen invasion, and benefits in overall host health. The fermentation metabolites of Diamond V Original XPC™ (XPC) have previously been shown to improve commercial performance and reduce Salmonella in poultry. The current study sought to characterize the cecal microbiota using culture-independent analysis based on 16S rRNA gene in Coccivac-D sprayed broilers supplemented with XPC and/or Salinomycin (SAL)...
March 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339796/the-identification-of-fungi-collected-from-the-ceca-of-commercial-poultry
#17
J A Byrd, D Y Caldwell, D J Nisbet
Under normal conditions, fungi are ignored unless a disease/syndrome clinical signs are reported. The scientific communities are largely unaware of the roles fungi play in normal production parameters. Numerous preharvest interventions have demonstrated that beneficial bacteria can play a role in improving productions parameters; however, most researchers have ignored the impact that fungi may have on production. The goal of the present study was to record fungi recovered from commercial broiler and layer houses during production...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339787/molecular-characterization-of-marek-s-disease-virus-in-a-poultry-layer-farm-from-colombia
#18
Sara López-Osorio, Diego Piedrahita, Maria A Espinal-Restrepo, Gloria C Ramírez-Nieto, Venugopal Nair, Susan M Williams, Susan Baigent, César Ventura-Polite, Diego A Aranzazu-Taborda, Jenny J Chaparro-Gutiérrez
Marek's disease ( ) is a lymphoproliferative disease caused by an Alphaherpesvirus, genus Mardivirus , serotype 1 ( Gallid Herpesvirus 2 , GaHV-2) that includes all known pathogenic strains. In addition to Marek's disease virus ( ) serotype 1, the genus includes 2 distinct nonpathogenic serotypes: serotype 2 (GaHV-3) and serotype 3 ( Meleagridis Herpesvirus 1 , MeHV-1) which are used in commercially available vaccines against MD. As a result of vaccination, clinical signs are not commonly observed, and new cases are usually associated with emerging variant strains against which the vaccines are less effective...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339779/effect-of-the-combination-of-white-and-red-led-lighting-during-incubation-on-layer-broiler-and-pekin-duck-hatchability
#19
G S Archer, D Jeffrey, Z Tucker
Previous research has shown that providing light during incubation can have positive effects on hatchability and chick quality; however, white light alone has been observed to improve these factors only in pigmented broiler eggs and non-pigmented white layer eggs. Monochromatic red light has been shown to improve hatchability in layer eggs. Therefore the objective of this study was to utilize one light fixture that emitted both white and monochromatic red light to determine if this one light source could improve hatchability in both types of chicken eggs and pigmented Pekin duck egg...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339766/higher-bioavailability-of-doxycycline-in-broiler-chickens-with-a-novel-in-feed-pharmaceutical-formulation
#20
Lilia Gutiérrez, Juan Zermeño, Yazmín Alcalá, Héctor Sumano
Bioavailability of a new, long-acting (LA) pharmaceutical preparation for administering doxycycline as in-feed medication to broiler chickens was compared to the standard in-feed administration of doxycycline. A commercial poultry house harboring Ross-308 broiler chickens, weighing 450 g, was divided into 7 sections as follows: doxy-FOLA group (n = 6,000 chickens divided into 3 replicates) medicated with 10% doxycyline, long-acting pellets at a dose of 400 g of doxycycline HCl/ton of food, resulting in a calculated dose of 48 mg/kg for 5 d; doxy-ref group (n = 6,000, divided into 3 replicates) medicated as for doxy-FOLA, but using a 20% commercial preparation of doxycycline...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
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