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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811215/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-protection-against-h9n2-influenza-virus-challenge-in-mice-by-recombinant-lactobacillus-plantarum-with-surface-displayed-ha2-ltb
#1
Yanlong Jiang, Guilian Yang, Qi Wang, Zhannan Wang, Wentao Yang, Wei Gu, Chunwei Shi, Jianzhong Wang, Haibin Huang, Chunfeng Wang
It has been considered that the Avian influenza virus (AIV) causes severe threats to poultry industry. In this study, we constructed a series of recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) with surface displayed hemagglutinin subunit 2 (HA2) alone or together with heat-labile toxin B subunit (LTB) from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Balb/c mice were used as model to evaluate the protective effects of recombinant L. plantarum strains against H9N2 subtype challenge. The results showed that the presence of LTB significantly increased the percentages of CD3(+)CD4(+)IL-4(+), CD3(+)CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) and CD3(+)CD4(+)IL-17(+) T cells, as well as CD3(+)CD8(+)IFN-γ(+) T cells in spleen and MLNs determined by Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting assay...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810132/short-communication-alteration-in-blood-parameters-by-enrofloxacin-in-juvenile-lesser-spotted-dogfish-scyliorhinus-canicula-linnaeus-1758-after-intramuscular-injection
#2
Annalisa Zaccaroni, Marcos Perez-Lopez, Irene de la Casa Resino, Gianfranco Medri, Fabrizio Ceneri, Simone Bertini, Oliviero Mordenti, Luana Cortinovis, Rubina Sirri, Luciana Mandrioli
Enrofloxacin (EF) is a veterinary drug for respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections. Parenteral administration at doses higher than the manufacturer recommended dosage has induced cartilage lesions in juvenile mammals and poultry. In elasmobranchs EF is commonly used for the treatment of infectious diseases, however only one study has been performed previously to evaluate pharmacokinetics and the potential chondrotoxicity of a fluoroquinolone in adult skates. In present study juvenile lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula, Linnaeus, 1758) were treated with low (LD, 5mg/kg) and high dose (HD, 10mg/kg) of EF daily via intramuscular injection for 15 consecutive days, as indicated in a recognized treatment...
August 10, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809802/effects-of-the-hn-antigenic-difference-between-the-vaccine-strain-and-the-challenge-strain-of-newcastle-disease-virus-on-virus-shedding-and-transmission
#3
Jingjing Liu, Jie Zhu, Haixu Xu, Juan Li, Zenglei Hu, Shunlin Hu, Xiaoquan Wang And, Xiufan Liu
Newcastle disease (ND) leading to heavy economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide is caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Even though intensive vaccination programs have been implemented in many countries, virulent NDV can still be frequently isolated in well-vaccinated flocks. We compared the protection efficiency of LaSota and two sub-genotype VIId vaccines, NDV/AI4 and NDV O/AI4, in which NDV O/AI4 was constructed by replacing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene of the vaccine strain NDV/AI4 with that from the variant NDV strain JS-14-12-Ch by the cross hemagglutination inhibition test and immune protection test...
August 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807621/antitoxin-therapy-of-natural-avian-botulism-outbreaks-occurred-in-brazil
#4
Rodrigo O S Silva, Sandra Y M Gómez, Lilian B Medeiros, Marcus V R Marques, Aila S G Silva, Elisabeth N Mureb, Carlos A Oliveira Junior, Samantha M Favoretto, Francisco C F Lobato, Nelson R S Martins
Botulism commonly affects water birds and it has recently been observed to be emerging in poultry production. In the present work, outbreaks of botulism in wild native species, such as the black-fronted Piping-guan (Aburria jacutinga), wild duck (Cairina moschata) and its crosses with mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) are described. Following treatments with a commercial botulism antitoxin CD, 28 (96.5%) out of 29 animals fully recovered after 24-72 h. The antitoxin therapy was shown to be a useful option for the treatment of affected birds, including those that were severely affected...
August 12, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807316/vaccination-with-eimeria-tenella-elongation-factor-1%C3%AE-recombinant-protein-induces-protective-immunity-against-e-tenella-and-e-maxima-infections
#5
Rui-Qing Lin, Hyun S Lillehoj, Seung Kyoo Lee, Sungtaek Oh, Alfredo Panebra, Erik P Lillehoj
Avian coccidiosis is caused by multiple species of the apicomplexan protozoan, Eimeria, and is one of the most economically devastating enteric diseases for the poultry industry worldwide. Host immunity to Eimeria infection, however, is relatively species-specific. The ability to immunize chickens against different species of Eimeria using a single vaccine will have a major beneficial impact on commercial poultry production. In this paper, we describe the molecular cloning, purification, and vaccination efficacy of a novel Eimeria vaccine candidate, elongation factor-1α (EF-1α)...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807311/mitochondrial-genomes-of-australian-chicken-eimeria-support-the-presence-of-ten-species-with-low-genetic-diversity-among-strains
#6
Jess A T Morgan, Rosamond M Godwin
Modern molecular approaches have vastly improved diagnostic capabilities for differentiating among species of chicken infecting Eimeria. Consolidating information from multiple genetic markers, adding additional poultry Eimeria species and increasing the size of available data-sets is improving the resolving power of the DNA, and consequently our understanding of the genus. This study adds information from 25 complete mitochondrial DNA genomes from Australian chicken Eimeria isolates representing all 10 species known to occur in Australia, including OTU-X, -Y and -Z...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805893/board-invited-review-the-purebred-crossbred-correlation-in-pigs-a-review-of-theory-estimates-and-implications
#7
Y C J Wientjes, M P L Calus
Pig and poultry production relies on crossbreeding of purebred populations to produce production animals. In those breeding schemes, selection takes place within the purebred population to improve crossbred performance (CB performance). The genetic correlation between purebred performance (PB performance) and CB performance () is, however, lower than unity for many traits. When is low, the use of CB performance in selection is required to achieve sizable genetic progress. The objectives of this paper were to describe the different components and importance of , and to review existing literature that report estimates in pigs...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805077/relevance-of-age-at-slaughter-on-meat-quality-of-turkeys-stunned-with-co2
#8
S Mauri, Á Guijarro, F Peña, V Domenech, C Avilés
1. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of slaughter age and stunning method on the quality of turkey meat from poultry processing plants. 2. One hundred B.U.T. Premium turkeys were divided into 4 groups of 25 animals according to slaughter age (15 or 17 weeks) and CO2 stunning procedure (G1 stepwise: step1: 30% CO2, 15 s; step 2: 55% CO2, 40 s; step 3: 70% CO2, 45 s; G2: progressive increase of the CO2 concentration at a rate of 0.8% per s for 100 s). The quality of the breast meat was determined in fillets taken at different post-mortem times...
August 14, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804982/epidemiological-investigation-of-outbreaks-of-fowl-adenovirus-infections-in-commercial-chickens-in-china
#9
Y Niu, Q Sun, G Zhang, W Sun, X Liu, Y Xiao, Y Shang, S Liu
One hundred and five fowl adenovirus (FAdV) strains were isolated in China from 2015 to 2016 from poultry with inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) and hydropericardium syndrome (HPS). Polymerase chain reactions determined that 68 were FAdV species C, five were FAdV species D, two were FAdV species E, and 30 contained two or more different FAdV strains. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolated FAdV strains clustered into three major groups: FAdV-C, FAdV-D and FAdV-E. Based on a hexon gene sequencing analysis, these viruses were genetically related to FAdV-4, FAdV-7, FAdV-8b and FAdV-11, of which FAdV-4 was dominant (93% of the strains)...
August 13, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804436/intake-of-different-types-of-red-meat-poultry-and-fish-and-incident-colorectal-cancer-in-women-and-men-results-from-the-malm%C3%A3-diet-and-cancer-study
#10
Alexandra Vulcan, Jonas Manjer, Ulrika Ericson, Bodil Ohlsson
Background : Colorectal cancer (CRC) is considered one of the most common forms of cancer in the Western world. High intake of red and processed meat is considered to increase CRC development. Objective : This study examined associations between intake of red meats, poultry, and fish and incident CRC, and if weight status modifies the associations. Design : In the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, dietary data was collected through a modified diet history method. Via the Swedish Cancer Registry, 728 cases of CRC were identified during 428 924 person-years of follow-up of 16 944 women and 10 987 men...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803599/invited-review-resource-allocation-mismatch-as-pathway-to-disproportionate-growth-in-farm-animals-prerequisite-for-a-disturbed-health
#11
K Huber
The availability of resources including energy, nutrients and (developmental) time has a crucial impact on productivity of farm animals. Availability of energy and nutrients depends on voluntary feed intake and intestinal digestive and absorptive capacity at optimal feeding conditions. Availability of time is provided by the management in animal production. According to the resource allocation theory, resources have to be allocated between maintenance, ontogenic growth, production and reproduction during lifetime...
August 14, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801731/molecular-mapping-and-genomics-of-soybean-seed-protein-a-review-and-perspective-for-the-future
#12
REVIEW
Gunvant Patil, Rouf Mian, Tri Vuong, Vince Pantalone, Qijian Song, Pengyin Chen, Grover J Shannon, Tommy C Carter, Henry T Nguyen
Genetic improvement of soybean protein meal is a complex process because of negative correlation with oil, yield, and temperature. This review describes the progress in mapping and genomics, identifies knowledge gaps, and highlights the need of integrated approaches. Meal protein derived from soybean [Glycine max (L) Merr.] seed is the primary source of protein in poultry and livestock feed. Protein is a key factor that determines the nutritional and economical value of soybean. Genetic improvement of soybean seed protein content is highly desirable, and major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for soybean protein have been detected and repeatedly mapped on chromosomes (Chr...
August 11, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798293/cross-species-transmission-potential-between-wild-pigs-livestock-poultry-wildlife-and-humans-implications-for-disease-risk-management-in-north-america
#13
Ryan S Miller, Steven J Sweeney, Chris Slootmaker, Daniel A Grear, Paul A Di Salvo, Deborah Kiser, Stephanie A Shwiff
Cross-species disease transmission between wildlife, domestic animals and humans is an increasing threat to public and veterinary health. Wild pigs are increasingly a potential veterinary and public health threat. Here we investigate 84 pathogens and the host species most at risk for transmission with wild pigs using a network approach. We assess the risk to agricultural and human health by evaluating the status of these pathogens and the co-occurrence of wild pigs, agriculture and humans. We identified 34 (87%) OIE listed swine pathogens that cause clinical disease in livestock, poultry, wildlife, and humans...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796830/dynamic-changes-of-nutrient-composition-throughout-the-entire-life-cycle-of-black-soldier-fly
#14
Xiu Liu, Xuan Chen, Hui Wang, Qinqin Yang, Kashif Ur Rehman, Wu Li, Minmin Cai, Qing Li, Lorenzo Mazza, Jibin Zhang, Ziniu Yu, Longyu Zheng
Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae, Hermetia illucens L., develops on organic wastes, reducing ecological pollution and converting waste biomass into protein and fat rich insect biomass. BSF can replace increasingly expensive protein sources used in poultry, aquaculture and livestock compound diet formulation, such as fish meal and soybean meal, which holds the potential to alleviate future food and feed insecurity. The fate of nutritional spectra in BSF during its life cycle phases is still poorly understood. This study assessed metabolic changes in nutrition composition of BSF from egg to adult...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796792/divergent-selection-on-home-pen-locomotor-activity-in-a-chicken-model-selection-program-genetic-parameters-and-direct-response-on-activity-and-body-weight
#15
Joergen B Kjaer
General locomotor activity (GLA) in poultry has attracted attention, as it negatively influences production costs (energy expenditure and feed consumption) and welfare parameters (bone strength, litter quality, feather pecking and cannibalism). Laying hen lines diverging in the average level of spontaneous locomotor activity in the home pen were developed by genetic selection using the founder New Hampshire line. Activity was recorded using RFID technology at around five weeks of age during four to five days in the home pen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795866/dioxins-and-pcbs-in-ostrich-meat-and-eggs-levels-and-implications
#16
Jadwiga Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Paweł Struciński, Szczepan Mikołajczyk, Marek Pajurek, Sebastian Maszewski, Wojciech Jerzy Pietron
Although consumption of eggs is an essential part of our diet, limited information is available for table eggs other than those laid by hens. The aim of our study was to determine concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL- and NDL-PCBs in ostrich eggs and meat available on the Polish market in order to obtain baseline information on the current status of these pollutants in comparison to poultry products. Obtained data were compared to the binding EU limits set for chicken eggs and meat. The levels of individual PCDD/Fs and PCBs congeners varied considerably...
August 10, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795644/efficiency-of-organic-acid-preparations-for-the-elimination-of-naturally-occurring-salmonella-in-feed-material
#17
Sonja Axmann, Veronika Kolar, Andreas Adler, Irmengard Strnad
Salmonella can enter animal stocks via feedstuffs, thus posing not only an infection risk for animals, but also threatening to contaminate food of animal origin and finally humans. Salmonella contamination in feeding stuffs is still a recurring and serious issue in animal production (especially for poultry sector) and is regularly detected upon self-monitoring by feed companies (self-checks) and official inspections authorities. Operators within the feed chain in certain cases need to use hygienic condition enhancers, such as organic acids, to improve the quality of feed for animal nutrition providing additional guarantees for the protection of animal and public health...
August 10, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795263/dynamic-distribution-and-tissue-tropism-of-avian-encephalomyelitis-virus-isolate-xy-q-1410-in-experimentally-infected-korean-quail
#18
Lili Fan, Zhijun Li, Jiali Huang, Zengqi Yang, Sa Xiao, Xinglong Wang, Ruyi Dang, Shuxia Zhang
Avian encephalomyelitis (AE) is an important infectious poultry disease worldwide that is caused by avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV). However, to date, the dynamic distribution of AEV in quails has not been well described. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays were used to investigate the dynamic distribution and tissue tropism of AEV in experimentally infected Korean quail. AEV was detected in the cerebrum, cerebellum, proventriculus, intestine, liver, pancreas, spleen, bursa, lung and kidney as early as 3 days post-infection (dpi)...
August 9, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794040/pathobiology-of-clade-2-3-4-4-h5nx-high-pathogenicity-avian-influenza-virus-infections-in-minor-gallinaceous-poultry-supports-early-backyard-flock-introductions-in-western-u-s-2014-2015
#19
Kateri Bertran, Dong-Hun Lee, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, Erica Spackman, Charles Balzli, David L Suarez, David E Swayne
In 2014-2015, the U.S. experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. Initial cases affected mainly wild birds and mixed backyard poultry species, while later outbreaks affected mostly commercial chickens and turkeys. The pathogenesis, transmission, and intra-host evolutionary dynamics of initial Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI viruses in the U.S. were investigated in minor gallinaceous poultry species (i.e. species for which the U...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792013/a-summary-of-meat-intakes-and-health-burdens
#20
REVIEW
C S C Yip, W Lam, R Fielding
This review summarizes published meta-analysis outcomes on the associations between meat intakes and burden of diseases. A novel assessment process was developed, combining selected Cochrane Review measures, AMSTAR checklist, and other quality measures identified by authors during preliminary phases of the review process. Meat intakes have been found to be statistically significant associated with 21 burden of diseases. A total of 37 risk-outcome best dose-response estimations were identified, all were positively associated, and 21 of them with low to moderate, or insignificant heterogeneity...
August 9, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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