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Copd microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127758/-physical-activity-the-holy-grail-of-modern-medicine
#1
Vladimír Tuka, Martina Daňková, Karel Riegel, Martin Matoulek
Movement is the basic attribute of life. It is not surprising that the return to regular physical activity is a very effective and cheap means of preventing and treating most non-cummunicable diseases. Therefore, every physician should be able to prescribe a suitable physical activity. The minimum amount of physical activity with proven effects in primary prevention of chronic diseases is relatively low: 150 minutes of moderate physical activity or 75 minutes of high intensity exercise per week or a combination of the two...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983645/-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infections-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-role-of-long-term-antibiotic-treatment
#2
REVIEW
G G U Rohde, T Welte
Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in the airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is probably associated with increased mortality and morbidity and a faster progress of COPD, although this has not been conclusively proven by studies. Studies demonstrating an improvement in prognosis in COPD patients by early eradication of Pseudomonas or at least a reduction of the bacterial burden by either inhaled or oral antibiotic maintenance therapy, are missing. An impact on the exacerbation rate has only been shown for macrolide maintenance treatment; however, this effect could be explained by the inclusion of patients with bronchiectasis in the studies...
November 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982774/long-term-effects-of-inhaled-corticosteroids-on-sputum-bacterial-and-viral-loads-in-copd
#3
Marco Contoli, Alessia Pauletti, Maria Rita Rossi, Antonio Spanevello, Paolo Casolari, Andrea Marcellini, Giacomo Forini, Giulia Gnesini, Brunilda Marku, Neil Barnes, Andrea Rizzi, Giacomo Curradi, Gaetano Caramori, Paolo Morelli, Alberto Papi
Inhaled corticosteroid-containing medications reduce the frequency of COPD exacerbations (mainly infectious in origin) while paradoxically increasing the risk of other respiratory infections. The aim was to determine the effects of inhaled corticosteroids on airway microbial load in COPD patients and evaluate the influence of the underlying inflammatory profile on airway colonisation and microbiome.This is a proof-of-concept prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded endpoint study. Sixty patients with stable moderate COPD were randomised to receive one inhalation twice daily of either a combination of salmeterol 50 μg plus fluticasone propionate 500 μg or salmeterol 50 μg for 12 months...
October 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841671/microbiome-balance-in-sputum-determined-by-pcr-stratifies-copd-exacerbations-and-shows-potential-for-selective-use-of-antibiotics
#4
Koirobi Haldar, Mona Bafadhel, Kelvin Lau, Adam Berg, Brenda Kwambana, Tatiana Kebadze, Mohammadali Yavari Ramsheh, Bethan Barker, Pranabashis Haldar, Sebastian Johnston, Julian M Ketley, Christopher E Brightling, Michael R Barer
BACKGROUND: While a subgroup of patients with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) clearly benefit from antibiotics, their identification remains challenging. We hypothesised that selective assessment of the balance between the two dominant bacterial groups (Gammaproteobacteria (G) and Firmicutes (F)) in COPD sputum samples might reveal a subgroup with a bacterial community structure change at exacerbation that was restored to baseline on recovery and potentially reflects effective antibiotic treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741603/role-of-the-lung-microbiome-in-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
REVIEW
Lei Wang, Ke Hao, Ting Yang, Chen Wang
OBJECTIVE: The development of culture-independent techniques for microbiological analysis shows that bronchial tree is not sterile in either healthy or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) individuals. With the advance of sequencing technologies, lung microbiome has become a new frontier for pulmonary disease research, and such advance has led to better understanding of the lung microbiome in COPD. This review aimed to summarize the recent advances in lung microbiome, its relationships with COPD, and the possible mechanisms that microbiome contributed to COPD pathogenesis...
September 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740374/characterization-of-throat-microbial-flora-in-smokers-with-or-without-copd
#6
Wenqi Diao, Ning Shen, Yipeng Du, Ke Qian, Bei He
The study aimed to determine the relationship between throat microbiome and COPD. Sixty-five Chinese males (n=20, smokers without COPD; n=45 smokers with COPD) were included. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling indicated differences of microbiome between COPD and controls, but no difference was observed between COPD patients with differing degrees of lung function or disease severity. Rarefaction analyses suggested that operational taxonomic units (OTUs, species-level) richness decreased in COPD. The dominant taxa between COPD and controls were similar, but the proportions of taxonomic distribution were different...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706919/microbiome-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
REVIEW
Eduard Monsó
The introduction of culture-independent techniques for the microbiological analysis of respiratory samples has confirmed that the respiratory system hosts a large number of microorganisms, which include a wide range of bacteria. The regular exposure to tobacco smoke changes the microbiome in healthy smokers, first in the oropharynx, increasing the presence of a restricted number of genera which attain high relative abundance, a pattern that may be considered as dysbiosis. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), microbiome analyses of sputum samples have demonstrated an important decline in bacterial diversity, with a change to a restricted flora with an overrepresentation of the Proteobacteria phylum, which include most of the bacteria commonly considered as potentially pathogenic microorganisms, paralleled by a decline in the relative abundance of microorganisms part of the Firmicutes phylum...
June 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704452/influence-of-lung-ct-changes-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-on-the-human-lung-microbiome
#8
Marion Engel, David Endesfelder, Brigitte Schloter-Hai, Susanne Kublik, Michael S Granitsiotis, Piera Boschetto, Mariarita Stendardo, Imre Barta, Balazs Dome, Jean-François Deleuze, Anne Boland, Joachim Müller-Quernheim, Antje Prasse, Tobias Welte, Jens Hohlfeld, Deepak Subramanian, David Parr, Ivo Glynne Gut, Timm Greulich, Andreas Rembert Koczulla, Adam Nowinski, Dorota Gorecka, Dave Singh, Sumit Gupta, Christopher E Brightling, Harald Hoffmann, Marion Frankenberger, Thomas P Hofer, Dorothe Burggraf, Marion Heiss-Neumann, Loems Ziegler-Heitbrock, Michael Schloter, Wolfgang Zu Castell
BACKGROUND: Changes in microbial community composition in the lung of patients suffering from moderate to severe COPD have been well documented. However, knowledge about specific microbiome structures in the human lung associated with CT defined abnormalities is limited. METHODS: Bacterial community composition derived from brush samples from lungs of 16 patients suffering from different CT defined subtypes of COPD and 9 healthy subjects was analyzed using a cultivation independent barcoding approach applying 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragment amplicons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690603/oropharyngeal-and-sputum-microbiomes-are-similar-following-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
Hai-Yue Liu, Shi-Yu Zhang, Wan-Ying Yang, Xiao-Fang Su, Yan He, Hong-Wei Zhou, Jin Su
Growing evidence suggests that the airway microbiota might be involved in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Understanding this relationship requires examination of a large-scale population for a long duration to accurately monitor changes in the microbiome. This type of longitudinal study requires an appropriate sampling strategy; two options are the collection of sputum or oropharyngeal swabs. Comparative analysis of the changes that occur in these two specimen types has not been previously performed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506850/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-are-associated-with-disease-severity-and-microbiota-diversity-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
Alison J Dicker, Megan L Crichton, Eleanor G Pumphrey, Andrew J Cassidy, Guillermo Suarez-Cuartin, Oriol Sibila, Elizabeth Furrie, Christopher J Fong, Wasyla Ibrahim, Gill Brady, Gisli G Einarsson, J Stuart Elborn, Stuart Schembri, Sara E Marshall, Colin N A Palmer, James D Chalmers
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been observed in the airway in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but their clinical and pathophysiologic implications have not been defined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether NETs are associated with disease severity in patients with COPD and how they are associated with microbiota composition and airway neutrophil function. METHODS: NET protein complexes (DNA-elastase and histone-elastase complexes), cell-free DNA, and neutrophil biomarkers were quantified in soluble sputum and serum from patients with COPD during periods of disease stability and during exacerbations and compared with clinical measures of disease severity and the sputum microbiome...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435675/microbiome-effects-on-immunity-health-and-disease-in-the-lung
#11
REVIEW
Shakti D Shukla, Kurtis F Budden, Rachael Neal, Philip M Hansbro
Chronic respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF), are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the past decade, the interest in the role of microbiome in maintaining lung health and in respiratory diseases has grown exponentially. The advent of sophisticated multiomics techniques has enabled the identification and characterisation of microbiota and their roles in respiratory health and disease. Furthermore, associations between the microbiome of the lung and gut, as well as the immune cells and mediators that may link these two mucosal sites, appear to be important in the pathogenesis of lung conditions...
March 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408748/the-microbiome-of-the-lung-and-its-extracellular-vesicles-in-nonsmokers-healthy-smokers-and-copd-patients
#12
Hyun Jung Kim, You-Sun Kim, Kang-Hyun Kim, Jun-Pyo Choi, Yoon-Keun Kim, Sunmi Yun, Lokesh Sharma, Charles S Dela Cruz, Jae Seung Lee, Yeon-Mok Oh, Sang-Do Lee, Sei Won Lee
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disease, and bacterial infection plays a role in its pathogenesis. Bacteria secrete nanometer-sized extracellular vesicles (EVs), which may induce more immune dysfunction and inflammation than the bacteria themselves. We hypothesized that the microbiome of lung EVs might have distinct characteristics depending on the presence of COPD and smoking status. We analyzed and compared the microbiomes of 13 nonsmokers with normal spirometry, 13 smokers with normal spirometry (healthy smokers) and 13 patients with COPD by using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of surgical lung tissue and lung EVs...
April 14, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342288/the-role-of-acute-and-chronic-respiratory-colonization-and-infections-in-the-pathogenesis-of-copd
#13
REVIEW
Janice M Leung, Pei Yee Tiew, Micheál Mac Aogáin, Kurtis F Budden, Valerie Fei Lee Yong, Sangeeta S Thomas, Kevin Pethe, Philip M Hansbro, Sanjay H Chotirmall
COPD is a major global concern, increasingly so in the context of ageing populations. The role of infections in disease pathogenesis and progression is known to be important, yet the mechanisms involved remain to be fully elucidated. While COPD pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae are strongly associated with acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), the clinical relevance of these pathogens in stable COPD patients remains unclear. Immune responses in stable and colonized COPD patients are comparable to those detected in AECOPD, supporting a role for chronic colonization in COPD pathogenesis through perpetuation of deleterious immune responses...
May 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339291/bronchial-microbiome-pa-biofilm-forming-capacity-and-exacerbation-in-severe-copd-patients-colonized-by-p-aeruginosa
#14
Marian Garcia-Nuñez, Sara Marti, Carmen Puig, Vicente Perez-Brocal, Laura Millares, Salud Santos, Carmen Ardanuy, Andres Moya, Josefina Liñares, Eduard Monsó
AIM: The bronchial microbiome of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify differences related to biofilm-forming capacity. PATIENTS & METHODS: Patient sputum samples from 21 patients were studied. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences related to biofilm-forming capacity were only found for genera with relative abundances <1%, and Fusobacterium was over-represented when biofilm-forming capacity was high...
April 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102970/microbiomes-in-respiratory-health-and-disease-an-asia-pacific-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Sanjay H Chotirmall, Shaan L Gellatly, Kurtis F Budden, Micheál Mac Aogain, Shakti D Shukla, David L A Wood, Philip Hugenholtz, Kevin Pethe, Philip M Hansbro
There is currently enormous interest in studying the role of the microbiome in health and disease. Microbiome's role is increasingly being applied to respiratory diseases, in particular COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. The changes in respiratory microbiomes that occur in these diseases and how they are modified by environmental challenges such as cigarette smoke, air pollution and infection are being elucidated. There is also emerging evidence that gut microbiomes play a role in lung diseases through the modulation of systemic immune responses and can be modified by diet and antibiotic treatment...
February 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902340/viral-bacterial-interactions-in-the-respiratory-tract
#16
REVIEW
Carla Bellinghausen, Gernot G U Rohde, Paul H M Savelkoul, Emiel F M Wouters, Frank R M Stassen
In the respiratory tract, viruses and bacteria can interact on multiple levels. It is well known that respiratory viruses, particularly influenza viruses, increase the susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections. Numerous mechanisms, including compromised physical and immunological barriers, and changes in the microenvironment have hereby been shown to contribute to the development of secondary bacterial infections. In contrast, our understanding of how bacteria shape a response to subsequent viral infection is still limited...
December 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829448/the-bronchial-epithelial-cell-bacterial-microbiome-and-host-response-in-patients-infected-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#17
Marc A Sze, Stella Xu, Janice M Leung, Emily A Vucic, Tawimas Shaipanich, Aida Moghadam, Marianne Harris, Silvia Guillemi, Sunita Sinha, Corey Nislow, Darra Murphy, Cameron Hague, Jonathon Leipsic, Stephen Lam, Wan Lam, Julio S Montaner, Don D Sin, S F Paul Man
BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an important comorbidity in patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Previous bacterial microbiome studies have shown increased abundance of specific bacterium, like Tropheryma whipplei, and no overall community differences. However, the host response to the lung microbiome is unknown in patients infected with HIV. METHODS: Two bronchial brush samples were obtained from 21 HIV-infected patients...
November 9, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590400/breathomics-in-the-setting-of-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#18
REVIEW
Lieuwe D Bos, Peter J Sterk, Stephen J Fowler
Exhaled breath contains thousands of volatile organic compounds that reflect the metabolic process occurring in the host both locally in the airways and systemically. They also arise from the environment and airway microbiome. Comprehensive analysis of breath volatile organic compounds (breathomics) provides opportunities for noninvasive biomarker discovery and novel mechanistic insights. Applications in patients with obstructive lung diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, include not only diagnostics (especially in children and other challenging diagnostic areas) but also identification of clinical treatable traits, such as airway eosinophilia and risk of infection/exacerbation, that are not specific to diagnostic labels...
October 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486204/randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-with-azithromycin-selects-for-anti-inflammatory-microbial-metabolites-in-the-emphysematous-lung
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Leopoldo N Segal, Jose C Clemente, Benjamin G Wu, William R Wikoff, Zhan Gao, Yonghua Li, Jane P Ko, William N Rom, Martin J Blaser, Michael D Weiden
INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin (AZM) reduces pulmonary inflammation and exacerbations in patients with COPD having emphysema. The antimicrobial effects of AZM on the lower airway microbiome are not known and may contribute to its beneficial effects. Here we tested whether AZM treatment affects the lung microbiome and bacterial metabolites that might contribute to changes in levels of inflammatory cytokines in the airways. METHODS: 20 smokers (current or ex-smokers) with emphysema were randomised to receive AZM 250 mg or placebo daily for 8 weeks...
January 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435609/another-piece-in-the-research-mosaic-that-describes-the-role-of-the-lung-microbiome-in-copd
#20
EDITORIAL
Gary B Huffnagle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Thorax
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