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Copd microbiome

Lieuwe D Bos, Peter J Sterk, Stephen J Fowler
Exhaled breath contains thousands of volatile organic compounds that reflect the metabolic process occurring in the host both locally in the airways and systemically. They also arise from the environment and airway microbiome. Comprehensive analysis of breath volatile organic compounds (breathomics) provides opportunities for noninvasive biomarker discovery and novel mechanistic insights. Applications in patients with obstructive lung diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, include not only diagnostics (especially in children and other challenging diagnostic areas) but also identification of clinical treatable traits, such as airway eosinophilia and risk of infection/exacerbation, that are not specific to diagnostic labels...
October 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Leopoldo N Segal, Jose C Clemente, Benjamin G Wu, William R Wikoff, Zhan Gao, Yonghua Li, Jane P Ko, William N Rom, Martin J Blaser, Michael D Weiden
INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin (AZM) reduces pulmonary inflammation and exacerbations in patients with COPD having emphysema. The antimicrobial effects of AZM on the lower airway microbiome are not known and may contribute to its beneficial effects. Here we tested whether AZM treatment affects the lung microbiome and bacterial metabolites that might contribute to changes in levels of inflammatory cytokines in the airways. METHODS: 20 smokers (current or ex-smokers) with emphysema were randomised to receive AZM 250 mg or placebo daily for 8 weeks...
August 2, 2016: Thorax
Gary B Huffnagle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Thorax
Shih-Wei Lee, Chin-Sheng Kuan, Lawrence Shih-Hsin Wu, Julia Tzu-Ya Weng
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory lung disorder characterized by the progressive obstruction of airflow and is currently the fourth leading cause of death in the world. The pathogenesis of COPD is thought to involve bacterial infections and inflammations. Owing to advancement in sequencing technology, evidence is emerging that supports an association between the lung microbiome and COPD. However, few studies have looked into the expression profile of the bacterial communities in the COPD lungs...
2016: PloS One
Yvonne J Huang, John R Erb-Downward, Robert Dickson, Jeffrey L Curtis, Gary B Huffnagle, MeiLan K Han
In the past several years, advances in sequencing platforms and bioinformatics have transformed our understanding of the relationship between microbial ecology and human health. Both the normal and diseased lung are host to hundreds of bacterial genera, blurring the lines between "colonization" and "infection". However, whereas in health the respiratory microbiome is determined primarily by the dynamic balance of immigration and elimination, in chronic disease conditions become much more favorable for the reproduction of resident bacteria...
June 23, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Xianghui Zhou, Qingling Li, Xincan Zhou
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease with high prevalence and substantial associated economical burden. A significant determinant of quality of life, long-term survival, and health care costs is an acute exacerbation of COPD. Acute exacerbations are provoked by respiratory viruses, altered airway microbiome, and environmental factors. The current treatment options are limited. In order to develop specific therapeutic measures, it is important to understand how acute exacerbations evolve...
November 2015: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Carla Bellinghausen, Fahad Gulraiz, Alexandra C A Heinzmann, Mieke A Dentener, Paul H M Savelkoul, Emiel F Wouters, Gernot G Rohde, Frank R Stassen
BACKGROUND: Colonization of the airways with potential pathogenic bacteria is observed in a number of chronic respiratory diseases, such as COPD or cystic fibrosis. Infections with respiratory viruses are known triggers of exacerbations of these diseases. We here investigated if pre-exposure to bacteria alters the response of lung epithelial cells to subsequent viral infection. METHODS: Bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells and primary bronchial epithelial cells) were exposed to heat-inactivated Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus pneumoniae and subsequently infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), type 2 human adenovirus or influenza B...
2016: Respiratory Research
Bradley W Richmond, Robert M Brucker, Wei Han, Rui-Hong Du, Yongqin Zhang, Dong-Sheng Cheng, Linda Gleaves, Rasul Abdolrasulnia, Dina Polosukhina, Peter E Clark, Seth R Bordenstein, Timothy S Blackwell, Vasiliy V Polosukhin
Mechanisms driving persistent airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are incompletely understood. As secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) deficiency in small airways has been reported in COPD patients, we hypothesized that immunobarrier dysfunction resulting from reduced SIgA contributes to chronic airway inflammation and disease progression. Here we show that polymeric immunoglobulin receptor-deficient (pIgR(-/-)) mice, which lack SIgA, spontaneously develop COPD-like pathology as they age...
2016: Nature Communications
Silvestro Ennio D'Anna, Bruno Balbi, Francesco Cappello, Mauro Carone, Antonino Di Stefano
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by persistent airflow limitation and an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung. Bacteria and viruses are a major cause of COPD exacerbations and may contribute to COPD progression by perpetuating the inflammatory response in the airways. Bacterial variety diminishes with increasing COPD severity. Respiratory viruses can colonize the lower respiratory tract in stable COPD, altering the respiratory microbiome and facilitating secondary bacterial infections...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Carine Gomez, Pascal Chanez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Fanny W Ko, Ka Pang Chan, David S Hui, John R Goddard, Janet G Shaw, David W Reid, Ian A Yang
The literature of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is fast expanding. This review focuses on several aspects of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) including epidemiology, diagnosis and management. COPD poses a major health and economic burden in the Asia-Pacific region, as it does worldwide. Triggering factors of AECOPD include infectious (bacteria and viruses) and environmental (air pollution and meteorological effect) factors. Disruption in the dynamic balance between the 'pathogens' (viral and bacterial) and the normal bacterial communities that constitute the lung microbiome likely contributes to the risk of exacerbations...
October 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Rajany Dy, Sanjay Sethi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traditional culture methods have identified airway bacterial pathogens that cause acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and contribute to airway inflammation and COPD progression. However, conventional microbiology is limited by low sensitivity and bias toward predetermined and predominant pathogens. Highly sensitive, unbiased microbiome techniques overcome these limitations. Here, we present recent lung microbiome data, specifically in the context of smoking, COPD, and exacerbations...
May 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Zhang Wang, Mona Bafadhel, Koirobi Haldar, Aaron Spivak, David Mayhew, Bruce E Miller, Ruth Tal-Singer, Sebastian L Johnston, Mohammadali Yavari Ramsheh, Michael R Barer, Christopher E Brightling, James R Brown
Increasing evidence suggests that the lung microbiome plays an important role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severity. However, the dynamics of the lung microbiome during COPD exacerbations and its potential role in disease aetiology remain poorly understood.We completed a longitudinal 16S ribosomal RNA survey of the lung microbiome on 476 sputum samples collected from 87 subjects with COPD at four visits defined as stable state, exacerbation, 2 weeks post-therapy and 6 weeks recovery.Our analysis revealed a dynamic lung microbiota where changes appeared to be associated with exacerbation events and indicative of specific exacerbation phenotypes...
April 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Hernan Iannella, Carlos Luna, Grant Waterer
There is a considerable amount of evidence that supports the possibility of an increased risk of pneumonia associated with prolonged use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, as yet, no statistically significant increase in pneumonia-related 30-day mortality in patients on ICS has been demonstrated. The lack of objective pneumonia definitions and radiological confirmations have been a major source of bias, because of the similarities in clinical presentation between pneumonia and acute exacerbations of COPD...
June 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
Simon J S Cameron, Keir E Lewis, Sharon A Huws, Wanchang Lin, Matthew J Hegarty, Paul D Lewis, Luis A J Mur, Justin A Pachebat
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major source of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The microbiome associated with this disease may be an important component of the disease, though studies to date have been based on sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and have revealed unequivocal results. Here, we employed metagenomic sequencing of the upper bronchial tract (UBT) microbiome to allow for greater elucidation of its taxonomic composition, and revealing functional changes associated with the disease...
2016: PloS One
Manoj J Mammen, Sanjay Sethi
Traditional culture techniques confirm that bacteria have an important role in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). In individuals with COPD, acquisition of novel bacterial strains is associated with onset of acute exacerbation of COPD, which leads to further lung dysfunction and enormous health-care costs. Recent study of the human microbiome, the total composite of the bacteria on the human body, posited the microbiome as the last human organ studied, as the microbiome performs a multitude of metabolic functions absent in the human genome...
May 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Einar Marius Hjellestad Martinsen, Elise Orvedal Leiten, Per Sigvald Bakke, Tomas Mikal Lind Eagan, Rune Grønseth
Bronchoscopy is the preferred method for collecting biological samples from the lower airways of subjects in clinical research. However, ensuring participation in clinical research can be challenging when the research includes an invasive procedure. For this report we reviewed the literature to look for information on participation in research bronchoscopy studies to better design our own study, the Bergen COPD Microbiome study (MicroCOPD). We performed a systematic literature search on participation in research bronchoscopy studies in February 2014 using the search engines of PubMed and EMBASE...
2016: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
Barbara P Yawn
The aim of this supplement is to provide an introduction to recent advances in the understanding of the impact of microorganisms on the normal and diseased lung for patients with asthma and COPD.
January 2016: Journal of Family Practice
V Margelidon-Cozzolino, K Chbini, N Freymond, G Devouassoux, A Belaaouaj, Y Pacheco
This general review deals with the mechanisms which underlie the genetic factors in COPD. Many cellular and biochemical mechanisms occur in bronchial inflammation. We present the experimental models of COPD, insisting on the importance of oxydative stress, and on recent knowledge about the lung microbiome. Starting from this pathophysiology basis, we show how various genetic targets are able to interfere with the disease model. Thanks to these genetic targets, new markers in exhaled breath condensates and new drug targets are rising...
February 2016: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
Laura Millares, Vicente Pérez-Brocal, Rafaela Ferrari, Miguel Gallego, Xavier Pomares, Marian García-Núñez, Concepción Montón, Silvia Capilla, Eduard Monsó, Andrés Moya
The course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently aggravated by exacerbations, and changes in the composition and activity of the microbiome may be implicated in their appearance. The aim of this study was to analyse the composition and the gene content of the microbial community in bronchial secretions of COPD patients in both stability and exacerbation. Taxonomic data were obtained by 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing, and metabolic information through shotgun metagenomics, using the Metagenomics RAST server (MG-RAST), and the PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States) programme, which predict metagenomes from 16S data...
2015: PloS One
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