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Copd microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506850/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-are-associated-with-disease-severity-and-microbiota-diversity-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
Alison J Dicker, Megan L Crichton, Eleanor G Pumphrey, Andrew J Cassidy, Guillermo Suarez-Cuartin, Oriol Sibila, Elizabeth Furrie, Christopher J Fong, Wasyla Ibrahim, Gill Brady, Gisli G Einarsson, J Stuart Elborn, Stuart Schembri, Sara E Marshall, Colin N A Palmer, James D Chalmers
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been observed in the airway in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but their clinical and pathophysiologic implications have not been defined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether NETs are associated with disease severity in patients with COPD and how they are associated with microbiota composition and airway neutrophil function. METHODS: NET protein complexes (DNA-elastase and histone-elastase complexes), cell-free DNA, and neutrophil biomarkers were quantified in soluble sputum and serum from patients with COPD during periods of disease stability and during exacerbations and compared with clinical measures of disease severity and the sputum microbiome...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435675/microbiome-effects-on-immunity-health-and-disease-in-the-lung
#2
REVIEW
Shakti D Shukla, Kurtis F Budden, Rachael Neal, Philip M Hansbro
Chronic respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF), are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the past decade, the interest in the role of microbiome in maintaining lung health and in respiratory diseases has grown exponentially. The advent of sophisticated multiomics techniques has enabled the identification and characterisation of microbiota and their roles in respiratory health and disease. Furthermore, associations between the microbiome of the lung and gut, as well as the immune cells and mediators that may link these two mucosal sites, appear to be important in the pathogenesis of lung conditions...
March 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408748/the-microbiome-of-the-lung-and-its-extracellular-vesicles-in-nonsmokers-healthy-smokers-and-copd-patients
#3
Hyun Jung Kim, You-Sun Kim, Kang-Hyun Kim, Jun-Pyo Choi, Yoon-Keun Kim, Sunmi Yun, Lokesh Sharma, Charles S Dela Cruz, Jae Seung Lee, Yeon-Mok Oh, Sang-Do Lee, Sei Won Lee
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disease, and bacterial infection plays a role in its pathogenesis. Bacteria secrete nanometer-sized extracellular vesicles (EVs), which may induce more immune dysfunction and inflammation than the bacteria themselves. We hypothesized that the microbiome of lung EVs might have distinct characteristics depending on the presence of COPD and smoking status. We analyzed and compared the microbiomes of 13 nonsmokers with normal spirometry, 13 smokers with normal spirometry (healthy smokers) and 13 patients with COPD by using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of surgical lung tissue and lung EVs...
April 14, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342288/the-role-of-acute-and-chronic-respiratory-colonization-and-infections-in-the-pathogenesis-of-copd
#4
REVIEW
Janice M Leung, Pei Yee Tiew, Micheál Mac Aogáin, Kurtis F Budden, Valerie Fei Lee Yong, Sangeeta S Thomas, Kevin Pethe, Philip M Hansbro, Sanjay H Chotirmall
COPD is a major global concern, increasingly so in the context of ageing populations. The role of infections in disease pathogenesis and progression is known to be important, yet the mechanisms involved remain to be fully elucidated. While COPD pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae are strongly associated with acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), the clinical relevance of these pathogens in stable COPD patients remains unclear. Immune responses in stable and colonized COPD patients are comparable to those detected in AECOPD, supporting a role for chronic colonization in COPD pathogenesis through perpetuation of deleterious immune responses...
May 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339291/bronchial-microbiome-pa-biofilm-forming-capacity-and-exacerbation-in-severe-copd-patients-colonized-by-p-aeruginosa
#5
Marian Garcia-Nuñez, Sara Marti, Carmen Puig, Vicente Perez-Brocal, Laura Millares, Salud Santos, Carmen Ardanuy, Andres Moya, Josefina Liñares, Eduard Monsó
AIM: The bronchial microbiome of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify differences related to biofilm-forming capacity. PATIENTS & METHODS: Patient sputum samples from 21 patients were studied. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences related to biofilm-forming capacity were only found for genera with relative abundances <1%, and Fusobacterium was over-represented when biofilm-forming capacity was high...
April 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102970/microbiomes-in-respiratory-health-and-disease-an-asia-pacific-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Sanjay H Chotirmall, Shaan L Gellatly, Kurtis F Budden, Micheál Mac Aogain, Shakti D Shukla, David L A Wood, Philip Hugenholtz, Kevin Pethe, Philip M Hansbro
There is currently enormous interest in studying the role of the microbiome in health and disease. Microbiome's role is increasingly being applied to respiratory diseases, in particular COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. The changes in respiratory microbiomes that occur in these diseases and how they are modified by environmental challenges such as cigarette smoke, air pollution and infection are being elucidated. There is also emerging evidence that gut microbiomes play a role in lung diseases through the modulation of systemic immune responses and can be modified by diet and antibiotic treatment...
February 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902340/viral-bacterial-interactions-in-the-respiratory-tract
#7
REVIEW
Carla Bellinghausen, Gernot G U Rohde, Paul H M Savelkoul, Emiel F M Wouters, Frank R M Stassen
In the respiratory tract, viruses and bacteria can interact on multiple levels. It is well known that respiratory viruses, particularly influenza viruses, increase the susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections. Numerous mechanisms, including compromised physical and immunological barriers, and changes in the microenvironment have hereby been shown to contribute to the development of secondary bacterial infections. In contrast, our understanding of how bacteria shape a response to subsequent viral infection is still limited...
December 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829448/the-bronchial-epithelial-cell-bacterial-microbiome-and-host-response-in-patients-infected-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#8
Marc A Sze, Stella Xu, Janice M Leung, Emily A Vucic, Tawimas Shaipanich, Aida Moghadam, Marianne Harris, Silvia Guillemi, Sunita Sinha, Corey Nislow, Darra Murphy, Cameron Hague, Jonathon Leipsic, Stephen Lam, Wan Lam, Julio S Montaner, Don D Sin, S F Paul Man
BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an important comorbidity in patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Previous bacterial microbiome studies have shown increased abundance of specific bacterium, like Tropheryma whipplei, and no overall community differences. However, the host response to the lung microbiome is unknown in patients infected with HIV. METHODS: Two bronchial brush samples were obtained from 21 HIV-infected patients...
November 9, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590400/breathomics-in-the-setting-of-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
Lieuwe D Bos, Peter J Sterk, Stephen J Fowler
Exhaled breath contains thousands of volatile organic compounds that reflect the metabolic process occurring in the host both locally in the airways and systemically. They also arise from the environment and airway microbiome. Comprehensive analysis of breath volatile organic compounds (breathomics) provides opportunities for noninvasive biomarker discovery and novel mechanistic insights. Applications in patients with obstructive lung diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, include not only diagnostics (especially in children and other challenging diagnostic areas) but also identification of clinical treatable traits, such as airway eosinophilia and risk of infection/exacerbation, that are not specific to diagnostic labels...
October 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486204/randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-with-azithromycin-selects-for-anti-inflammatory-microbial-metabolites-in-the-emphysematous-lung
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Leopoldo N Segal, Jose C Clemente, Benjamin G Wu, William R Wikoff, Zhan Gao, Yonghua Li, Jane P Ko, William N Rom, Martin J Blaser, Michael D Weiden
INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin (AZM) reduces pulmonary inflammation and exacerbations in patients with COPD having emphysema. The antimicrobial effects of AZM on the lower airway microbiome are not known and may contribute to its beneficial effects. Here we tested whether AZM treatment affects the lung microbiome and bacterial metabolites that might contribute to changes in levels of inflammatory cytokines in the airways. METHODS: 20 smokers (current or ex-smokers) with emphysema were randomised to receive AZM 250 mg or placebo daily for 8 weeks...
January 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435609/another-piece-in-the-research-mosaic-that-describes-the-role-of-the-lung-microbiome-in-copd
#11
EDITORIAL
Gary B Huffnagle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428540/metagenome-and-metatranscriptome-profiling-of-moderate-and-severe-copd-sputum-in-taiwanese-han-males
#12
Shih-Wei Lee, Chin-Sheng Kuan, Lawrence Shih-Hsin Wu, Julia Tzu-Ya Weng
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory lung disorder characterized by the progressive obstruction of airflow and is currently the fourth leading cause of death in the world. The pathogenesis of COPD is thought to involve bacterial infections and inflammations. Owing to advancement in sequencing technology, evidence is emerging that supports an association between the lung microbiome and COPD. However, few studies have looked into the expression profile of the bacterial communities in the COPD lungs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392936/understanding-the-role-of-the-microbiome-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-principles-challenges-and-future-directions
#13
REVIEW
Yvonne J Huang, John R Erb-Downward, Robert P Dickson, Jeffrey L Curtis, Gary B Huffnagle, MeiLan K Han
In the past several years, advances in sequencing platforms and bioinformatics have transformed our understanding of the relationship between microbial ecology and human health. Both the normal and diseased lung are host to hundreds of bacterial genera, blurring the lines between "colonization" and "infection". However, whereas in health the respiratory microbiome is determined primarily by the dynamic balance of immigration and elimination, in chronic disease conditions become much more favorable for the reproduction of resident bacteria...
January 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352322/exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#14
REVIEW
Xianghui Zhou, Qingling Li, Xincan Zhou
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease with high prevalence and substantial associated economical burden. A significant determinant of quality of life, long-term survival, and health care costs is an acute exacerbation of COPD. Acute exacerbations are provoked by respiratory viruses, altered airway microbiome, and environmental factors. The current treatment options are limited. In order to develop specific therapeutic measures, it is important to understand how acute exacerbations evolve...
November 2015: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27259950/exposure-to-common-respiratory-bacteria-alters-the-airway-epithelial-response-to-subsequent-viral-infection
#15
Carla Bellinghausen, Fahad Gulraiz, Alexandra C A Heinzmann, Mieke A Dentener, Paul H M Savelkoul, Emiel F Wouters, Gernot G Rohde, Frank R Stassen
BACKGROUND: Colonization of the airways with potential pathogenic bacteria is observed in a number of chronic respiratory diseases, such as COPD or cystic fibrosis. Infections with respiratory viruses are known triggers of exacerbations of these diseases. We here investigated if pre-exposure to bacteria alters the response of lung epithelial cells to subsequent viral infection. METHODS: Bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells and primary bronchial epithelial cells) were exposed to heat-inactivated Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus pneumoniae and subsequently infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), type 2 human adenovirus or influenza B...
2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27046438/airway-bacteria-drive-a-progressive-copd-like-phenotype-in-mice-with-polymeric-immunoglobulin-receptor-deficiency
#16
Bradley W Richmond, Robert M Brucker, Wei Han, Rui-Hong Du, Yongqin Zhang, Dong-Sheng Cheng, Linda Gleaves, Rasul Abdolrasulnia, Dina Polosukhina, Peter E Clark, Seth R Bordenstein, Timothy S Blackwell, Vasiliy V Polosukhin
Mechanisms driving persistent airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are incompletely understood. As secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) deficiency in small airways has been reported in COPD patients, we hypothesized that immunobarrier dysfunction resulting from reduced SIgA contributes to chronic airway inflammation and disease progression. Here we show that polymeric immunoglobulin receptor-deficient (pIgR(-/-)) mice, which lack SIgA, spontaneously develop COPD-like pathology as they age...
April 5, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042037/bacterial-viral-load-and-the-immune-response-in-stable-and-exacerbated-copd-significance-and-therapeutic-prospects
#17
REVIEW
Silvestro Ennio D'Anna, Bruno Balbi, Francesco Cappello, Mauro Carone, Antonino Di Stefano
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by persistent airflow limitation and an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung. Bacteria and viruses are a major cause of COPD exacerbations and may contribute to COPD progression by perpetuating the inflammatory response in the airways. Bacterial variety diminishes with increasing COPD severity. Respiratory viruses can colonize the lower respiratory tract in stable COPD, altering the respiratory microbiome and facilitating secondary bacterial infections...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27037309/the-lung-microbiome-the-perfect-culprit-for-copd-exacerbations
#18
EDITORIAL
Carine Gomez, Pascal Chanez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27028990/acute-exacerbation-of-copd
#19
REVIEW
Fanny W Ko, Ka Pang Chan, David S Hui, John R Goddard, Janet G Shaw, David W Reid, Ian A Yang
The literature of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is fast expanding. This review focuses on several aspects of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) including epidemiology, diagnosis and management. COPD poses a major health and economic burden in the Asia-Pacific region, as it does worldwide. Triggering factors of AECOPD include infectious (bacteria and viruses) and environmental (air pollution and meteorological effect) factors. Disruption in the dynamic balance between the 'pathogens' (viral and bacterial) and the normal bacterial communities that constitute the lung microbiome likely contributes to the risk of exacerbations...
October 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26964078/the-lung-microbiome-and-exacerbations-of-copd
#20
REVIEW
Rajany Dy, Sanjay Sethi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traditional culture methods have identified airway bacterial pathogens that cause acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and contribute to airway inflammation and COPD progression. However, conventional microbiology is limited by low sensitivity and bias toward predetermined and predominant pathogens. Highly sensitive, unbiased microbiome techniques overcome these limitations. Here, we present recent lung microbiome data, specifically in the context of smoking, COPD, and exacerbations...
May 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
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